THOR Literature watch for December 2013 LLLT Low Level Laser Therapy

28 papers for December 2013 starting with a good narrative editorial from Richard Godine DVM who make good points about dose, penetration and treatment guidelines for pets. There is an LLLT study on TMJ pain, a couple of orthodontic tooth movement papers, a clinical trial on subacromial impingement syndrome, Jan Tuner wrote a nice op ed  regarding a failed tinnitus trial pointing out the obvious dosimetry flaws. There is a trial on muscle fatigue in young women, a lichen planus study, gingival hyperplasia and much more (of course).

Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in Veterinary Medicine.

Godine, RL

Ruckersville Animal Hospital and Veterinary Laser Therapy Center , Ruckersville, Virginia.

There is no abstract so I will tease you with a few sentences only

The use of therapeutic LEDs and lasers in veterinary 1 medicine has seen a steep increase in the past decade. It is the fastest growing new treatment modality in present day veterinary clinical practice. Equine practitioners have long used photobiomodualtion (PBM) for treating wounds as well as tendon and joint injuries; however, companion animal veterinarians have largely fueled the recent growth. Spurred on by effusive testimonials in monthly veterinary news magazines and aggressive marketing by largely class IV laser companies, veterinarians are steadily adding light therapy to their practices.

Veterinarians would love to have a dosage recom- mendation chart for animals similar to that which WALT has provided for humans. This presents more of a challenge than one might think for veterinary medicine. If power density, total dose, and time of irradiation matter greatly for successful out- comes as many retrospective meta-analysis studies indicate, then veterinarians need to carefully consider not just the total dose to an area, but also the color of the coat and skin, the size of the animal, the depth of the target lesion, and the application technique being used

The preponderance of 6–12W therapeutic lasers in small animal veterinary medicine presents a particular challenge in getting these therapeutic parameters in line with clinically proven ranges.

Quite so Dr Godine. Click the link below if you want to buy the whole article.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Jan 32(1) 1-2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24359266

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Evaluation of pain, jaw movements, and psychosocial factors in elderly individuals with temporomandibular disorder under laser phototherapy.

Rodrigues JH, Marques MM, Biasotto-Gonzalez DA, Moreira MS, Bussadori SK, Mesquita-Ferrari RA, Martins MD

Universidade Nove de Julho – UNINOVE, 612, Avenida Francisco Matarazzo, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05001-100, Brazil, jenifferholey@yahoo.com.br.

Few studies have been carried out on the application of laser phototherapy (LPT) for treating painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in elderly population that is growing worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pain, jaw movements, and psychosocial factors in ten elderly patients with painful TMD before and after LPT. All patients were evaluated before and after LPT by using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) axes I and II. For pain assessment, a visual analogue scale (VAS) was used. The LPT was carried out with an GaAlAs diode laser (780 nm; spot size 0.04 cm2) in punctual and contact mode. Two settings of irradiations were applied as follows: in patients presenting myofascial pain, 10 mW, 5 J/cm2, 20 s, 0.2 J per application point; and in patients with joint TMD, 70 mW, 105 J/cm2, 60 s on five points, 4.2 J per point. Two sessions of LPT were carried out per week over four consecutive weeks, in the total of eight sessions. Data was statistically analyzed (p < 0.05). Significant pain reduction was found in all patients. There were increase in maximum mouth opening without pain and reduction in muscle pain during right and left lateral excursion. A significant reduction in chronic pain severity (p = 0.02) and significant improvements in depression (p = 0.038) and nonspecific physical symptoms with pain (p = 0.0167) were observed. The present findings indicate that LPT is able to promote pain relief and improvement of jaw movements in elderly patients with TMD, with a positive effect on psychosocial aspects.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Dec 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24366293

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Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontics: rate of tooth movement, pain, and release of RANKL and OPG in GCF.

Dominguez A, Gomez C, Palma JC

Departamento de Estomatologia IV, Facultad de Odontologia, UCM, Madrid, Spain.

The aim of the study was evaluate tooth movement, receptor activator of nuclear factor KB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and RANKL/OPG ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in compression side and pain level during initial orthodontic tooth treatment to determine the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Ten volunteers who required fixed appliance positioned from the upper first premolars to upper first molars were selected. For each patient, the upper first premolar of the quadrant 1 was chosen to be irradiated with a laser diode at 670 nm, 200 mW, and 6.37 W/cm2, applied on the distal, buccal, and lingual sides during 9 min on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. The same procedure was applied in the first premolar of the contralateral quadrant inserting the tip but without laser emission. Samples of GCF from the compression side of the upper first premolars to distalize were collected at baseline and after 2, 7, 30, and 45 days posttreatment for determination of RANKL and OPG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, tooth movement was assessed by scanning models and pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. There was improvement in the parameters studied (pain, tooth movement, levels of RANKL in GCF, and RANKL/OPG ratio) in the laser group when compared to the control group, although differences were not statistically significant. The accumulated retraction of the upper premolar at 30 days was higher in the laser group, and this difference was statistically significant between groups. LLLT delivered in repeated doses (six times in the initial 2 weeks) leads in some extent to a slight orthodontical improvement.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Dec 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24346335

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Low-level laser therapy versus ultrasound therapy in the treatment of subacromial impingement syndrome: A randomized clinical trial.

Yavuz F, Duman I, Taskaynatan MA, Tan AK

The Clinics of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Military Hospital of Etimesgut, Ankara, Turkey. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, TSK Rehabilitation Centre, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, TSK Rehabilitation Centre, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, TSK Rehabilitation Centre, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy and ultrasound therapy in the treatment of subacromial impingement syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty one patients with subacromial impingement syndrome were randomly assigned to low-level laser therapy group (n=16) and ultrasound therapy group (n=15). Study participants received 10 treatment sessions of low-level laser therapy or ultrasound therapy over a period of two-consecutive weeks (five days per week). Outcome measures (visual analogue pain scale, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index -SPADI-, patient’s satisfactory level and sleep interference score) were assessed before treatment and at the 1st and 3rd months after treatment. All patients were analyzed by the intent-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Mean reduction in VAS pain, SPADI disability and sleep interference scores from baseline to after 1 month, and 3 months of treatment was statistically significant in both groups (P< 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in VAS pain, SPADI disability and sleep interference scores between the two groups (P > 0.05). The mean level of patient satisfaction in group 1 at the first and third months after treatment was 72.45 +/- 23.45 mm and 71.50 +/- 16.54 mm, respectively. The mean level of patient satisfaction in group 2 at the first and third months after treatment was 70.38 +/- 21.52 mm and 72.09 +/- 13.42 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference in the mean level of patient satisfaction between the two groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that efficacy of both treatments were comparable to each other in regarding reducing pain severity and functional disability in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. Based on our findings, we conclude that low-level laser therapy may be considered as an effective alternative to ultrasound based therapy in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome especially ultrasound based therapy is contraindicated.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2013 Dec 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24346151

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The effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement: a meta-analysis.

Long H, Zhou Y, Xue J, Liao L, Ye N, Jian F, Wang Y, Lai W

Department of Orthodontics, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No. 14, Section 3, Ren Min South Road, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Low-level laser therapy is claimed to accelerate bone remodeling. The aim of this meta-analysis was to critically appraise current evidence and to determine the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Embase, CENTRAL, ProQuest Dissertations &Theses, and SIGLE were electronically searched from Jan 1990 to Jun 2013. Article screening, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias and evaluation of evidence quality through GRADE were conducted independently and in duplicate by two reviewer authors. Outcome of interest in this meta-analysis was accumulative moved distance (AMD). Meta-analyses were performed in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.2.064 (Biostat, Englewood, NJ, USA). Finally, five studies were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that the pooled difference in mean (DM) was 0.33 [95 % CI: (0.03-0.64)], 0.76 [95 % CI: (-0.14, 1.65)] and 0.43 [95 % CI: (-0.05, 0.91)] for AMD within 1 month, AMD within 2 months and AMD within 3 months, respectively. However, significant heterogeneities and instability of the pooled results were detected. Moreover, publication bias was found for AMD within 3 months. The subgroup analysis on the wavelength of 780 nm revealed that the pooled DM of AMD were 0.54 (95 % CI = 0.18-0.91), 1.11 (95 % CI = 0.91-1.31) and 1.25 (95 % CI = 0.68-1.82) for 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. For the output power of 20 mW, the subgroup analysis showed that the pooled DM of AMD was 0.45 (95 % CI = 0.26-0.64), 1.11 (95 % CI = 0.91-1.31), and 1.25 (95 % CI = 0.68-1.82) for 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. Weak evidence suggests that low-level laser irradiations at the wavelength of 780 nm, at the fluence of 5 J/cm2 and/or the output power of 20 mW could accelerate orthodontic tooth movement within 2 months and 3 months. However, we cannot determine its effectiveness within 1 month due to potential measurement errors.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Dec 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24326745

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Photobiomodulation accelerates orthodontic alignment in the early phase of treatment.

Kau CH, Kantarci A, Shaughnessy T, Vachiramon A, Santiwong P, de la Fuente A, Skrenes D, Ma D, Brawn P

Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA. ckau@uab.edu.

BACKGROUND: Numerous strategies have been proposed to decrease the treatment time a patient requires in orthodontic treatment. Recently, a number of device-accelerated therapies have emerged in orthodontics. Photobiomodulation is an emerging area of science that has clinical applications in a number of human biological processes. The aim of this study was to determine if photobiomodulation reduces the treatment time in the alignment phase of orthodontic treatment. METHODS: This multicenter clinical trial was performed on 90 subjects (73 test subjects and 17 controls), and Little’s Index of Irregularity (LII) was used as a measure of the rate of change of tooth movement. Subjects requiring orthodontic treatment were recruited into the study, and the LII was measured at regular time intervals. Test subjects used a device which produced near-infrared light with a continuous 850-nm wavelength. The surface of the cheek was irradiated with a power density of 60 mW/cm2 for 20 or 30 min/day or 60 min/week to achieve total energy densities of 72, 108, or 216 J/cm2, respectively. All subjects were fitted with traditional orthodontic brackets and wires. The wire sequences for each site were standardized to an initial round alignment wire (014 NiTi or 016 NiTi) and then advanced through a progression of stiffer arch wires unit alignment occurred (LII < 1 mm). RESULTS: The mean LII scores at the start of the clinical trial for the test and control groups were 6.35 and 5.04 mm, respectively. Multi-level mixed effect regression analysis was performed on the data, and the mean rate of change in LII was 0.49 and 1.12 mm/week for the control and test groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Photobiomodulation produced clinically significant changes in the rates of tooth movement as compared to the control group during the alignment phase of orthodontic treatment.

Prog Orthod 2013 14(1) 30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24326198

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Effects of low-level laser therapy on biceps braquialis muscle fatigue in young women.

Higashi RH, Toma RL, Tucci HT, Pedroni CR, Ferreira PD, Baldini G, Aveiro MC, Borghi-Silva A, de Oliveira AS, Renno AC

1 Department of Biosciences, Federal University of Sao Paulo , Campus Baixada Santista, Santos, SP, Brazil .

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on biceps brachi muscular fatigue in 20 young females. Background data: Exhausting physical activity leads to muscular fatigue, which could decrease muscular strength, and may cause impairment in motor control and muscle pain. Several biochemical and biophysical resources have been studied in an attempt to accelerate the recovery of muscle fatigue. Among these, LLLT is emphasized. METHODS: Twenty subjects were randomized in one laser group and one placebo group in two sessions of a crossover design experimental procedure; the second session taking place within 7 days of the first. In the first session, subjects underwent a collection of surface electromyographic (SEMG) data of the biceps brachii muscle, followed by active or placebo LLLT at the same muscle, followed then by another EMG sample of biceps brachii. Blood samples were collected five times during the experimental procedure. Second session procedures were identical to the first, with exception of LLLT, which was the opposite of the first session. The fatigue protocol consisted of 60 sec of elbow flexion-extension movement performed with 75% of one maximum repetition. Blood lactate, EMG fatigue, and the number of elbow flexion-extension repetitions during the fatigue protocol were used to evaluate the effects of laser therapy (808 nm wavelength, 100 mW output power, power density of 35.7 W/cm(2), 70 sec each point and 7 J/point on eight points). RESULTS: No statistical differences were found for eletromyographic fatigue and blood lactate values between groups. Mean numbers of elbow flexion-extension repetitions were 22.6 +/- 7.58 after placebo, and 25.1 +/- 9.89 after active LLLT group, but these differences were not statistically significant (p=0.342). CONCLUSIONS: LLLT had limited effects on delaying muscle fatigue in a young female sample, although a tendency was observed in the active laser group toward showing lower electromyography fatigue of biceps brachii muscle. No intergroup differences were found in the number of muscle contractions and lactate concentration.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Dec 31(12) 586-94

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24320801

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Low-level laser on hearing: is there an effect?

Tuner J, Hode L

Private Dental Clinic, Spjutvagen 11, 772 32 Grangesberg, Sweden.

There is no abstract so I shall sneak a few lines in here for you 

In the study by Goodman et al., the cochlea is reported to be one of the targets of the irradiation. The negative outcome of the study is therefore obvious in that few, if any, photons reached this area or any area of the brain. The combined energy of the two lasers was 15 mW and the energy density was considerably decreased by using a line-generated beam. With an irradiation time of 225 seconds, the total energy was 3.4 J. Given the large area of irradiation, this energy is insufficient even at the surface and at a homeopathic level beneath the bony areas.

Tinnitus and hearing impairment are common condi- tions and no conventional effective therapies are available. LLLT appears to have a potential for these conditions, even though the literature is scant and ambiguous. The investigation by Goodman et al. is ambitious and is of high methodological quality. Unfortunately, the chosen treatment parameters are inadequate and we would be happy to see future research by this group but in cooperation with qual- ified advisors in the field of laser phototherapy.

ISRN Otolaryngol 2013 2013 839256

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24319598

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Improvement of the dynamic responses of heart rate variability patterns after needle and laser acupuncture treatment in patients with burnout syndrome: a transcontinental comparative study.

Litscher G, Liu CZ, Wang L, Wang LP, Li QQ, Shi GX, Gaischek I, Litscher D, Wang XM

Stronach Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria ; Acupuncture and Moxibustion Center, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Capital Medical University, No. 23 Meishuguanhou Street, Beijing 100010, China.

We investigated manual needle and laser needle acupuncture as a complementary therapy for patients with burnout syndrome. Twenty patients with a mean age +/- SD of 38.7 +/- 8.4 years were assigned to two groups, each consisting of ten patients. One group was treated with manual needle acupuncture and the other with laser needle acupuncture. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), and a new score called dynamic acupuncture treatment score (DATS) served as evaluation parameters. The study documented significant effects on heart rate after needle acupuncture treatment and significant effects on HRV caused by both needle and laser needle acupuncture. Based on new neurovegetative acupuncture treatment evaluation scores, it can be stated that both noninvasive laser needle acupuncture and manual needle acupuncture have the potential to be a powerful approach for evidence-based complementary treatment of patients with burnout syndrome. Further transcontinental studies to verify or refute the preliminary findings are in progress.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 2013 128721

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24302960

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on dental pain induced by separator force in orthodontic treatment.

Abtahi SM, Mousavi SA, Shafaee H, Tanbakuchi B

Dental Material Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Torabinejad Dental Research Center and Departments of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran. Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment experience varying degrees of pain with separator insertion. A survey of patients’ attitude towards orthodontic treatment revealed that pain was the most discouraging factor related to their treatment. Moreover, it was the highest ranking reason for wanting to discontinue care. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of low-level laser irradiation on dental pain induced by forces from separators in orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was an experimental clinical trial. Twenty-nine patients were recruited for this research. Low-level laser irradiation was applied on one half of the maxillary and mandibular arches for 5 days. The opposite half of the arches was considered the control group. Laser irradiation was applied for 30 seconds in the alveolar bone between the second premolars, first molars, and second molars. Pain perception was evaluated with a standardized questionnaire that was answered by patients before and after laser irradiation. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Friedman test. P value
Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2013 Sep 10(5) 647-51

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24348624

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Mitochondrial respiration as a target for neuroprotection and cognitive enhancement.

Gonzalez-Lima F, Barksdale BR, Rojas JC

Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA; Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Electronic address: gonzalezlima@utexas.edu. Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75235, USA.

This paper focuses on brain mitochondrial respiration as a therapeutic target for neuroprotection and cognitive enhancement. We propose that improving brain mitochondrial respiration is an important future direction in research and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other conditions associated with cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. The central thesis is that supporting and improving brain mitochondrial respiration constitutes a promising neurotherapeutic principle, with potential applications in AD as well as in a wide variety of neuropsychological conditions. We propose three different interventional approaches to improve brain mitochondrial respiration based on (a) pharmacology, (b) photobiomodulation and (c) nutrition interventions, and provide detailed examples for each type of intervention. First, low-dose USP methylene blue is described as a pharmacological intervention that can successfully increase mitochondrial respiration and result in memory enhancement and neuroprotection. Second, transcranial low-level light/laser therapy with near-infrared light is used to illustrate a photobiomodulation intervention with similar neurometabolic mechanisms of action as low-dose methylene blue. Finally, a nutrition intervention to improve mitochondrial respiration is proposed by increasing ketone bodies in the diet. The evidence discussed for each intervention supports a fundamental neurotherapeutic strategy based on improving oxidative energy metabolism while at the same time reducing the pro-oxidant tendencies of the nervous system. Targeting brain mitochondrial respiration with these three types of interventions is proposed as part of a holistic neurotherapeutic approach to improve brain energy metabolism and antioxidant defenses. This strategy represents a promising new bioenergetics direction for treatment of AD and other neuropsychological disorders featuring cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration.

Biochem Pharmacol 2013 Dec 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24316434

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LLLT in combination with non-surgical periodontal therapy in patients with gingival oral lichen planus: a pilot study.

Gambino A, Cafaro A, Arduino PG, Conrotto D, Broccoletti R

Department of Surgical Sciences, Oral Medicine Section, CIR – Dental School, University of Turin, Italy. Department of Surgical Sciences, Oral Medicine Section, CIR – Dental School, University of Turin, Italy. Department of Surgical Sciences, Oral Medicine Section, CIR – Dental School, University of Turin, Italy. Department of Surgical Sciences, Oral Medicine Section, CIR – Dental School, University of Turin, Italy. Department of Surgical Sciences, Oral Medicine Section, CIR – Dental School, University of Turin, Italy.

Ann Stomatol (Roma) 2013 4(Suppl 2) 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24353781

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Low level laser therapy (LLLT) as adjuvant in the management of drug induced gingival hyperplasia: a case report.

Cafaro A, Arduino PG, Broccoletti R, Romagnoli E

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Oral Medicine Section, University of Turin, Italy. Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Oral Medicine Section, University of Turin, Italy. Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Oral Medicine Section, University of Turin, Italy. DiSC Integrated Surgical and Diagnostic Sciences Department, Laser Surgery and Laser Therapy Departmental Centre, University of Genoa, Italy.

Ann Stomatol (Roma) 2013 4(Suppl 2) 8-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24353764

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Medium-level laser in chronic tinnitus treatment.

Dejakum K, Piegger J, Plewka C, Gunkel A, Thumfart W, Kudaibergenova S, Goebel G, Kral F, Freysinger W

ENT Department, Regional Hospital, Endach 27, 6330 Kufstein, Austria.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of medium-level laser therapy in chronic tinnitus treatment. In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial, either active laser (450 mW, 830 nm combined Ga-Al-As diode laser) or placebo irradiation was applied through the external acoustic meatus of the affected ear towards the cochlea. Fourty-eight patients with chronic tinnitus were studied. The main outcome was measured using the Goebel tinnitus questionnaire, visual analogue scales measuring the perceived loudness of tinnitus, the annoyance associated with tinnitus, and the degree of attention paid to tinnitus as well as psycho-acoustical matches of tinnitus pitch and loudness. The results did show only very moderate temporary improvement of tinnitus. Moreover, no statistically relevant differences between laser and placebo group could be found. We conclude that medium-level laser therapy cannot be regarded as an effective treatment of chronic tinnitus in our therapy regime considering the limited number of patients included in our study.

Biomed Res Int 2013 2013 324234

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24294604

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[Opportunity to use the low-level laser therapy in the treatment of the occupational peripheral nervous system diseases (review of literature)].

Kochetova OA, Mal’kova NY

Occupational diseases of the peripheral nervous system are a wide and heterogeneous group. Until now, the researchers still look for new treatment techniques, because complaints, clinical, instrumental and laboratory findings persist for years even after discontinued occupational exposure to the factors that induced these diseases. The aim of this article is a review of low-intensity laser therapy methods which are used in treatment of various diseases including peripheral nervous system diseases.

Med Tr Prom Ekol 2013 (8) 37-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24340760

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[Low-intensity laser radiation in preventive measures].

Ushkova IN, Nal’kova NY, Chernushevich NI, Popov AV, Kochetova OA

Results of preventive measures introduction in 524 PC users, 98 jewelry polishers and 64 metallic ship hull assemblers are given. The use of preventive measures, based on low-intensity laser radiation, was shown to prevent development of visual overfatigue and occupational musculoskeletal system diseases.

Med Tr Prom Ekol 2013 (8) 34-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24340759

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Low-level laser stimulation on adipose-tissue-derived stem cell treatments for focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

Shen CC, Yang YC, Chiao MT, Chan SC, Liu BS

Department of Neurosurgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan ; Department of Physical Therapy, Hung Kuang University, Taichung 43302, Taiwan ; Department of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan ; Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan. Department of Neurosurgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan. Department of Neurosurgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan. Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan. Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan.

This study investigated the effects of large-area irradiation from a low-level laser on the proliferation and differentiation of i-ADSCs in neuronal cells. MTT assays indicated no significant difference between the amount of cells with (LS+) and without (LS-) laser treatment (P > 0.05). However, immunofluorescent staining and western blot analysis results indicated a significant increase in the neural stem-cell marker, nestin, following exposure to low-level laser irradiation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, stem cell implantation was applied to treat rats suffering from stroke. At 28 days posttreatment, the motor functions of the rats treated using i-ADSCs (LS+) did not differ greatly from those in the sham group and HE-stained brain tissue samples exhibited near-complete recovery with nearly no brain tissue damage. However, the motor functions of the rats treated using i-ADSCs (LS-) remained somewhat dysfunctional and tissue displayed necrotic scarring and voids. The western blot analysis also revealed significant expression of oligo-2 in the rats treated using i-ADSCs (LS+) as well as in the sham group (P < 0.05). The results demonstrated that low-level laser irradiation exerts a positive effect on the differentiation of i-ADSCs and can be employed to treat rats suffering from ischemic stroke to regain motor functions.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 2013 594906

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24363769

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Effectiveness of Interstitial Laser Acupuncture Depends upon Dosage: Experimental Results from Electrocardiographic and Electrocorticographic Recordings.

He W, Litscher G, Jing XH, Shi H, Wang XY, Gaischek I, Su YS, Litscher D, Yang ZK, Xin JJ, Hu L

Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, No. 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimen, Beijing 100700, China ; Stronach Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, No. 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimen, Beijing 100700, China ; Stronach Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, No. 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimen, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, No. 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimen, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, No. 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimen, Beijing 100700, China. Stronach Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, No. 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimen, Beijing 100700, China. Stronach Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, No. 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimen, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, No. 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimen, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, No. 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimen, Beijing 100700, China.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the duration of interstitial laser acupuncture therapy effects on neurovegetative and neurobioelectrical parameters like heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and electroencephalogram (EEG). We investigated 6 male Sprague-Dawley rats. They underwent 10 min, 20 min, and 30 min interstitial laser acupuncture (in randomized order, with a break of at least 30 min between the different measurement conditions) at the acupoint Neiguan. HR changed significantly only during 20 min red laser stimulation, whereas 10 and 30 min stimulation did not induce significant changes. HRV did not change significantly during any of the different durations; however, an increase was found during 20 min irradiation. Neither the LF/HF ratio of HRV nor the integrated EEG showed significant changes. In this study, it could be experimentally proved that some effects of laser acupuncture are time dependent, and therefore the dosage, as well known from theory, also depends on the time factor. We could especially demonstrate that different treatment times lead to different effects on neurovegetative and neurobioelectrical parameters. Further studies are needed to verify or refute these results.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 2013 934783

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24348729

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In vitro and in vivo optimization of infrared laser treatment for injured peripheral nerves.

Anders JJ, Moges H, Wu X, Erbele ID, Alberico SL, Saidu EK, Smith JT, Pryor BA

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, Maryland, 20814.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Repair of peripheral nerve injuries remains a major challenge in restorative medicine. Effective therapies that can be used in conjunction with surgical nerve repair to improve nerve regeneration and functional recovery are being actively investigated. It has been demonstrated by a number of peer reviewed publications that photobiomodulation (PBM) supports nerve regeneration, reinnervation of the denervated muscle, and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, a key issue in the use of PBM as a treatment for peripheral nerve injury is the lack of parameter optimization for any given wavelength. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that for a selected wavelength effective in vitro dosing parameters could be translated to effective in vivo parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comparison of infra-red (810 and 980 nm wavelengths) laser treatment parameters for injured peripheral nerves was done beginning with a series of in vitro experiments using primary human fibroblasts and primary rat cortical neurons. The primary rat cortical neurons were used for further optimization of energy density for 980 nm wavelength light using measurement of total neurite length as the bioassay. For these experiments, the parameters included a 1 W output power, power density of 10 mW/cm2 , and energy densities of 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 2, 10, 50, 200, 1,000, and 5,000 mJ/cm2 . For translation of the in vitro data for use in vivo it was necessary to determine the transcutaneous penetration of 980 nm wavelength light to the level of the peroneal nerve. Two anesthetized, male White New Zealand rabbits were used for these experiments. The output power of the laser was set at 1.0 or 4.0 W. Power density measurements were taken at the surface of the skin, sub-dermally, and at the level of the nerve. Laser parameters used in the in vivo studies were calculated based on data from the in vitro studies and the light penetration measurements. For the in vivo experiments, a total of 22 White New Zealand rabbits (2.34-2.89 kg) were used. Translated dosing parameters were refined in a pilot study using a transection model of the peroneal nerve in rabbits. Output powers of 2 and 4 W were tested. For the final set of in vivo experiments, the same transection nerve injury model was used. An energy density of 10 mW/cm2 at the level of the peroneal nerve was selected and the laser parameters were further refined. The dosing parameters used were: 1.5 W output power, 43 seconds exposure, 8 cm2 area and a total energy of 65 J. RESULTS: In vitro, 980 nm wavelength light at 10 mW/cm2 significantly improved neurite elongation at energy densities between 2 and 200 mJ/cm2 . In vivo penetration of the infrared light measured in anesthetized rabbits showed that on average, 2.45% of the light applied to the skin reached the depth of the peroneal nerve. The in vivo pilot study data revealed that the 4 W parameters inhibited nerve regeneration while the 2 W parameters significantly improved axonal regrowth. For the final set of experiments, the irradiated group performed significantly better in the toe spread reflex test compared to the control group from week 7 post-injury, and the average length of motor endplates returned to uninjured levels. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate that treatment parameters can be determined initially using in vitro models and then translated to in vivo research and clinical practice. Furthermore, this study establishes that infrared light with optimized parameters promotes accelerated nerve regeneration and improved functional recovery in a surgically repaired peripheral nerve. Lasers Surg. Med. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2013 Dec 11

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Effects of low level laser therapy on ovalbumin-induced mouse model of allergic rhinitis.

Choi B, Chang MS, Kim HY, Park JW, Ryu B, Kim J

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.

Introduction. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on experimental allergic rhinitis (AR) models induced by ovalbumin. Materials and Methods. AR was induced by 1% ovalbumin in mice. Twenty-four mice were divided into 4 groups: normal, control, low, and high dose irradiation. Low and high dose LLLT were irradiated once a day for 7 days. Total IgE, cytokines concentrations (IL-4 and IFN- gamma ), and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC) were measured. Histological changes in the nasal mucosal tissue by laser irradiation were examined. Results. LLLT significantly inhibited total IgE, IL-4, and TARC expression in ovalbumin-induced mice at low dose irradiation. The protein expression level of IL-4 in spleen was inhibited in low dose irradiation significantly. IL-4 expression in EL-4 cells was inhibited in a dose dependent manner. Histological damages of the epithelium in the nasal septum were improved by laser irradiation with marked improvement at low dose irradiation. Conclusion. These results suggest that LLLT might serve as a new therapeutic tool in the treatment of AR with more effectiveness at low dose irradiation. To determine the optimal dose of laser irradiation and action mechanisms of laser therapy, further studies will be needed.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 2013 753829

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24319484

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Effect of low-level laser treatment on cochlea hair-cell recovery after ototoxic hearing loss.

Rhee CK, He P, Jung JY, Ahn JC, Chung PS, Lee MY, Suh MW

Dankook University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cheonan 330-715, Republic of KoreabDankook University College of Medicine, Medical Laser Research Center, Cheonan 330-715, Republic of Korea. Dankook University College of Medicine, Medical Laser Research Center, Cheonan 330-715, Republic of KoreacFudan University, Affiliated Eye Ear Nose Throat Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai No.83, China. Dankook University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cheonan 330-715, Republic of Korea. Dankook University College of Medicine, Medical Laser Research Center, Cheonan 330-715, Republic of Korea. Dankook University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cheonan 330-715, Republic of KoreabDankook University College of Medicine, Medical Laser Research Center, Cheonan 330-715, Republic of Korea. Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea. Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul 110-744, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT. The primary cause of hearing loss includes damage to cochlear hair cells. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has become a popular treatment for damaged nervous systems. Based on the idea that cochlea hair cells and neural cells are from same developmental origin, the effect of LLLT on hearing loss in animal models is evaluated. Hearing loss animal models were established, and the animals were irradiated by 830-nm diode laser once a day for 10 days. Power density of the laser treatment was 900 mW/cm2, and the fluence was 162 to 194 J. The tympanic membrane was evaluated after LLLT. Thresholds of auditory brainstem responses were evaluated before treatment, after gentamicin, and after 10 days of LLLT. Quantitative scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations were done by counting remaining hair cells. Tympanic membranes were intact at the end of the experiment. No adverse tissue reaction was found. On SEM images, LLLT significantly increased the number of hair cells in middle and basal turns. Hearing was significantly improved by laser irradiation. After LLLT treatment, both the hearing threshold and hair-cell count significantly improved.

J Biomed Opt 2013 Dec 1 18(12) 128003

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24343446

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Influence of different energy densities of laser phototherapy on oral wound healing.

Wagner VP, Meurer L, Martins MA, Danilevicz CK, Magnusson AS, Marques MM, Filho MS, Squarize CH, Martins MD

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003, Brazil. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Department of Pathology, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-903, Brazil. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003, Brazil. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003, Brazil. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003, Brazil. Universidade de Sao Paulo, School of Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Sao Paulo, 05508-000 Brazil. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003, Brazil. University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Laboratory of Epithelial Biology, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1078. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003, Brazil.

The aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate the impact of laser phototherapy (LPT) on the healing of oral ulcers. Different power densities were used on oral wounds in Wistar rats (n=72) randomly divided into three groups: control (0 J/cm2), 4 J/cm2 laser, and 20 J/cm2 laser. Ulcers (3 mm in diameter) were made on the dorsum of the tongue with a punch. Irradiation with an indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide laser (660 nm; output power: 40 mW; spot size: 0.04 cm2) was performed once a day in close contact with the ulcer for 14 consecutive days. A statistically significant acceleration in healing time was found with wounds treated with 4 J/cm2 LPT. Moreover, striking differences were found in the ulcer area, healing percentage, degree of reepithelialization, and collagen deposition. The most significant changes occurred after 5 days of irradiation. Based on the conditions employed in the present study, LPT is capable of accelerating the oral mucosa wound-healing process. Moreover, faster and more organized reepithelialization and tissue healing of the oral mucosa were achieved with an energy density of 4 J/cm2 in comparison to 20 J/cm2.

J Biomed Opt 2013 Dec 1 18(12) 128002

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24337496

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Effect of 940 nm low-level laser therapy on osteogenesis in vitro.

Jawad MM, Husein A, Azlina A, Alam MK, Hassan R, Shaari R

Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Orthodontic Unit, Kota Bharu, Kelantan 16150, MalaysiaeAlnahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq. Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Conservative Department, Kota Bharu, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia. Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Kota Bharu, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia. Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Orthodontic Unit, Kota Bharu, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia. Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Orthodontic Unit, Kota Bharu, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia. Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Clinical sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kota Bharu, Kelantan 16100, Malaysia.

Bone regeneration is essential in medical treatment, such as in surgical bone healing and orthodontics. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of different powers of 940 nm diode low-level laser treatment (LLLT) on osteoblast cells during their proliferation and differentiation stages. A human fetal osteoblast cell line was cultured and treated with LLLT. The cells were divided into experimental groups according to the power delivered and periods of exposure per day for each laser power. The (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay was used to determine cell proliferation. Both alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin activity assays were assessed for cell differentiation. All treatment groups showed a significant increase in cell proliferation and differentiation compared to the control group. Regarding the exposure time, the subgroups treated with the LLLT for 6 min showed higher proliferation and differentiation rates for the powers delivered, the 300-mW LLLT group significantly increased the amount of cell proliferation. By contrast, the 100 and 200 mW groups showed significantly greater amounts of cell differentiation. These results suggest that the use of LLLT may play an important role in stimulating osteoblast cells for improved bone formation.

J Biomed Opt 2013 Dec 1 18(12) 128001

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24337495

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Histological and gene expression analysis of the effects of pulsed low-level laser therapy on wound healing of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Sharifian Z, Bayat M, Alidoust M, Farahani RM, Bayat M, Rezaie F, Bayat H

Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, vahidsharif@yahoo.com.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with poor wound healing. Studies have shown accelerated wound healing following pulsed low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in non-diabetic animals. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of pulsed LLLT on wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. We divided 48 rats into two groups of non-diabetic and diabetic. Type 1 DM was induced in the diabetic rat group by injections of STZ. Two, full-thickness skin incisions were made on the dorsal region of each rat. One month after the STZ injection, wounds of the non-diabetic and diabetic rats were submitted to a pulsed, infrared 890-nm laser with an 80-Hz frequency and 0.2 J/cm2 for each wound point. Control wounds did not receive LLLT. Animals were sacrificed on days 4, 7, and 15 post-injury for histomorphometry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) gene expression. Pulsed LLLT significantly increased the numbers of macrophages, fibroblasts, and blood vessel sections compared to the corresponding control groups. Semi-quantitative analysis of bFGF gene expression at 48 h post-injury revealed a significant increase in gene expression in both non-diabetic and diabetic rats following LLLT (the ANOVA test). Pulsed LLLT at 0.2 J/cm2 accelerated the wound healing process in both non-diabetic and diabetic rats as measured by histological characteristics and semi-quantitative bFGF gene expression.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Dec 21

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The energy density of laser light differentially modulates the skin morphological reorganization in a murine model of healing by secondary intention.

Novaes RD, Goncalves RV, Cupertino MC, Araujo BM, Rezende RM, Santos EC, Leite JP, Matta SL

Department of General Biology, Federal University of Vicosa, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Department of Biological Sciences and NUPEB, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

This study investigates the influence of gallium-arsenide (GaAs) laser photobiostimulation applied with different energy densities on skin wound healing by secondary intention in rats. Three circular wounds, 10 mm in diameter, were made on the dorsolateral region of 21 Wistar rats weighting 282.12 +/- 36.08 g. The animals were equally randomized into three groups: Group SAL, saline solution 0.9%; Group L3, laser GaAs 3 J/cm2 ; Group L30, laser GaAs 30 J/cm2 . Analyses of cells, blood vessels, collagen and elastic fibres, glycosaminoglycans and wound contraction were performed on the scar tissue from different wounds every 7 days for 21 days. On day 7, 14 and 21, L3 and L30 showed higher collagen and glycosaminoglycan levels compared to SAL (P < 0.05). At day 21, elastic fibres were predominant in L3 and L30 compared to SAL (P < 0.05). Type-III collagen fibres were predominant at day 7 in both groups. There was gradual reduction in these fibres and accumulation of type-I collagen over time, especially in L3 and L30 compared with SAL. Elevated density of blood vessels was seen in L30 on days 7 and 14 compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). On these same days, there was higher tissue cellularity in L3 compared with SAL (P < 0.05). The progression of wound closure during all time points investigated was higher in the L30 group (P < 0.05). Both energy densities investigated increased the tissue cellularity, vascular density, collagen and elastic fibres, and glycosaminoglycan synthesis, with the greater benefits for wound closure being found at the density of 30 J/cm2 .

Int J Exp Pathol 2013 Dec 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24354418

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Manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture for autonomic regulations in rats: observation on heart rate variability and gastric motility.

Yang ZK, Wu ML, Xin JJ, He W, Su YS, Shi H, Wang XY, Hu L, Jing XH, Litscher G

Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei, Beijing 100700, China. Department of Meridians, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei, Beijing 100700, China ; Stronach Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria.

This study focused on the effects of laser acupuncture (LA) and manual acupuncture (MA) at different acupoints on gastric motility and heart rate variability (HRV) simultaneously to elucidate the site specific effects of acupoints and the correlation between changes of gastric motility and low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio. Gastric motility and HRV were recorded before and during MA or LA. Stimulating PC-6 or ST-36 significantly enhanced gastric motility, while BL-21 caused no changes. In contrast, MA or LA at CV-12 significantly suppressed gastric motility. Stimulating PC-6 or ST-36 significantly increased heart rate (HR), while CV-12 or BL-21 induced no significant changes of HR. Stimulating PC-6 significantly increased LF/HF, while ST-36, CV-12, or BL-21 induced no significant effects. These results indicated that there was acupoint specificity in the effects of acupuncture on gastric motility and HRV. The stimulatory effect of MA and LA at PC-6 and ST-36 on HR was associated with sympathetic activity. The stimulatory effect of MA or LA at PC-6 or ST-36 on gastric motility was associated with vagal activity. Laser needle can be used as an alternative stimulation therapy.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 2013 276320

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24348694

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Investigation of low-level laser therapy potentiality on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells in the absence/presence of osteogenic factors.

Bloise N, Ceccarelli G, Minzioni P, Vercellino M, Benedetti L, De Angelis MG, Imbriani M, Visai L

University of Pavia, Department of Molecular Medicine, Biochemistry Unit “A.Castellani,” INSTM UdR of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, ItalyeUniversity of Pavia, Interdipartimental Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), 27100 Pavia, Italy. University of Pavia, Department of Public Health, Experimental Medicine and Forensics, 27100 Pavia, ItalyeUniversity of Pavia, Interdipartimental Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), 27100 Pavia, Italy. University of Pavia, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering, 27100 Pavia, Italy. University of Pavia, Department of Molecular Medicine, Biochemistry Unit “A.Castellani,” INSTM UdR of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, ItalyeUniversity of Pavia, Interdipartimental Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), 27100 Pavia, Italy. University of Pavia, Department of Public Health, Experimental Medicine and Forensics, 27100 Pavia, Italy. University of Pavia, Department of Public Health, Experimental Medicine and Forensics, 27100 Pavia, ItalyeUniversity of Pavia, Interdipartimental Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), 27100 Pavia, Italy. University of Pavia, Department of Public Health, Experimental Medicine and Forensics, 27100 Pavia, ItalydDepartment of Occupational Medicine, Ergonomics and Disability, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, 27100 Pavia, Italy. University of Pavia, Department of Molecular Medicine, Biochemistry Unit “A.Castellani,” INSTM UdR of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, ItalydDepartment of Occupational Medicine, Ergonomics and Disability, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

ABSTRACT. Several studies have shown that low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) has beneficial effects on bone regeneration. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro effects of LLLI on proliferation and differentiation of a human osteoblast-like cell line (Saos-2 cell line). Cultured cells were exposed to different doses of LLLI with a semiconductor diode laser (659 nm; 10 mW power output). The effects of laser on proliferation were assessed daily up to seven days of culture in cells irradiated once or for three consecutive days with laser doses of 1 or 3 J/cm2. The obtained results showed that laser stimulation enhances the proliferation potential of Saos-2 cells without changing their telomerase pattern or morphological characteristics. The effects on cell differentiation were assessed after three consecutive laser irradiation treatments in the presence or absence of osteo-inductive factors on day 14. Enhanced secretion of proteins specific for differentiation toward bone as well as calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity were observed in irradiated cells cultured in a medium not supplemented with osteogenic factors. Taken together these findings indicate that laser treatment enhances the in vitro proliferation of Saos-2 cells, and also influences their osteogenic maturation, which suggest it is a helpful application for bone tissue regeneration.

J Biomed Opt 2013 Dec 1 18(12) 128006

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24365957

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Expression of genes in normal fibroblast cells (WS1) in response to irradiation at 660nm.

Houreld NN, Ayuk SM, Abrahamse H

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa. Electronic address: nhoureld@uj.ac.za. Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa. Electronic address: matabs63@yahoo.com. Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa. Electronic address: habrahamse@uj.ac.za.

Photobiomodulation has been found to increase gene expression and release of various growth factors and cytokines involved in wound healing. Photobiomodulation has been used to treat a wide variety of disorders, and has been found to be beneficial in the treatment of chronic wounds, however the exact underlying mechanism is not well understood. This study aimed to profile 84genes in response to irradiation at 660nm. WS1 human skin fibroblasts were used in gene expression profiling studies in response to irradiation with a 660nm diode laser at a fluence of 5J/cm2 and power density of 11mW/cm2. Forty-eight hours post-irradiation, 1mug RNA was reverse transcribed and used in real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Genes involved in the extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, growth factors and signal transduction were evaluated. A total of 76genes were regulated by laser irradiation, 43genes were up-regulated while 33genes were down-regulated. Irradiation of WS1 cells at 660nm modulates the expression of genes involved in collagen production, cellular adhesion, remodelling and spreading, the cytoskeleton, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, growth factors and molecules involved in signal transduction.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2013 Nov 27 130C 146-152

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