PBM Therapy Literature Watch January 2018

27 Photobiomodulation therapy papers published in January 2018. Highlights include:

  • Treatment 6h before + immediately before exercise best for reducing muscle fatigue
  • Review of pre-clinical data for dementia, Parkinson’s, stroke, trauma and depression
  • Improved bacteriological, cytological and clinical benefits after root planing (RCT)
  • Improved wound healing of skin graft donor site (RCT)
  • Systematic review of RCTs on  LED PBM therapy in dermatology
  • NSAIDs vs PBM Therapy post root canal (RCT)
  • ESWT vs PBM Therapy for Plantar Fasciitis (RCT)
  • Effect of PBM on cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism are not thermal

Time Response of Photobiomodulation Therapy on Muscular Fatigue in Humans.

Rossato M, Dellagrana RA Sakugawa RL Lazzari CD Baroni BM Diefenthaeler F

Biomechanics Laboratory, Center of Sports, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Human Performance Laboratory, Physical Education Faculty, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil. Biomechanics Laboratory, Center of Sports, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Biomechanics Laboratory, Center of Sports, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Biomechanics Laboratory, Center of Sports, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Biomechanics Laboratory, Center of Sports, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil..

The aim of this study was to identify the effects of two different time responses on fatigue of knee extensor. Sixteen male volunteers (26±6.0 years 81±12 kg, and 181±7.4 cm) participated of study. Participants performed the same protocol in five sessions, [control, placebo (placebo applied both 6 hours before and immediately before the test), 6h before + immediately before (PBMT applied both 6 hours before and immediately before the test), 6h before (PBMT applied 6 hours before and placebo applied immediately before the test), and immediately before (placebo applied 6 hours before and PBMT applied immediately before the test)]. PBMT was applied on knee extensor (9 sites; 30 J per site). Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) were assessed before and after an isokinetic fatigue (45 flexion-extension concentric at 180°·s), associated with electromyography [root mean square (RMS) and median of frequency (MF)]. For MIVC there was no treatment*time interaction for all variables. Time effect was observed for peak torque (PT), RMS, and MF. While treatment effect was identified for MIVC, which the 6h before + immediately before presented higher PT pre than control (p=0.004) and placebo (p=0.044). The immediately before presented higher PT values than control (p=0.047). Regarding PT post, 6h before + immediately before presented higher values than control (p=0.001) and placebo (p=0.004). PT during MIVC (pre to post) was reduced in 6h before + immediately before treatment (26%) compared to control (33%), placebo (29%), and immediately before (32%). The application of PBMT 6h + immediately before and immediately before exercise protocol is able to reduce the fatigue.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Jan 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29385005

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Brain Photobiomodulation Therapy: a Narrative Review.

Salehpour F Mahmoudi J Kamari F Sadigh-Eteghad S Rasta SH Hamblin MR

Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. farzadsalehpour1988@gmail.com. Department of Medical Physics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. farzadsalehpour1988@gmail.com. Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Department of Medical Physics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Department of Medical Bioengineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, 02114, USA. hamblin@helix.mgh.harvard.edu. Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. hamblin@helix.mgh.harvard.edu. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA. hamblin@helix.mgh.harvard.edu..

Brain photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy using red to near-infrared (NIR) light is an innovative treatment for a wide range of neurological and psychological conditions. Red/NIR light is able to stimulate complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (cytochrome c oxidase) and increase ATP synthesis. Moreover, light absorption by ion channels results in release of Ca2+ and leads to activation of transcription factors and gene expression. Brain PBM therapy enhances the metabolic capacity of neurons and stimulates anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant responses, as well as neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. Its therapeutic role in disorders such as dementia and Parkinson’s disease, as well as to treat stroke, brain trauma, and depression has gained increasing interest. In the transcranial PBM approach, delivering a sufficient dose to achieve optimal stimulation is challenging due to exponential attenuation of light penetration in tissue. Alternative approaches such as intracranial and intranasal light delivery methods have been suggested to overcome this limitation. This article reviews the state-of-the-art preclinical and clinical evidence regarding the efficacy of brain PBM therapy.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Jan 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29327206

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Clinical, microbiological and cytomorphometric evaluation of low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to periodontal therapy in patients with chronic periodontitis.

Petrovi MS Kannosh IY Mila in JM Mihailovi DS Obradovi RR Bubanj SR Kesi LG

Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Dental Clinic, Faculty of medicine, University of Ni , Ni , Serbia. Department of Human Genetics, School of Dental medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. Department of Human Genetics, School of Dental medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. Institute of Pathological Anatomy, Medical Faculty Nis, University of Ni , Ni , Serbia. Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Dental Clinic, Faculty of medicine, University of Ni , Ni , Serbia. Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Department of applied kinesiology, University of Ni , Ni , Serbia. Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Dental Clinic, Faculty of medicine, University of Ni , Ni , Serbia..

OBJECTIVE: A clinical prospective study was designed to evaluate microbiological, cytomorphometric and clinical efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct to periodontal therapy in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. METHODS: Sixty subjects were included and randomly assigned into 2 groups: SRP (scaling root planning) group (n = 30) and LLLT + SRP group (n = 30). Clinical parameters were measured before intervention, after the fifth treatment, and after a month. All subjects received oral hygiene instructions and full-mouth conservative periodontal treatment (removal of dental plaque followed by SRP). Afterwards, in group II, Kavo LLLT (980 nm, 0.2 W, 6 J/cm2 ) was applied. Subgingival samples were collected at baseline and after the fifth treatment to quantify Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis and Treponema denticola by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Gingival swabs were taken, and direct smears were prepared on slides for cytomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: Evaluation using clinical parameters showed better results in LLLT group. A statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of bacteria after treatment in LLLT group was observed for the following: T. forsythensis and T. denticola (P < .001), P. gingivalis (P < .01), A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. intermedia (P < .05). The values of nuclear area, perimeter and Ferret’s diameter were significantly lower in both studied groups after treatment, but statistical significance was higher in LLLT group (P < .001) than in the SRP therapy group (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to periodontal therapy demonstrates short-term additional bacteriological, cytological and clinical benefits.

Int J Dent Hyg 2018 Jan 12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29327449

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on the healing process of donor site in patients with grade 3 burn ulcer after skin graft surgery (a randomized clinical trial).

Vaghardoost R Momeni M Kazemikhoo N Mokmeli S Dahmardehei M Ansari F Nilforoushzadeh MA Sabr Joo P Mey Abadi S Naderi Gharagheshlagh S Sassani S

Burn Research center, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Burn Research center, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. mah_momeni@yahoo.com. Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Canadian Optic and Laser Center, Victoria, BC, Canada. Burn Research center, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Burn Research center, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Burn Research center, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Burn Research center, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Al Nasr Sport Club Medical Section, Dubai, United Arab Emirates..

Skin graft is a standard therapeutic technique in patients with deep ulcers, but managing donor site after grafting is very important. Although several modern dressings are available to enhance the comfort of donor site, using techniques that accelerate wound healing may enhance patient satisfaction. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in several medical fields, including healing of diabetic, surgical, and pressure ulcers, but there is not any report of using this method for healing of donor site in burn patients. The protocols and informed consent were reviewed according to Medical Ethics Board of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (IR.SBMU.REC.1394.363) and Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT2016020226069N2). Eighteen donor sites in 11 patients with grade 3 burn ulcer were selected. Donor areas were divided into 2 parts, for laser irradiation and control randomly. Laser area was irradiated by a red, 655-nm laser light, 150 mW, 2 J/cm2, on days 0 (immediately after surgery), 3, 5, and 7. Dressing and other therapeutic care for both sites were the same. The patients and the person who analyzed the results were blinded. The size of donor site reduced in both groups during the 7-day study period (P < 0.01) and this reduction was significantly greater in the laser group (P = 0.01). In the present study, for the first time, we evaluate the effects of LLLT on the healing process of donor site in burn patients. The results showed that local irradiation of red laser accelerates wound healing process significantly.

Lasers Med Sci 2018 Jan 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29368069

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Light-emitting diodes in dermatology: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Jagdeo J Austin E Mamalis A Wong C Ho D Siegel D

Department of Dermatology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California. Dermatology Service, Sacramento VA Medical Center, Mather, California. Department of Dermatology, Downstate Medical Center, State University of New York, Brooklyn, New York. Department of Dermatology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California. Dermatology Service, Sacramento VA Medical Center, Mather, California. Department of Dermatology, Downstate Medical Center, State University of New York, Brooklyn, New York. Dermatology Service, Sacramento VA Medical Center, Mather, California. Department of Dermatology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California. Dermatology Service, Sacramento VA Medical Center, Mather, California. Department of Dermatology, Downstate Medical Center, State University of New York, Brooklyn, New York..

OBJECTIVE: In dermatology, patient and physician adoption of light-emitting diode (LED) medical technology continues to grow as research indicates that LEDs may be used to treat skin conditions. The goal of this systematic review is to critically analyze published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and provide evidence-based recommendations on the therapeutic uses of LEDs in dermatology based on published efficacy and safety data. METHODS: A systematic review of the published literature on the use of LED treatments for skin conditions was performed on September 13th 2017. RESULTS: Thirty-one original RCTs were suitable for review. CONCLUSIONS: LEDs represent an emerging modality to alter skin biology and change the paradigm of managing skin conditions. Acne vulgaris, herpes simplex and zoster, and acute wound healing received grade of recommendation B. Other skin conditions received grade of recommendation C or D. Limitations of some studies include small patient sample sizes (n < 20), absent blinding, no sham placebo, and varied treatment parameters. Due to few incidences of adverse events, affordability, and encouraging clinical results, we recommend that physicians use LEDs in clinical practice and researchers continue to explore the use of LEDs to treat skin conditions. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2018 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2018 Jan 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29356026

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Effect of preoperative ibuprofen in controlling postendodontic pain with and without low-level laser therapy in single visit endodontics: A randomized clinical study.

Nabi S Amin K Masoodi A Farooq R Purra AR Ahangar FA

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, Srinagar,Jammu and Kashmir, India..

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation and ibuprofen in reducing the onset and severity of postoperative pain following single visit endodontics. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients were recruited for this study. Group A (n = 30) patients were administered 400 mg of ibuprofen orally 1 h before the institution of an endodontic procedure. Group B (n = 30) patients were given irradiation of a low-level laser at 50 Hz for 3 min after the standard endodontic procedure at the periapical region on both buccal and lingual aspect. Group C (n = 30) patients were given preoperative ibuprofen followed with a low-level laser at 50 Hz for 3 min after endodontic treatment. Group D (n = 30) patients were administered no preoperative ibuprofen nor low-level laser irradiation after the endodontic procedure. The patient immediately recorded his/her pain perception on the Heft Parker pain survey after completion of the appointment and at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h postoperatively. Inter group analysis was carried out using the analysis of variances with “least significant difference” post hoc test. For intra group analysis, Student’s t-test was used. Chi-square test was applied for nonparametric data. Results: Pain was significantly reduced in all the treatment groups postoperatively. Ibuprofen showed significant pain reduction at 4 h and 8 h period. The combination of low-level laser and ibuprofen showed the best results in terms of postoperative pain reduction. Conclusion: This study proved that low-level laser therapy can be an effective alternative for conventional use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in controlling postendodontic pain thereby eliminating the adverse effects of such drugs on the patients.

Indian J Dent Res 2018 Jan-Feb

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29442086

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Combination Therapy Versus Exercise and Orthotic Support in the Management of Pain in Plantar Fasciitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Cinar E Saxena S Uygur F

1 School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 2 Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science Cyprus International University, Cyprus, Turkey..

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at estimating the effectiveness of two commonly used modalities-extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT)-each combined with usual care (exercises and orthotic supports) in comparison to only usual care to relieve pain in patients with plantar fasciitis (PF). METHODS: Participants with PF were randomly allocated into 3 groups: ESWT (n = 25), LLLT (n = 24), and control (n = 17). All participants received a home exercise program with orthotic support. The ESWT group received 2000 shock waves with 0.02 mJ/mm2 for 3 sessions, once a week; LLLT group received gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser with 850 nm wavelength for 10 sessions, 3 times a week. Pain was measured by Foot Function Index-pain subscale (FFI-p) and Numerical Rating Scale for pain (NRS-p). The scores were recorded at baseline, third week, and third month after the treatment. Analysis was performed using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in pain over the 3 months in all groups on both FFI-p ( P < .001) and NRS-p ( P < .001). In NRS-p, LLLT group had significantly lower pain than ESWT ( P = .002) at the third week and control ( P = .043) and ESWT ( P = .003) at third month. In FFI-p total score, ESWT group had higher pain than LLLT ( P = .003) and control ( P = .035) groups at third week and LLLT ( P = .010) group at third month. CONCLUSION: When LLLT and ESWT were combined with usual care, LLLT was found to be more effective than ESWT in reducing pain in PF at short-term follow-up. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, comparative study.

Foot Ankle Int 2018 Jan 01

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29327602

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Impact of heat on metabolic and hemodynamic changes in transcranial infrared laser stimulation measured by broadband near-infrared spectroscopy.

Wang X, Reddy DD Nalawade SS Pal S Gonzalez-Lima F Liu H

University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Bioengineering, Arlington, Texas, United States. University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Mathematics, Arlington, Texas, United States. University of Texas at Austin, Department of Psychology and Institute for Neuroscience, Austin, Texas, United States. University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Bioengineering, Arlington, Texas, United States..

Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) has shown effectiveness in improving human cognition and was investigated using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (bb-NIRS) in our previous study, but the effect of laser heating on the actual bb-NIRS measurements was not investigated. To address this potential confounding factor, 11 human participants were studied. First, we measured time-dependent temperature increases on forehead skin using clinical-grade thermometers following the TILS experimental protocol used in our previous study. Second, a subject-averaged, time-dependent temperature alteration curve was obtained, based on which a heat generator was controlled to induce the same temperature increase at the same forehead location that TILS was delivered on each participant. Third, the same bb-NIRS system was employed to monitor hemodynamic and metabolic changes of forehead tissue near the thermal stimulation site before, during, and after the heat stimulation. The results showed that cytochrome-c-oxidase of forehead tissue was not significantly modified by this heat stimulation. Significant differences in oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin, and differential hemoglobin concentrations were observed during the heat stimulation period versus the laser stimulation. The study demonstrated a transient hemodynamic effect of heat-based stimulation distinct to that of TILS. We concluded that the observed effects of TILS on cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism are not induced by heating the skin.

Neurophotonics 2018 Jan

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=28948191

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Effectiveness for dentin hypersensitivity treatment of non-carious cervical lesions: a meta-analysis.

Moraschini V da Costa LS Dos Santos GO

School of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology, Fluminense Federal University, Rua Mario dos Santos Braga, 30, Centro, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 24020-140, Brazil. vittoriomf@gmail.com. School of Dentistry, Department of Integrated Clinic, Fluminense Federal University, Rua Mario dos Santos Braga, 30, Centro, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 24020-140, Brazil. School of Dentistry, Department of Integrated Clinic, Fluminense Federal University, Rua Mario dos Santos Braga, 30, Centro, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 24020-140, Brazil..

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the effectiveness of in-home or in-office treatments for dentin hypersensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search without restriction on dates or languages was performed in four electronic databases until March 2017. In addition, hand-searches in regular journals and in the gray literature were also conducted. To develop the search strategy, clinical questions were formulated using the PICOS method. Eligibility criteria included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared the effectiveness of different agents for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity through chemical occlusion, physical occlusion, nerve desensitization, or photobiomodulation (low-level light therapy). This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42016039394. RESULTS: Twenty-five RCTs (16 parallel; 9 split-mouth), published from 1992 to 2016, were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that in-office subgroups treated with chemical or physical occlusion of dentin tubules and nerve desensitization had a statistically significant difference from placebo, with P < 0.00001, P < 0.00001, and P = 0.02, respectively. For in-home treatments, the results of the meta-analysis showed that only those subgroups treated with chemical occlusion of dentin tubules and nerve desensitization exhibited a statistically significant difference from placebo, with P < 0.00001 and P = 0.03, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results of pairwise meta-analysis suggest that among in-office treatments, dentinal tubule occlusion (whether chemical or physical) and nerve desensitization provide the best outcomes for treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. For in-home treatments, only chemical occlusion of dentin tubules and nerve desensitization showed a greater treatment efficacy than placebo and the difference was statistically significant.

Clin Oral Investig 2018 Jan 12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29330655

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Photobiomodulation using low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for patients with chronic traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial study protocol.

Poiani GDCR Zaninotto AL Carneiro AMC Zangaro RA Salgado ASI Parreira RB de Andrade AF Teixeira MJ Paiva WS

Division of Neurosurgery, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455 – Cerqueira César, 01246-903, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. comporta.saude@gmail.com. Division of Psychology at Hospital of Clinics, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Division of Neurosurgery, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455 – Cerqueira César, 01246-903, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Anhembi Morumbi University, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Anhembi Morumbi University, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Center for Innovation, Technology and Education – CTE, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salgado Institute of Integral Health; School of Postural and Manual Therapy, Londrina, Parana, Brazil. Salgado Institute of Integral Health; School of Postural and Manual Therapy, Londrina, Parana, Brazil. Division of Neurosurgery, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455 – Cerqueira César, 01246-903, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Division of Neurosurgery, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455 – Cerqueira César, 01246-903, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Division of Neurosurgery, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455 – Cerqueira César, 01246-903, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..

BACKGROUND: Photobiomodulation using low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been tested as a new technique to optimize recovery of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study is to evaluate inhibitory attentional control after 18 sessions of active LLLT and compare with the placebo group (sham LLLT). Our exploratory analysis will evaluate the efficacy of the active LLLT on verbal and visuospatial episodic memory, executive functions (working memory, verbal and visuospatial fluency, attentional processes), and anxiety and depressive symptoms compared to the sham group. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized double-blinded trial will be made in 36 patients with moderate and severe TBI. The active LLLT will use an optical device composed of LEDs emitting 632 nm of radiation at the site with full potency of 830 mW. The cranial region with an area of 400 cm2 will be irradiated for 30 min, giving a total dose per session of 3.74 J/cm2. The sham LLLT group contains only an LED device with power < 1 mW, only serving to simulate the irradiation. Each patient will be irradiated three times per week for six weeks, totaling 18 sessions. Neuropsychological assessments will be held one week before the beginning of the sessions, after one week, and three months after the end of LLLT sessions. Memory domain, attention, executive functioning, and visual construction will be evaluated, in addition to symptoms of depression, anxiety, and social demographics. DISCUSSION: LLLT has been demonstrated as a safe and effective technique in significantly improving the memory, attention, and mood performance in healthy and neurologic patients. We expect that our trial can complement previous finds, as an effective low-cost therapy to improve cognitive sequel after TBI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02393079 . Registered on 20 February 2015.

Trials 2018 Jan 08

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29310710

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[Laser and light therapy for treatment of radiation dermatitis].

Laubach HJ Robijns J

Dermatologische Abteilung, Universitäre Krankenhäuser von Genf, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1205, Genf, Schweiz. hans-joachim.laubach@hcuge.ch. Faculteit Geneeskunde en Levenswetenschappen Hasselt, Universiteit Hasselt, Limburg, Belgien..

Radiation dermatitis (RD), an inflammatory skin disease that can be an unwanted side effect of medical radiation therapy (RT), most commonly occurs in patients undergoing cancer of the ENT, anal, and vulvar regions. The side effects on the skin and mucous membranes occur within a few weeks after the initiation of RT; however, late side effects can develop months to years after the RT. Therapeutically, various treatment approaches are considered such as pentoxifylline, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, laser therapy, and PBMT. In order to limit the reduced quality of life of patients with RT-induced fibrosis, supportive care consisting of pain therapy, psychological support, and wound care is necessary.

Hautarzt 2018 Jan 04

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29302697

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Adjunct Use of Low-Level Laser Therapy on the Treatment of Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis: A Case Report.

Özberk SS Gündo ar H enyurt SZ Erciyas K

Ministry of Health, Republic of Turkey, Gaziantep, Turkey. Periodontology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey. Periodontology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey. Periodontology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey..

Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is a microbial disease of the gingiva in the context of an impaired host response. This form of gingivitis is relatively rare. NUG is an infection characterized by gingival necrosis presenting as “punched-out” papillae, spontaneous bleeding, pain, oral malodor, and pseudomembrane formation. The primary predisposing factors are bacterial plaque and an inadequate diet, but smoking and psychological stress may also affect the disease severity. NUG is associated with a characteristic bacterial flora, which includes fusiform bacteria, spirochetes, and Prevotella intermedia. Conventional treatment includes control of both the bacterial plaque and the secondary factors, as well as topical or systemic treatment biostimulative effect on wound healing, pain control, and inflammatory processes. Patients with NUG were treated using adjunct use of a diode laser (980 nm) for the control of pain and to accelerate the wound healing at day 2. 3. 5. 9, energy density was 9 J/cm

J Lasers Med Sci 2018

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29399316

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[Light-based inflammatory acne treatments].

Salavastru C Tiplica GS Branisteanu DE Fritz K

Abteilung für Pädiatrische Dermatologie, Colentina-Krankenhaus, 19-21 Stefan cel Mare Av., Bukarest, Rumänien. galati1968@yahoo.com. Medizinische und Pharmazeutische Universität Carol Davila, Bukarest, Rumänien. galati1968@yahoo.com. Medizinische und Pharmazeutische Universität Carol Davila, Bukarest, Rumänien. Klinik für Dermatologie II, Colentina-Krankenhaus, Bukarest, Rumänien. Klinik für Dermatologie, Medizinische und Pharmazeutische Universität Grigore T. Popa, Ia i, Rumänien. Medizinische und Pharmazeutische Universität Carol Davila, Bukarest, Rumänien. Hautärzte- und Laserzentrum Landau (Pfalz), Landau, Deutschland..

Light-based acne treatments may represent a new emerging treatment for acne that does not increase the risk of bacterial resistance and they may be potentially effective with a favorable safety profile. Current data show that photodynamic therapy reduces inflammatory lesions and significantly improves acne. However, there is no consensus on the optimal implementation in the treatment of acne. In addition to topically applied photodynamic therapy, intense pulsed light, pulsed dye lasers, potassium-titanyl-phosphate lasers, infrared diode lasers, broad-spectrum continuous-wave light sources (red light, blue-red light) have been introduced as alternative treatments. Since well-designed studies to evaluate their efficacy versus traditional medical therapies are lacking and standardized regimens have not been agreed upon, procedures including laser, intense pulsed light, and photodynamic therapy should currently not be considered first-line treatment for inflammatory acne.

Hautarzt 2018 Jan 02

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29294170

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Photobiomodulation versus light-emitting diode (LED) therapy in the treatment of temporomandibular disorder: study protocol for a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Langella LG, Silva PFC Costa-Santos L Gonçalves MLL Motta LJ Deana AM Fernandes KPS Mesquita-Ferrari RA Bussadori SK

Nove de Julho University, 235/249 Vergueiro Street, Liberdade, São Paulo, 01504-001, Brazil. Nove de Julho University, 235/249 Vergueiro Street, Liberdade, São Paulo, 01504-001, Brazil. sandra.skb@gmail.com..

BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is described as a subgroup of orofacial pain with a set of signs and symptoms that involve the temporomandibular joint, masticatory muscles, ears, and neck. TMD can occur unilaterally or bilaterally and approximately 70% of the population is affected with at least one sign. The disorder progresses with orofacial pain, muscle pain involving the masticatory and cervical muscles, joint noises (clicks and pops), joint block, mandibular dysfunction, and headache. The etiology can be abnormal occlusion and/or posture, trauma involving local tissues, repetitive microtrauma, parafunctional habits, and an increase in emotional stress. Studies have demonstrated that phototherapy is an efficient option for the treatment of TMD, leading to improvements in pain and orofacial function. METHODS: The aim of the proposed study is to compare the effects of two sources of photobiomodulation in individuals with TMD. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial is proposed, which will involve 80 individuals aged 18-65 years allocated to either a laser group or light-emitting diode (LED) group submitted to 12 sessions of phototherapy. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMDs will be used to evaluate all participants. Pain will be measured using the visual analog scale and maximum vertical mandibular movement will be determined with the aid of digital calipers. DISCUSSION: This study compares the effects of two modalities of laser therapy on the pain and orofacial function of patients with TMD dysfunction. Photobiomodulation and LED therapy are treatment options for reducing the inflammatory process and pain as well as inducing the regeneration of the target tissue. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03257748 . Registered on 8 August 2017.

Trials 2018 Jan 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29373998

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Evidence for encephalopsin immunoreactivity in interneurones and striosomes of the monkey striatum.

El Massri N Cullen KM Stefani S Moro C Torres N Benabid AL Mitrofanis J

Department of Anatomy F13, University of Sydney, Sydney, 2006, Australia. University of Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, CLINATEC, MINATEC Campus, 38000, Grenoble, France. University of Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, CLINATEC, MINATEC Campus, 38000, Grenoble, France. University of Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, CLINATEC, MINATEC Campus, 38000, Grenoble, France. Department of Anatomy F13, University of Sydney, Sydney, 2006, Australia. john.mitrofanis@sydney.edu.au..

In this study, we examined the cellular distribution of encephalopsin (opsin 3; OPN3) expression in the striatum of non-human primates. In addition, because of our long standing interest in Parkinson’s disease and neuroprotection, we examined whether parkinsonian (MPTP; 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) insult and/or photobiomodulation (670 nm) had any impact on encephalopsin expression in this key area of the basal ganglia. Striatal sections of control naïve monkeys, together with those that were either MPTP- and/or photobiomodulation-treated were processed for immunohistochemistry. Our results revealed two populations of striatal interneurones that expressed encephalopsin, one of which was the giant, choline acetyltransferase-containing, cholinergic interneurones. The other population had smaller somata and was not cholinergic. Neither cell group expressed the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin. There was also rich encephalopsin expression in a set of terminals forming striosome-like patches across the striatum. Finally, we found that neither parkinsonian (MPTP) insult nor photobiomodulation had any effect on encephalopsin expression in the striatum. In summary, our results revealed an extensive network of encephalopsin containing structures throughout the striatum, indicating that external light is in a position to influence a range of striatal activities at both the interneurone and striosome level.

Exp Brain Res 2018 Jan 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29379995

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Transcranial near-infrared photobiomodulation attenuates memory impairment and hippocampal oxidative stress in sleep-deprived mice.

Salehpour F Farajdokht F Erfani M Sadigh-Eteghad S Shotorbani SS Hamblin MR Karimi P Rasta SH Mahmoudi J

Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Medical Physics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Higher Academic Education Institute of Rab-Rashid, Tabriz, Iran. Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, United States; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States; Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States. Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Department of Medical Physics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Medical Bioengineering, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom. Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address: Mahmoudi2044@yahoo.com..

Sleep deprivation (SD) causes oxidative stress in the hippocampus and subsequent memory impairment. In this study, the effect of near-infrared (NIR) photobiomodulation (PBM) on learning and memory impairment induced by acute SD was investigated. The mice were subjected to an acute SD protocol for 72 hr. Simultaneously, NIR PBM using a laser at 810 nm was delivered (once a day for 3 days) transcranially to the head to affect the entire brain of mice. The Barnes maze and the What-Where-Which task were used to assess spatial and episodic-like memories. The hippocampal levels of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated. The results showed that NIR PBM prevented cognitive impairment induced by SD. Moreover, NIR PBM therapy enhanced the antioxidant status and increased mitochondrial activity in the hippocampus of SD mice. Our findings revealed that hippocampus-related mitochondrial damage and extensive oxidative stress contribute to the occurrence of memory impairment. In contrast, NIR PBM reduced hippocampal oxidative damage, supporting the ability of 810 nm laser light to improve the antioxidant defense system and maintain mitochondrial survival. This confirms that non-invasive transcranial NIR PBM therapy ameliorates hippocampal dysfunction, which is reflected in enhanced memory function.

Brain Res 2018 Jan 04

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29307593

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Flexible nine-channel photodetector probe facilitated intraspinal multisite transcutaneous photobiomodulation therapy dosimetry in cadaver dogs.

Piao D, Sypniewski LA Bailey C Dugat D Burba DJ De Taboada L

Oklahoma State University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stillwater, Oklahoma, United States. Oklahoma State University, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health, United States. Oklahoma State University, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health, United States. Oklahoma State University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stillwater, Oklahoma, United States. Oklahoma State University, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health, United States. Oklahoma State University, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health, United States. LiteCure LLC, Carlsbad, California, United States..

Noninvasive photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) of spinal cord disease remains speculative due to the lack of evidence for whether photobiomodulatory irradiances can be transcutaneously delivered to the spinal cord under a clinically acceptable PBMT surface irradiation protocol. We developed a flexible nine-channel photodetection probe for deployment within the spinal canal of a cadaver dog after hemilaminectomy to measure transcutaneously transmitted PBMT irradiance at nine sites over an eight-cm spinal canal length. The probe was built upon a 6.325-mm tubular stem, to the surface of which nine photodiodes were epoxied at approximately 1 cm apart. The photodiode has a form factor of 4.80 mm 2.10 mm 1.15 mm (length width height). Each photodiode was individually calibrated to deliver 1 V per 7.58 W/cm2 continuous irradiance at 850 nm. The outputs of eight photodiodes were logged concurrently using a data acquisition module interfacing eight channels of differential analog signals, while the output of the ninth photodiode was measured by a precision multimeter. This flexible probe rendered simultaneous intraspinal (nine-site) measurements of transcutaneous PBMT irradiations at 980 nm in a pilot cadaver dog model. At a surface continuous irradiance of 3.14 W/cm2 applied off-contact between L1 and L2, intraspinal irradiances picked up by nine photodiodes had a maximum of 327.48 W/cm2 without the skin and 5.68 W/cm2 with the skin.

J Biomed Opt 2018 Jan

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29363291

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670nm light treatment following retinal injury modulates Müller cell gliosis: Evidence from in vivo and in vitro stress models.

Lu YZ Fernando N Natoli R Madigan M Valter K

The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia. The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; Medical School, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia. Save Sight Institute, Discipline of Clinical Ophthalmology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia. The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; Medical School, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia. Electronic address: krisztina.valter-kocsi@anu.edu.au..

Photobiomodulation (PBM) with 670 nm light has been shown to accelerate wound healing in soft tissue injuries, and also to protect neuronal tissues. However, little data exist on its effects on the non-neuronal components of the retina, such as Müller cells (MCs), which are the principal macroglia of the retina that play a role in maintaining retinal homeostasis. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of 670 nm light on activated MCs using in vivo and in vitro stress models. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to photo-oxidative damage (PD) for 24 h and treated with 670 nm light at 0, 3 and 14 days after PD. Tissue was collected at 30 days post-PD for analysis. Using the in vitro scratch model with a human MC line (MIO-M1), area coverage and cellular stress were analysed following treatment with 670 nm light. We showed that early treatment with 670 nm light after PD reduced MC activation, lowering the retinal expression of GFAP and FGF-2. 670 nm light treatment mitigated the production of MC-related pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-1 ), and reduced microglia/macrophage (MG/M ) recruitment into the outer retina following PD. This subsequently decreased photoreceptor loss, slowing the progression of retinal degeneration. In vitro, we showed that 670 nm light directly modulated MC activation, reducing rates of area coverage by suppressing cellular proliferation and spreading. This study indicates that 670 nm light treatment post-injury may have therapeutic benefit when administered shortly after retinal damage, and could be useful for retinal degenerations where MC gliosis is a feature of disease progression.

Exp Eye Res 2018 Jan 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29355737

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Effects of high-frequency near-infrared diode laser irradiation on the proliferation and migration of mouse calvarial osteoblasts.

Kunimatsu R Gunji H Tsuka Y Yoshimi Y Awada T Sumi K Nakajima K Kimura A Hiraki T Abe T Naoto H Yanoshita M Tanimoto K

Department of Orthodontics and Craniofacial Developmental Biology, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553, Japan. ryoukunimatu@hiroshima-u.ac.jp. .

Laser irradiation activates a range of cellular processes and can promote tissue repair. Here, we examined the effects of high-frequency near-infrared (NIR) diode laser irradiation on the proliferation and migration of mouse calvarial osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1). MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured and exposed to high-frequency (30 kHz) 910-nm diode laser irradiation at a dose of 0, 1.42, 2.85, 5.7, or 17.1 J/cm2. Cell proliferation was evaluated with BrdU and ATP concentration assays. Cell migration was analyzed by quantitative assessment of wound healing using the Incucyt® ZOOM system. In addition, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-amino-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2) after laser irradiation was examined with western blotting. Compared to the control, cell proliferation was significantly increased by laser irradiation at a dose of 2.85, 5.7, or 17.1 J/cm2. Laser irradiation at a dose of 2.85 J/cm2 induced MC3T3-E1 cells to migrate more rapidly than non-irradiated control cells. Irradiation with the high-frequency 910-nm diode laser at a dose of 2.85 J/cm2 induced phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK1/2 15 and 30 min later. However, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK was not changed by NIR diode laser irradiation at a dose of 2.85 J/cm2. Irradiation with a high-frequency NIR diode laser increased cell division and migration of MT3T3-E1 cells, possibly via MAPK/ERK signaling. These observations may be important for enhancing proliferation and migration of osteoblasts to improve regeneration of bone tissues.

Lasers Med Sci 2018 Jan 04

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29302842

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on the healing of sites grafted with coagulum, deproteinized bovine bone, and biphasic ceramic made of hydroxyapatite and -tricalcium phosphate. In vivo study in rats.

de Oliveira GJPL Aroni MAT Medeiros MC Marcantonio E Marcantonio RAC

Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, State University of Sao Paulo (Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP), Humaitá st.1680, Araraquara, São Paulo, 14801-930, Brazil..

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing of biomaterial graft areas (i.e., coagulum, deproteinized bovine bone, and biphasic ceramics comprising hydroxyapatite and -tricalcium phosphate). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety rats were divided into two groups according to laser irradiation use ( 808 nm, 100 mW, 600 m, seven sessions with 28 J of irradiation dose in total): a laser group and a control group. Each of these groups was divided into three subgroups of 15 animals each according to the type of biomaterial used: Coagulum (COA), deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), and hydroxyapatite/ -tricalcium phosphate (HA/ TCP). Biomaterials were inserted into Teflon domes, and these domes were grafted to the lateral aspect of the mandibular branch of the rats. The animals were sacrificed after 30, 60, and 90 days. Scarring patterns were evaluated by microtomography and histometry. The expression levels of BMP2, osteocalcin (OCN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA expression levels of ALP, BMP2, Jagged1, Osterix, Runx2, and TGF 1 were determined by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: The animals treated with LLLT exhibited increased mineralized tissues and bone, particularly after 90 days. These increases were associated with increased BMP2, OCN, and ALP protein expression and ALP, BMP2, and Jagged1 mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: LLLT improved the osteoconductive potential of DBB and HA/ TCP grafts and bone formation in ungrafted areas. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2018 Jan 13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29331041

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Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Randomized Control Study.

Guram G, Reddy RK, Dharamsi AM, Syed Ismail PM, Mishra S, Prakashkumar MD

Department of Orthodontics, Adesh Institute of Dental Sciences & Research, Bathinda, Punjab, India. Department of Dentistry, RIMS College and Hospital, Kadapa, Andra Pradesh, India. Department of Periodontics & Implantology, RR Dental College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. IBN Sina National College for Medical Studies, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Department of Orthodontic, Bhabha Dental College and Hospital, Bhopal, Madya Pradesh, India. Department of Orthodontics, Private Practitioner, Himmatnagar, Gujrat, India..

Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment is time-consuming procedure. Pain is usually associated with orthodontic treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) duration and pain perception. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind splint-mouth controlled clinical study includes 20 (8 males and 12 females) orthodontic patients requiring bilateral canine retraction. Time taken for canine retraction with LLLT (Group A) over control (Group B) quadrant on the same patient was assessed along with pain experience using facial pain scale. The data were tabulated and statistically evaluated using SPSS 20 for windows (Microsoft, Chicago, IL, USA) and t-test with P < 0.05. The difference in pain was evaluated with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: There was no difference in values for age and sex of patient for tooth movement and pain (P > 0.05). There was statistically significant decrease in rate of canine retraction in Group A compared to Group B. There was statistically significant difference for maxillary and mandibular arches in Group A whereas it was not significant in Group B. Pain experience was statistically significant till 2^nd^ day, and after 3^rd^ day, it was not significant between the groups. Conclusion: LLLT can reduce the fixed OTM timing and pain experience.

Contemp Clin Dent 2018 Jan-Mar

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29599594

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Photobiomodulation at 660nm stimulates proliferation and migration of diabetic wounded cells via the expression of epidermal growth factor and the JAK/STAT pathway.

Jere SW Houreld NN Abrahamse H

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa. Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa. Electronic address: nhoureld@uj.ac.za. Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa..

Photobiomodulation (PBM) modulates cellular processes to enhance diabetic wound healing. The photon energy activates wounded cells to proliferate and migrate. However, the signalling pathways responsible for these observations remain unknown. This study aimed to determine if PBM stimulates cellular proliferation and migration via the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and activation of the Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathway. Normal, wounded, diabetic and diabetic wounded cell models were exposed to PBM at a wavelength of 660nm and fluence of 5J/cm2 and incubated for 48h. Non-irradiated cells (0J/cm2) and cells exposed to exogenous EGF (rh EGF) served as controls. Cellular migration was determined microscopically at 0, 24 and 48h. Flow cytometry (BrdU) was used to determine cell proliferation, while the Trypan blue exclusion assay and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) luminescence was used to determine cell viability. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyse EGF expressed in the culture media, and phosphorylated (p-) EGF receptor (p-EGFR), p-JAK2, p-STAT1 and p-STAT5 in cells. Irradiated diabetic wounded cells showed a significant increase in EGF, and activation of its receptor (p-EGFR) and JAK/STAT (p-JAK2, p-STAT1 and p-STAT5). PBM at 660nm and 5J/cm2 is able to modulate cellular autocrine signalling, particularly the EGF/EGFR loop leading to activation of the JAK/STAT pathway which in turn stimulates cell proliferation and migration.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2018 Jan 04

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29353701

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Histological evaluation of orthodontic tooth movement following low level laser irradiation in rabbits.

Abtahi M, Saghravanian N, Poosti M, Shafaee H

Dental Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Oral & Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Orthodontist, Tehran, Iran. Oral & Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran..

Background: Reduction of orthodontic treatment time is a major concern for orthodontists. Low level laser therapy (LLL) has been widely used in dentistry and it has been claimed that it could stimulate bone formation. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate histological effects of LLL on alveolar bone remodeling during experimental tooth movement in rabbits. Methods: In this experimental study which was performed in the animal lab of Mashhad Dental School in 2016 twenty pre-pubertal female albino rabbits with the mean age of 8±1 weeks were randomly assigned into two groups. All the rabbits were examined by a veterinarian, and underweight or diseased rabbits were excluded from the study. Fifty gram orthodontic force was applied via 0.014 stainless steel spring on central teeth in both groups. In the first group, low level laser KLO3 (wave length: 980 nm, Power: 80mw) was irradiated three minutes from the buccal aspect of central teeth for 21 days. In the second group, rabbits were not exposed to laser irradiation and served as our control group. After this period, the distance between mesial corners of incisors was measured blindly by a caliper calibrated as 0.1mm. All rabbits in both groups were sacrificed by vital perfusion for histological evaluation to determine the number of resorption lacuna and amount of fibrous tissue. Independent sample t-test was used to analyze the data. Results: The number of resorption lacuna, the rate of tooth movement and fibrous tissue were significantly greater in the lased group (p=0.05). Conclusion: Low level laser irradiation could accelerate tooth movement in rabbits via increased resorptive activity in alveolar bone.

Electron Physician 2018 Jan

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29588823

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Effect of Low-Level Laser on the Healing of Bone Defects Filled with Autogenous Bone or Bioactive Glass: In Vivo Study.

Moreira GS, Machado Alves PH Esper LA Sbrana MC da Silva Dalben G Neppelenbroek KH Fraga de Almeida ALP

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing of bone defects filled with autogenous bone or bioactive glass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A critical size defect with 5-mm diameter was created on the calvaria of 60 adult male rats divided into 6 groups (n = 10): group C (control), group LLLT (LLLT – GaAlAs, wavelength of 780 nm, power of 100 mW, energy density of 210 J/cm2 per point during 60 seconds/point, in five points, only once, after creation of the surgical defect), group AB (autogenous bone), group AB+LLLT (autogenous bone + LLLT), group BG (bioactive glass), group BG+LLLT (bioactive glass + LLLT). All animals were sacrificed at 30 days after surgery. The areas of newly formed bone (ANFB) and areas of remaining particles (ARP) were calculated in relation to the total area (TA). RESULTS: The highest mean ± SD ANFB was observed for group LLLT (47.67% ± 8.66%), followed by groups AB+LLLT (30.98% ± 16.59%) and BG+LLLT (31.13% ± 16.98%). There was a statistically significant difference in relation to ANFB between group C and the other groups, except for comparison with group BG (Tukey test, P > .05). There was no statistically significant difference in ANFB values between group AB and the other study groups (Tukey test, P > .05), group AB+LLLT and groups BG and BG+LLLT (Tukey test, P > .05), and between groups BG and BG+LLLT (Tukey test, P > .05). The highest mean ± SD ARP was found for group BG (25.15% ± 4.82%), followed by group BG+LLLT (17.06% ± 9.01%), and there was no significant difference between groups (t test, P > .05). CONCLUSION: The LLLT, in the present application protocol, did not increase the area of new bone formation when associated with autogenous bone or bioactive glass.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2018 Jan/Feb

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29340351

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The effects of transcutaneous low-level laser therapy on the skin healing process: an experimental model.

Ramos FS Maifrino LBM Alves S da Costa Aguiar Alves B Perez MM Feder D Azzalis LA Junqueira VBC Fonseca FLA

Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Laboratório de Análises Clínicas, Av. Principe de Gales, 821, Santo André, SP, 09060-650, Brazil. Laboratório de Histomorfologia, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, R. Taquari, 546, São Paulo, SP, 03166-000, Brazil. Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, R. Prof. Artur Riedel, 275, Diadema, SP, 09972-270, Brazil. Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Laboratório de Análises Clínicas, Av. Principe de Gales, 821, Santo André, SP, 09060-650, Brazil. Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Laboratório de Análises Clínicas, Av. Principe de Gales, 821, Santo André, SP, 09060-650, Brazil. Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Laboratório de Análises Clínicas, Av. Principe de Gales, 821, Santo André, SP, 09060-650, Brazil. Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, R. Prof. Artur Riedel, 275, Diadema, SP, 09972-270, Brazil. Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, R. Prof. Artur Riedel, 275, Diadema, SP, 09972-270, Brazil. Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Laboratório de Análises Clínicas, Av. Principe de Gales, 821, Santo André, SP, 09060-650, Brazil. profferfonseca@gmail.com. Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, R. Prof. Artur Riedel, 275, Diadema, SP, 09972-270, Brazil. profferfonseca@gmail.com..

We aim to evaluate the action of transcutaneous laser in the initial wound healing process. The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has proven to be effective on inflammatory modulation and wound healing. The trial was performed on five groups of rats, through a dorsal incision. All groups received treatment on auricular artery. Groups 1 and 3 were treated with transcutaneous LLLT over a period of 15 min. Groups 2 and 4 received one and two inactive laser applications (placebo), respectively. Group 5 was the control one. Blood samples were collected 2 h after the last application of LLLT so that cytokine levels could be measured by ELISA. Tissue fragments were harvested for morphometric, histomorphometric, and RT-qPCR analyses. The morphometric analysis revealed a greater decrease in the wounded area in G1 when compared with G2, whereas in G3, the improvement in the area was greater when compared with G4. Finally, the histomorphometric analysis showed that G1 was the group closer to G5 in terms of collagen fiber count. G2 and G4 had higher amounts of collagen fibers than G5 while G3 had a lower quantity. The use of the transcutaneous LLLT in the current study influenced the wound healing process.

Lasers Med Sci 2018 Jan 06

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29306974

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Red light accelerates the formation of a human dermal equivalent.

Oliveira AC Morais TF Bernal C Martins VC Plepis AM Menezes PF Perussi JR

1 Programa de Pós-Graduação Interunidades Bioengenharia – EESC/FMRP/IQSC, 67817 Universidade São Paulo-São Carlos-SP , Brazil. 2 Instituto de Química de São Carlos, 67817 Universidade de São Paulo-São Carlos-SP , Brazil. 2 Instituto de Química de São Carlos, 67817 Universidade de São Paulo-São Carlos-SP , Brazil. 1 Programa de Pós-Graduação Interunidades Bioengenharia – EESC/FMRP/IQSC, 67817 Universidade São Paulo-São Carlos-SP , Brazil. 2 Instituto de Química de São Carlos, 67817 Universidade de São Paulo-São Carlos-SP , Brazil. 3 Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo-São Carlos-SP, Brazil. 1 Programa de Pós-Graduação Interunidades Bioengenharia – EESC/FMRP/IQSC, 67817 Universidade São Paulo-São Carlos-SP , Brazil. 2 Instituto de Química de São Carlos, 67817 Universidade de São Paulo-São Carlos-SP , Brazil..

Development of biomaterials’ substitutes and/or equivalents to mimic normal tissue is a current challenge in tissue engineering. Thus, three-dimensional cell culture using type I collagen as a polymeric matrix cell support designed to promote cell proliferation and differentiation was employed to create a dermal equivalent in vitro, as well to evaluate the photobiomodulation using red light. Polymeric matrix cell support was prepared from porcine serous collagen (1.1%) hydrolyzed for 96 h. The biomaterial exhibited porosity of 95%, a median pore of 44 µm and channels with an average distance between the walls of 78 ± 14 µm. The absorption of culture medium was 95%, and the sponge showed no cytotoxicity to Vero cells, a non-tumor cell line. Additionally, it was observed that irradiation with light at 630 nm (fluency 30 J cm

J Biomater Appl 2018 Jan 01

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29475416

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Photobiomodulation induces in vitro re-epithelialization via nitric oxide production.

Rizzi M Migliario M Tonello S Rocchetti V Renò F

Innovative Research Laboratory for Wound Healing, Health Sciences Department, Università del Piemonte Orientale, via Solaroli, 17, 28100, Novara, Italy. Dental Clinic, Health Sciences Department, Università del Piemonte Orientale, via Solaroli, 17, 28100, Novara, Italy. Innovative Research Laboratory for Wound Healing, Health Sciences Department, Università del Piemonte Orientale, via Solaroli, 17, 28100, Novara, Italy. Dental Clinic, Health Sciences Department, Università del Piemonte Orientale, via Solaroli, 17, 28100, Novara, Italy. Innovative Research Laboratory for Wound Healing, Health Sciences Department, Università del Piemonte Orientale, via Solaroli, 17, 28100, Novara, Italy. filippo.reno@med.uniupo.it..

Photobiomodulation is a widely used tool in regenerative medicine thanks to its ability to modulate a plethora of physiological responses. Wound re-epithelialization is strictly regulated by locally produced chemical mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), a highly reactive free radical generated by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymatic family. In this study, it has been hypothesized that a 980-nm low-level laser stimulation could increase NO production in human keratinocytes and that such event might be directly related to the re-epithelialization process. Human keratinocytes were irradiated with increasing energy outputs (10-75 J) in the absence or presence of L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor. Laser stimulation induced an increase in NO production, resulting in an energy-dependent increase in both keratinocytes proliferation and re-epithelialization ability. The direct link between increased NO production and the observed physiological responses was confirmed by their inhibition in L-NAME pre-treated samples. Since NO production increase is a quick event, it is conceivable that it is due to an increase in existing NOS activity rather than to a de novo protein synthesis. For this reason, it could be hypothesized that photobiomodulation-derived NO positive effects on keratinocytes behavior might rely on a near infrared mediated increase in NOS conformational stability and cofactors as well as substrate binding ability, finally resulting in an increased enzymatic activity.

Lasers Med Sci 2018 Jan 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29349512

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