Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / Cold Laser Literature watch for June 2012

29 papers published in June for you to review including: a meta-analysis of LLLT on joint pain (one of the best results come from an LED study, but this paper refers to it as a laser!), an RCT on hypothyroidism induced by chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, a review of 9 papers on xerostomia and much more.

Meta-Analysis of Pain Relief Effects by Laser Irradiation on Joint Areas.

Jang, H, Lee H

Department of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology , Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Abstract Background: Laser therapy has been proposed as a physical therapy for musculoskeletal disorders and has attained popularity because no side effects have been reported after treatment. However, its true effectiveness is still controversial because several clinical trials have reported the ineffectiveness of lasers in treating pain. Methods: In this systematic review, we investigate the clinical effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on joint pain. Clinical trials on joint pain satisfying the following conditions are included: the laser is irradiated on the joint area, the PEDro scale score is at least 5, and the effectiveness of the trial is measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). To estimate the overall effectiveness of all included clinical trials, a mean weighted difference in change of pain on VAS was used. Results: MEDLINE is the main source of the literature search. After the literature search, 22 trials related to joint pain were selected. The average methodological quality score of the 22 trials consisting of 1014 patients was 7.96 on the PEDro scale; 11 trials reported positive effects and 11 trials reported negative effects. The mean weighted difference in change of pain on VAS was 13.96 mm (95% CI, 7.24-20.69) in favor of the active LLLT groups. When we only considered the clinical trials in which the energy dose was within the dose range suggested in the review by Bjordal et al. in 2003 and in World Association for Laser Therapy (WALT) dose recommendation, the mean effect sizes were 19.88 and 21.05 mm in favor of the true LLLT groups, respectively. Conclusions: The review shows that laser therapy on the joint reduces pain in patients. Moreover, when we restrict the energy doses of the laser therapy into the dose window suggested in the previous study, we can expect more reliable pain relief treatments.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Jun 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22747309

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Low-level laser in the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism induced by chronic autoimmune thyroiditis: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Hofling DB, Chavantes MC, Juliano AG, Cerri GG, Knobel M, Yoshimura EM, Chammas MC

Ultrasound Unit, Department of Radiology, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, 05403-000, Brazil, dbhofling@uol.com.br.

Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT) is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism, which requires lifelong levothyroxine replacement therapy. Currently, no effective therapy is available for CAT. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with CAT-induced hypothyroidism by testing thyroid function, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), and ultrasonographic echogenicity. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a 9-month follow-up was conducted from 2006 to 2009. Forty-three patients with a history of levothyroxine therapy for CAT-induced hypothyroidism were randomly assigned to receive either 10 sessions of LLLT (830 nm, output power of 50 mW, and fluence of 707 J/cm(2); L group, n = 23) or 10 sessions of a placebo treatment (P group, n = 20). The levothyroxine was suspended 30 days after the LLLT or placebo procedures. Thyroid function was estimated by the levothyroxine dose required to achieve normal concentrations of T(3), T(4), free-T(4) (fT(4)), and thyrotropin after 9 months of postlevothyroxine withdrawal. Autoimmunity was assessed by measuring the TPOAb and TgAb levels. A quantitative computerized echogenicity analysis was performed pre- and 30 days postintervention. The results showed a significant difference in the mean levothyroxine dose required to treat the hypothyroidism between the L group (38.59 +/- 20.22 mug/day) and the P group (106.88 +/- 22.90 mug/day, P < 0.001). Lower TPOAb (P = 0.043) and greater echogenicity (P < 0.001) were also noted in the L group. No TgAb difference was observed. These findings suggest that LLLT was effective at improving thyroid function, promoting reduced TPOAb-mediated autoimmunity and increasing thyroid echogenicity in patients with CAT hypothyroidism.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jun 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22718472

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Effect of the intravascular low energy laser illumination during percutaneous coronary intervention on the inflammatory process in vascular wall.

Derkacz A, Protasiewicz M, Poreba R, Doroszko A, Andrzejak R

Department of Internal Medicine, Occupational Diseases and Hypertension, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213 Street, 50-556, Wroclaw, Poland, arkadiusz.derkacz@am.wroc.pl.

The angioplasty procedure is associated with a release of numerous factors triggering the local inflammatory reaction in vascular wall and leading thus to the restenosis. In this study, we hypothesize that the low-energy laser irradiation may exert beneficial effect by limiting this process. A group of 101 subjects (75 men and 26 women, mean age: 59.1 +/- 10.3) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), were recruited to this study. While 52 patients (40 men and 12 women) were subjected to the intravascular low-energy laser irradiation (lambda = 808 nm) of dilated lesion during the PCI, the remaining patients (35 men and 14 women) constituted the control group. The levels of interleukin 1beta, 6 and 10 (IL 1beta, IL 6 and IL 10) were measured immediately before the procedure, and then at the 6th, 12th hour as well as after 1 month following the PCI. Significantly lower levels of IL 1beta and IL 6 in the irradiated group during each analysis after the procedure were observed. Moreover, significantly lower IL 10 level in irradiated group within 6 and 12 hours after PCI was observed. Irradiation of the lesion with low-energy laser radiation during the PCI procedure results in a decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory IL 1beta and IL 6 as well as in an increase in the levels of anti-inflammatory IL 10, which may result in decreased risk for restenosis.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jun 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22733406

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[The effects of low-level laser therapy on xerostomia (mouth dryness)].

Pavlic V

Katedra za parodontologiju i oralnu medicinu, Medicinski fakultet, Univerzitet u Banjaluci. dr.vericapavlic@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION: Xerostomia is a subjective complaint of mouth/oral dryness, caused by a reduction in normal salivary secretion due to different causes. Even though there are many available treatment modalities to enhance salivary flow, the therapy often remains unsatisfactory. The low-level laser therapy (low-level laser irradiation, photo-biomodulation) has been extensively used as a new, non-invasive approach and advantageous tool for reduction of xerostomia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to give a systematic overview on the effects of low-level laser therapy on xerostomia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review of published articles in PubMed database was carried out using keywords: “low-level laser therapy”, “xerostomia”, “mouth dryness”. RESULTS: In all published articles, which were considered adequate for this overview, positive effects of low-level laser therapy were reported. Low-level laser therapy could significantly enhance salivary secretion and improve antimicrobial characteristics of secreted saliva (increased level of secretory immunoglobulin A; sIgA). Furthermore, low-level laser therapy could improve salivary flow and regeneration of salivary duct epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: The current literature suggests that low-level laser therapy can be safely and effectively used as an advanced treatment modality for reduction of xerostomia. Further in vivo, in vitro and clinical studies using different irradiation parameters are suggested to determine the best laser parameters to be used.

Med Pregl 2012 May-Jun 65(5-6) 247-50

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22730712

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Low-level laser therapy for oral mucous membrane pemphigoid.

Cafaro A, Broccoletti R, Arduino PG

Oral Medicine Section, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Turin, Lingotto Dental School Via Nizza 230, 10126, Turin, Italy.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jun 16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22706567

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[The application of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood for the combined treatment of psoriasis].

Shakhova AS, Kulikov AG, Korsunskaia IM

The objective of the present comparative study was to estimate the efficacy of the treatment of 104 patients presenting with psoriasis with the use of PUVA therapy and intravenous laser irradiation of the blood or the combination of the two methods. It was shown that the latter treatment caused a faster reduction of the inflammatory processes than the former whereas their joint application was especially efficacious in inducing regression of concomitant infiltrative events. Erythrocytes from the patients undergoing intravenous laser irradiation of the blood were characterized by the enhanced activity of antioxidative enzymes that are known to play an important role in the cellular protection from oxidants. At the same time, PUVA therapy caused no appreciable changes in the antioxidtive status. Both treatments increased the levels of antiinflammatory cytokines and decreased those ofproinflammatory ones which suggests their immunomodulatory effect that was especially pronounced in the case of combined therapy. It is concluded that the introduction of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood in the combined treatment of psoriatic patients exerts positive effect on compromised immunoregulation, stimulates the antioxidative system, and improves microcirculation.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2012 Jan-Feb (1) 24-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22693740

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[The use of the medical rehabilitation technology for the correction of microcirculatory disorders in the patients presenting with gonarthrosis].

Kul’chitskaia DB, Konchugova TV, Minenkov AA, kolbaia LI

The objective of the present study was to estimate the efficacy of pulsed laser radiation from a matrix radiator for the treatment of patients suffering osteoarthrosis of the knee joint. A total of 25 patients aged from 50 to 75 years with I-II stage gonarthrosis (GA) were enrolled (20 without synovitis and 5 with mild synovitis). Nineteen patients presented with oligoosteoarthrosis and six with polyosteoarthrosis. The state of capillary blood flow was assessed from the results of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) using a LAKK-01 laser analyzer of surface capillary blood flow (NPP “LAZMA”, Russia). Prior to the treatment, all the patients with gonarthrosis had microcirculatory disturbances; based on their character, the patients were allocated to two groups in accordance with the classification proposed by V.I. Makolkin. Group 1 was comprised of the patients (92%) with the hyperemic type of microcirculation while group 2 included patients (8%) with its normnnocirculatory type. A single course of pulsed laser therapy resulted in the appearance of the signs of normalization of capillary blood flow. LDF revealed a physiological response of microvessels to pulsed laser radiation that manifested itself in the first place as the improvement of active mechanisms of regulation of microcirculation.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2012 Jan-Feb (1) 14-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22693737

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Laser Therapy may be Better Than Topical Desensitizing Agents for Treating Dentin Hypersensitivity.

Blatz MB

Professor of Restorative Dentistry, Chairman, Department of Preventive and Restorative Sciences, Robert Schattner Center, University of Pennsylvania, School of Dental Medicine, 240 S. 40th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Phone: 215-573-3959.

ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Effectiveness of laser therapy and topical desensitising agents in treating dentine hypersensitivity: a systematic review. He S, Wang Y, Li X, Hu D. J Oral Rehabil 2011;38(5):348-58. REVIEWER: Markus B. Blatz, DMD, PhD, Dr med dent habil PURPOSE/QUESTION: To determine the effectiveness of laser therapy as compared with topical desensitizing agents for the treatment of patients with dentin hypersensitivity and the safety of laser application based on the relevant studies SOURCE OF FUNDING: Information not available TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 2: Limited-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION GRADE: Grade B: Inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence.

J Evid Based Dent Pract 2012 Jun 12(2) 69-70

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22726780

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Orofacial granulomatosis treated with low-level laser therapy: a case report.

Merigo E, Fornaini C, Manfredi M, Meleti M, Alberici F, Corcione L, Buzio C, Rocca JP, Ferri T, Vescovi P

Oral Pathology and Laser-Assisted Surgery Unit, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

OBJECTIVES: We report a case of orofacial granulomatosis successfully treated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). STUDY DESIGN: LLLT was delivered through a diode laser device (Lasemar Eufoton, Trieste, Italy) with the use of a 4-cm defocalized lens and power of 1 W. Treatment was administered in sessions of 5 irradiations of 1 minute each, with a 1-minute interval between 2 subsequent irradiations (power density 0.08 W/cm(2); fluence/application: 4.8 J/cm(2); fluence/session: 24 J/cm(2)). Laser therapy was repeated 12 times (3 times per week). RESULTS: After 2 weeks of LLLT applications, the patient reported an improvement of symptomatology as well as a decrease of labial swelling. Complete healing was observed after 1 month. The patient was followed for 2 years. No recurrence of swelling was observed during the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Advantages of the LLLT approach include an absence of side effects, analgesic properties (usually reported after first application), and good patient compliance.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2012 Jun 113(6) e25-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22668714

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[Moderate and severe sudden deafness treated with low-energy laser irradiation combined with auricular acupoint sticking].

Zhou GY

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical College, Weihui 453100, Henan Province, China. zhouxiaoguo@yahoo.com.cn

OBJECTIVE: To test the therapeutic effect on moderate and severe sudden deafness treated with low-energy laser irradiation on acupoint and external auditory canal combined with auricular point sticking (APS) and as compared with electroacupuncture. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-eight cases of moderate and severe sudden hearing loss were randomly divided into an observation group 1, an observation group 2 and a control group, 86 cases in each group. In three groups, 10% low molecular Dextran 500 mL were used for intravenous infusion. Based on the above treatment, the observation group 1 was treated with low-energy laser irradiation on acupoint and external auditory canal (such as Ermen (TE 21), Tinggong (SI 19) and Tinghui (GB 2)), combined with APS at Gan (liver), Shen (kidney) and Neifenmi (endorine), etc. The observation group 2 was treated with electroacupuncture at the same acupoints as those point irradiation in observation group 1. Fifteen days made one session. The therapeutic effects were evaluated after one and two sessions. RESULTS: After two sessions, The cured rate was 40.7% (35/86) in observation group 1 and 38.4% (33/86) in observation group 2,which were superior to 25.6% (22/86) in control group (both P < 0.05). Compared with one session, the therapeutic effects after two sessions were better in two observation groups (both P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between two groups (both P > 0.05). In comparison of the improvements of frequency audiometry and auditory function, the two observation groups were better than those in control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and the improvements after two sessions were better in two observation groups (both P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Both of low-energy laser irradiation on acupoint and external auditory canal combined with APS and electroacupuncture are able to decrease frequency audiometry, improve auditory function, and the therapeutic effects are better with prolongation of treatment time. The clinical efficacy of above two the rapies on moderate and severe sudden deafness is superior remarkably to that of conventional treatment. The therapy of low-energy laser irradiation on acupoint and external auditory canal combined with APS can replace the electroacupuncture therapy in treating moderate and severe sudden deafness.

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2012 May 32(5) 413-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22650126

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Closure of non-healing chronic ulcer in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome using low-level laser therapy.

Dixit S, Maiya AG, Umakanth S, Shastry BA

Department of Physiotherapy, MCOAHS, Manipal University, Karnataka, India.

A 69-year-old man diagnosed with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) reported to the physiotherapy outpatient clinic with the complaint of a non-healing ulcer over the right medial malleolus, for a 6-month duration, that was non-granulating and had moderate pus discharge with foul odour at initial assessment. There was a decrease in scores of the Pressure Ulcer Scale of Healing, a significant increase in granulation tissue, a decrease in the amount of discharge and foul odour along with complete closure of the chronic wound after irradiation with a light-emitting diode (LED). This is a novel case study analysing the possible effect of a helium-neon laser and LEDs on non-healing chronic ulcers associated with KTS, where the complete closure of the chronic ulcer that was initially not responsive to standard medical care was observed.

BMJ Case Rep 2012 2012

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22707702

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Short-term multimodal phototherapy approach in a diabetic ulcer patient.

Chandrasekaran B, Chettri R, Agrawal N, Sathyamoorthy C

Pulmonary Rehabilitation, PSG Institute of Pulmonology, PSG Hospital, Peelamedu, Coimbatore 641004, Tamil Nadu, India. bass_99psg@yahoo.co.in.

Foot ulcers increase morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Due to poor healing factors, surgical wound healing is questionable in diabetic patients. We report a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, sensory neuropathy and microangiopathy, who had an infected stump of the right three middle digits and subsequent transmetatarsal amputation. The infected postoperative ulcer was treated with complex phototherapy, including laser and ultraviolet C (UVC) radiations. A total of 23 sessions of low-intensity laser therapy and UVC irradiation were administered over a five-week period. The infected surgical wound healed completely. During the three-month follow-up period, there was no recurrence of the ulcer, although the patient’s metabolic profile remained unstable. Multimodal therapy combining UVC and laser may constitute a useful and side-effect-free alternative treatment modality for the induction of wound healing post metatarsal amputation in patients with unhealed diabetic ulcers.

Singapore Med J 2012 Jun 53(6) e122-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22711049

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Effect of low-level laser treatment on cochlea hair-cell recovery after acute acoustic trauma.

Rhee CK, Bahk CW, Kim SH, Ahn JC, Jung JY, Chung PS, Suh MW

Dankook University, Medical Laser Research Center, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.

We investigated the effect of low-level laser radiation on rescuing hair cells of the cochlea after acute acoustic trauma and hearing loss. Nine rats were exposed to noise. Starting the following day, the left ears (NL ears) of the rats were irradiated at an energy output of 100 to 165 mW/cm(2) for 60 min for 12 days in a row. The right ears (N ears) were considered as the control group. Frequency-specific hearing levels were measured before the noise exposure and also after the 1st, 3rd to 5th, 8th to 10th and 12th irradiations. After the 12th treatment, hair cells were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Compared to initial hearing levels at all frequencies, thresholds increased markedly after noise exposure. After the 12th irradiation, hearing threshold was significantly lower for the NL ears compared to the N ears. When observed using an electron microscope, the number of hair cells in the middle turn of the NL ears was significantly larger than that of the N ears. Our findings suggest that low-level laser irradiation promotes recovery of hearing thresholds after acute acoustic trauma.

J Biomed Opt 2012 Jun 17(6) 068002

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22734788

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Low-level laser therapy in collagenase-induced achilles tendinitis in rats: Analyses of biochemical and biomechanical aspects.

Marcos RL, Leal-Junior EC, Arnold G, Magnenet V, Rahouadj R, Wang X, Demeurie F, Magdalou J, de Carvalho MH, Lopes-Martins RA

Laboratory of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 1524, Butantan, Sao Paulo 05508-900, SP, Brazil; Laboratoire de Physiopathologie, Pharmacologie et Ingenierie Articulaires (LPPIA), UMR 7561 CNRS, Nancy-Universite, Nancy, France.

NSAIDs are widely prescribed and used over the years to treat tendon injuries despite its well-known long-term side effects. In the last years several animal and human trials have shown that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) presents modulatory effects on inflammatory markers, however the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of LLLT or sodium diclofenac treatments on biochemical markers and biomechanical properties of inflamed Achilles tendons. Wistar rats Achilles tendons (n = 6/group) were injected with saline (control) or collagenase at peritendinous area of Achilles tendons. After 1 h animals were treated with two different doses of LLLT (810 nm, 1 and 3 J) at the sites of the injections, or with intramuscular sodium diclofenac. Regarding biochemical analyses, LLLT significantly decreased (p < 0.05) COX-2, TNF-alpha, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 gene expression, as well as prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) production when compared to collagenase group. Interestingly, diclofenac treatment only decreased PGE(2) levels. Biomechanical properties were preserved in the laser-treated groups when compared to collagenase and diclofenac groups. We conclude that LLLT was able to reduce tendon inflammation and to preserve tendon resistance and elasticity. (c) 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

J Orthop Res 2012 Jun 5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22674405

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The Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy, 670 nm, on Epiphyseal Growth in Rats.

de Andrade AR, Meireles A, Artifon EL, Brancalhao RM, Ferreira JR, Bertolini GR

Laboratory of the Study of Injuries and Physiotherapy Resources, State University of Western Parana (UNIOESTE), Rua Universitaria 2069, Jd. Universitario, P.O. Box 711, 85819-110 Cascavel, PR, Brazil.

The longitudinal growth of long bones is attributed to epiphyseal growth. However, the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in such structures has still not been studied extensively in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of LLLT, 670 nm, at three different doses on the epiphyseal growth of the right tibia of rats. Twenty-one Wistar rats, aged four weeks, were subjected to the application of LLLT, with dosage according to the group (G4: were submitted to the application of 4 J/cm(2); G8: were submitted to the application of 8 J/cm(2); G16: were submitted to the application of 16 J/cm(2)). After completion of protocol they were kept until they were 14 weeks of age and then submitted to a radiological examination (evaluation of limb length) and euthanised. The histological analysis of the growth plates (total thickness and hypertrophic and proliferative zones) was then performed. Comparisons were made with the untreated left tibia. No differences were observed in any of the reviews (radiological and histological), when comparing the right sides (treated) to the left (untreated). It was concluded that the treatment with LLLT within the parameters used caused changes neither in areas of the epiphyseal cartilage nor in the final length of limbs.

ScientificWorldJournal 2012 2012 231723

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22654576

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Effects of 830 and 670 nm Laser on Viability of Random Skin Flap in Rats.

Prado RP, Garcia SB, Thomazini JA, Piccinato CE

1 Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of Goias , Campus Jatai, Goias, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of 830 and 670 nm diode laser on the viability of random skin flaps in rats. Background data: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported to be successful in stimulating the formation of new blood vessels and reducing the inflammatory process after injury. However, the efficiency of such treatment remains uncertain, and there is also some controversy regarding the efficacy of different wavelengths currently on the market. Materials and methods: Thirty Wistar rats were used and divided into three groups, with 10 rats in each. A random skin flap was raised on the dorsum of each animal. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 received 830 nm laser radiations, and group 3 was submitted to 670 nm laser radiation (power density=0.5 mW/cm(2)). The animals underwent laser therapy with 36 J/cm(2) energy density (total energy=2.52 J and 72 sec per session) immediately after surgery and on the 4 subsequent days. The application site of laser radiation was one point at 2.5 cm from the flap’s cranial base. The percentage of skin flap necrosis area was calculated on the 7th postoperative day using the paper template method. A skin sample was collected immediately after to determine the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the epidermal cell proliferation index (KiD67). Results: Statistically significant differences were found among the percentages of necrosis, with higher values observed in group 1 compared with groups 2 and 3. No statistically significant differences were found among these groups using the paper template method. Group 3 presented the highest mean number of blood vessels expressing VEGF and of cells in the proliferative phase when compared with groups 1 and 2. Conclusions: LLLT was effective in increasing random skin flap viability in rats. The 670 nm laser presented more satisfactory results than the 830 nm laser.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Jun 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22730913

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What is better in TRAM flap survival: LLLT single or multi-irradiation?

Pinfildi CE, Hochman BS, Nishioka MA, Sheliga TR, Neves MA, Liebano RE, Ferreira LM

Department of Science of Human Movement, University Federal of Sao Paulo-UNIFESP, Campus Baixada Santista, Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil, cepinfildi@hotmail.com.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used with the aim of improving vascular perfusion of the skin and musculocutaneous flaps. This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap (TRAM) viability, vascular angiogenesis, and VEGF release. Eighty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with 12 rats in each group. Group 1 received sham laser treatment; group 2, 3 J/cm(2) at 1 point; group 3, 3 J/cm(2) at 24 points; group 4, 72 J/cm(2) at 1 point; group 5, 6 J/cm(2) at 1 point; group 6, 6 J/cm(2) at 24 points; and group 7, 144 J/cm(2) at 1 point. All experimental groups underwent LLLT immediately after the TRAM operation and on the following 2 days; thus, animals underwent 3 days of treatment. The percentage of skin flap necrosis area was calculated on the fourth postoperative day using the paper template method, and two skin samples were collected using a 1-cm(2) punch to evaluate alpha smooth muscle actin (1A4) and VEGF levels in blood vessels. Significant differences were found in necrosis percentage, and higher values were seen in group 1 than in the other groups. Statistically significant differences were not found among groups 3 to 7 (p < 0.292). Groups 5 and 7 showed significantly higher VEGF levels compared to other groups. Groups 3 and 5 had an increase in levels of blood vessels compared to other groups. LLLT at energy densities of 6 to 144 J/cm(2) was efficient to increase angiogenesis and VEGF levels and promote viability in TRAM flaps in rats.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jun 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22722809

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Effects of low-level laser therapy on ROS homeostasis and expression of IGF-1 and TGF-beta1 in skeletal muscle during the repair process.

Luo L, Sun Z, Zhang L, Li X, Dong Y, Liu TC

School of Physical Education and Sports Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215021, China.

The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of IGF-1 and TGF-beta1 in the gastrocnemius muscles of rats following contusion. Muscle regeneration involves cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation and is regulated by growth factors. A growing body of evidence suggests that LLLT promotes skeletal muscle regeneration and accelerates tissue repair. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 96) were randomly divided into three groups: control group (no lesion, untreated, n = 6), contusion group (n = 48), and contusion-plus-LLLT group (n = 42). Gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) laser irradiation (635 nm; beam spot, 0.4 cm(2); output power, 7 mW; power density, 17.5 mW/cm(2); 20 min) was administered to the gastrocnemius contusion for 20 min daily for 10 days. Muscle remodeling was evaluated at 0 h and 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury. Hematoxylin and eosin and Van Gieson staining were used to evaluate regeneration and fibrosis; muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected via biochemical methods; expression of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were investigated via immunohistochemistry. The results showed that LLLT markedly promoted the regeneration of muscle and reduced scar formation. LLLT also significantly enhanced muscle SOD activity and significantly decreased muscle MDA levels 1, 2, and 3 days after injury. LLLT increased the expression of IGF-1 2, 3, and 7 days after injury and decreased the expression of IGF-1 21 and 28 days after injury. LLLT decreased the expression of TGF-beta1 3 and 28 days after injury but increased expression at 7 and 14 days after injury. Our study showed that LLLT could modulate the homeostasis of ROS and of the growth factors IGF-1 and TGF-beta1, which are known to play important roles in the repair process. This may constitute a new preventive approach to muscular fibrosis.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jun 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22714676

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[Low level laser irradiation in the visible spectra induces HeLa cells proliferation].

Yang HQ, Wang YH, Chen JX, Zheng LQ, Xie SS

Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Technology, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China. hqyang@fjnu.edu.cn

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of low level laser irradiation on the proliferation of HeLa cells using 405 nm diode laser, 514 nm argon laser, 633 nm He-Ne laser, or 785 nm diode laser, The cells were seeded on 96-well microplates for 24 h in 5% fetal bovine serum containing medium, then irradiated with the laser at dose of 100 and 1 000 J x m(-2), respectively. At the time point of 24, 48, 72 h after irradiation, cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. The results show that 405, 633 and 785 nm laser irradiation induces wavelength-dependent and time-dependent proliferation. 633 nm laser irradiation results in a stimulatory proliferation effect that is most significant, whereas 514 nm laser irradiation produces little increase in cell proliferation. Low level laser irradiation increases cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. 1 000 J x m(-2) laser irradiation is more effective in increasing cell proliferation than 100 J x m(-2) laser irradiation using 405 nm diode laser, 633 nm He-Ne laser, or 785 nm diode laser, but not as effective as using 514 nm argon laser.

Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2012 Apr 32(4) 1024-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22715777

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Laser therapy of muscle injuries.

Dawood MS, Al-Salihi AR, Qasim AW

Al-Nahrain university, Baghdad, Iraq, monkithsdz51@yahoo.com.

Low-level lasers are used in general therapy and healing process due to their good photo-bio-stimulation effects. In this paper, the effects of diode laser and Nd:YAG laser on the healing process of practically managed skeletal muscle trauma has been successfully studied. Standard impact trauma was induced by using a specially designed mechanical device. The impacted muscle was left for 3 days for complete development of blunt trauma. After that it was irradiated by five laser sessions for 5 days. Two types of lasers were used; 785-nm diode laser and 1.064-nm Nd:YAG laser, both in continuous and pulsed modes. A special electronic circuit was designed and implemented to modulate the diode laser for this purpose. Tissue samples of crushed skeletal muscle have been dissected from the injured irradiated muscle then bio-chemically analyzed for the regeneration of contractile and collagenous proteins using Lowry assay for protein determination and Reddy and Enwemeka assay for hydroxyproline determination. The results showed that both lasers stimulate the regeneration capability of traumatized skeletal muscle. The diode laser in CW and pulsed modes showed better results than the Nd:YAG in accelerating the preservation of the normal tissue content of collagenous and contractile proteins beside controlling the regeneration of non-functional fibrous tissue. This study proved that the healing achieved by the laser treatment was faster than the control group by 15-20 days.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jun 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22714675

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Survival of Dopaminergic Amacrine Cells after Near-Infrared Light Treatment in MPTP-Treated Mice.

Peoples C, Shaw VE, Stone J, Jeffery G, Baker GE, Mitrofanis J

Discipline of Anatomy & Histology F13, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

We examined whether near-infrared light (NIr) treatment (photobiomodulation) saves dopaminergic amacrine cells of the retina in an acute and a chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson disease. For the acute model, BALB/c mice had MPTP (100 mg/kg) or saline injections over 30 hours, followed by a six-day-survival period. For the chronic model, mice had MPTP (200 mg/kg) or saline injections over five weeks, followed by a three-week-survival period. NIr treatment was applied either at the same time (simultaneous series) or well after (posttreatment series) the MPTP insult. There were four groups within each series: Saline, Saline-NIr, MPTP, and MPTP-NIr. Retinae were processed for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunochemistry, and cell number was analysed. In the MPTP groups, there was a significant reduction in TH(+) cell number compared to the saline controls; this reduction was greater in the acute (~50%) compared to the chronic (~30%) cases. In the MPTP-NIr groups, there were significantly more TH(+) cells than in the MPTP groups of both series (~30%). In summary, we showed that NIr treatment was able to both protect (simultaneous series) and rescue (posttreatment series) TH(+) cells of the retina from parkinsonian insult.

ISRN Neurol 2012 2012 850150

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22701184

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Low-level laser treatment accelerated hair regrowth in a rat model of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA).

Wikramanayake TC, Villasante AC, Mauro LM, Nouri K, Schachner LA, Perez CI, Jimenez JJ

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1600 NW 10th Avenue, RSMB 2023A, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy for which there is no effective interventional approach. A low-level laser (LLL) device, the HairMax LaserComb(R), has been cleared by the FDA to treat androgenetic alopecia. Its effects may be extended to other settings; we have demonstrated that LaserComb treatment induced hair regrowth in a mouse model for alopecia areata. In the current study, we tested whether LLL treatment could promote hair regrowth in a rat model for CIA. Chemotherapy agents cyclophosphamide, etoposide, or a combination of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin were administered in young rats to induce alopecia, with or without LLL treatment. As expected, 7-10 days later, all the rats developed full body alopecia. However, rats receiving laser treatment regrew hair 5 days earlier than rats receiving chemotherapy alone or sham laser treatment (with the laser turned off). The accelerated hair regrowth in laser-treated rats was confirmed by histology. In addition, LLL treatment did not provide local protection to subcutaneously injected Shay chloroleukemic cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that LLL treatment significantly accelerated hair regrowth after CIA without compromising the efficacy of chemotherapy in our rat model. Our results suggest that LLL should be explored for the treatment of CIA in clinical trials because LLL devices for home use (such as the HairMax LaserComb(R)) provide a user-friendly and noninvasive approach that could be translated to increased patient compliance and improved efficacy.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jun 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22696077

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Laser Therapy as an Effective Method for Implant Surface Decontamination: A Histomorphometric Study in Rats.

Salmeron S, Rezende ML, Consolaro A, Sant’ana AC, Damante CA, Greghi SL, Passanezi E

Department of Prosthodontics, Division of Periodontics, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Bauru, SP, Brazil.

Background: A standard protocol for treating peri-implantitis is not yet established. Methods: 150 titanium discs with smooth or rough surfaces contaminated with microbial biofilm were subcutaneously implanted in rats after undergoing one of the treatments: low-intensity laser (LIL), antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), and toluidine blue O (TBO). Sterile and contaminated discs served as negative (NC) and positive (C) controls, respectively. After 7, 28, and 84 days tissue inflammation was microscopically evaluated by measuring the density of collagen fibers (degree of fibrosis) and concentration of PMNs. Results: surface texture did not affect the degree of inflammation, but the area of reactive tissue was significantly greater for rough implants (2.6 +/- 3.7 x 10(6) mum(2)) than for smooth ones (1.9 +/- 2.6 x 10(6) mum(2)) (p = 0.0377). Group C presented the lowest and NC presented the highest degree of fibrosis with significance only after 7 days. These groups had the highest and lowest scores, respectively, for degree of inflammation. The C group showed the largest area of reactive tissue (9.11 +/- 2.10 x 10(6) mum(2)), but it was not significantly larger than the LIL (p = 0.3031) and TBO (p = 0.1333) groups. The aPDT showed the smallest area (4.34 +/- 1.49 x 10(6) mum(2)) of reactive tissue among the treatment groups. After 28 days, the groups resembled the NC in all the studied parameters. Conclusions: aPDT behaved better than the other methods after 7 days, but over longer periods all methods produced outcomes equivalent to sterile implants.

J Periodontol 2012 Jun 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22680303

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High-power helium-neon laser irradiation inhibits the growth of traumatic scars in vitro and in vivo.

Shu B, Ni GX, Zhang LY, Li XP, Jiang WL, Zhang LQ

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Institute of Field Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, No.10, Changjiangzhilu, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400042, China, shubin1017@163.com.

This study explored the inhibitory effect of the high-power helium-neon (He-Ne) laser on the growth of scars post trauma. For the in vitro study, human wound fibroblasts were exposed to the high-power He-Ne laser for 30 min, once per day with different power densities (10, 50, 100, and 150 mW/cm(2)). After 3 days of repeated irradiation with the He-Ne laser, fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis were evaluated. For in vivo evaluation, a wounded animal model of hypertrophic scar formation was established. At postoperative day 21, the high-power He-Ne laser irradiation (output power 120 mW, 6 mm in diameter, 30 min each session, every other day) was performed on 20 scars. At postoperative day 35, the hydroxyproline content, apoptosis rate, PCNA protein expression and FADD mRNA level were assessed. The in vitro study showed that the irradiation group that received the power densities of 100 and 150 mW/cm(2) showed decreases in the cell proliferation index, increases in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase, and decreases in collagen synthesis and type I procollagen gene expression. In the in vivo animal studies, regions exposed to He-Ne irradiation showed a significant decrease in scar thickness as well as decreases in hydroxyproline levels and PCNA protein expression. Results from the in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that repeated irradiation with a He-Ne laser at certain power densities inhibits fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis, thereby inhibits the growth of hypertrophic scars.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jun 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22678421

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Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone repair in rats: optical densitometry analysis.

Barbosa D, de Souza RA, Xavier M, da Silva FF, Arisawa EA, Villaverde AG

Instituto de Engenharia Biomedica, Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, UNICASTELO, Rodovia BR-116, 12247-004, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of bone repair in rats submitted to low-level laser therapy using optical densitometry. A total of 45 rats which underwent femoral osteotomy were randomly distributed into three groups: control (group I) and laser-treated groups using wavelengths in the red (lambda, 660-690 nm) and in the infrared (lambda, 790-830 nm) spectra (group II and group III, respectively). The animals (five per group) were killed after 7, 14, and 21 days and the femurs were removed for optical densitometry analysis. Optical density showed a significant increase in the degree of mineralization (gray level) in both groups treated with the laser after 7 days. After 14 days, only the group treated with laser therapy in the infrared spectrum showed higher bone density. No differences were observed between groups after 21 days. Such results suggest the positive effect of low-level laser therapy in bone repair is time- and wavelength-dependent. In addition, our results have confirmed that optical densitometry technique can measure bone mineralization status.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jun 6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22669177

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Patterns of Cell Activity in the Subthalamic Region Associated with the Neuroprotective Action of Near-Infrared Light Treatment in MPTP-Treated Mice.

Shaw VE, Peoples C, Spana S, Ashkan K, Benabid AL, Stone J, Baker GE, Mitrofanis J

Discipline of Anatomy and Histology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

We have shown previously that near-infrared light (NIr) treatment or photobiomodulation neuroprotects dopaminergic cells in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) from degeneration induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice. The present study explores whether NIr treatment changes the patterns of Fos expression in the subthalamic region, namely, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and zona incerta (ZI); both cell groups have abnormally overactive cells in parkinsonian cases. BALB/c mice were treated with MPTP (100-250 mg/kg) or saline either over 30 hours followed by either a two-hour or six-day survival period (acute model) or over five weeks followed by a three-week survival period (chronic model). NIr and MPTP were applied simultaneously. Brains were processed for Fos immunochemistry, and cell number was estimated using stereology. Our major finding was that NIr treatment reduced (30-45%) the increase in Fos(+) cell number evident in the STN and ZI after MPTP insult. This reduction was concurrent with the neuroprotection of dopaminergic SNc cells shown previously and was evident in both MPTP models (except for the 2 hours survival period which showed no changes in cell number). In summary, our results indicated that NIr had long lasting effects on the activity of cells located deep in the brain and had repaired partially the abnormal activity generated by the parkinsonian toxin.

Parkinsons Dis 2012 2012 296875

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22666627

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Low-Level Laser Irradiation Stimulates Tenocyte Migration with Up-Regulation of Dynamin II Expression.

Tsai WC, Hsu CC, Pang JH, Lin MS, Chen YH, Liang FC

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan County, Taiwan.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is commonly used to treat sports-related tendinopathy or tendon injury. Tendon healing requires tenocyte migration to the repair site, followed by proliferation and synthesis of the extracellular matrix. This study was designed to determine the effect of laser on tenocyte migration. Furthermore, the correlation between this effect and expression of dynamin 2, a positive regulator of cell motility, was also investigated. Tenocytes intrinsic to rat Achilles tendon were treated with low-level laser (660 nm with energy density at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 J/cm(2)). Tenocyte migration was evaluated by an in vitro wound healing model and by transwell filter migration assay. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were determined by reverse transcription/real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and Western blot analysis respectively. Immunofluorescence staining was used to evaluate the dynamin 2 expression in tenocytes. Tenocytes with or without laser irradiation was treated with dynasore, a dynamin competitor and then underwent transwell filter migration assay. In vitro wound model revealed that more tenocytes with laser irradiation migrated across the wound border to the cell-free zone. Transwell filter migration assay confirmed that tenocyte migration was enhanced dose-dependently by laser. Real-time PCR and Western-blot analysis demonstrated that mRNA and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were up-regulated by laser irradiation dose-dependently. Confocal microscopy showed that laser enhanced the expression of dynamin 2 in cytoplasm of tenocytes. The stimulation effect of laser on tenocytes migration was suppressed by dynasore. In conclusion, low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration in a process that is mediated by up-regulation of dynamin 2, which can be suppressed by dynasore.

PLoS One 2012 7(5) e38235

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22666495

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Interventions for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement.

Long H, Pyakurel U, Wang Y, Liao L, Zhou Y, Lai W

a Graduate Student, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Orthodontics, West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Methods: We searched the databases of PubMed, Embase, Science Citation Index, CENTRAL, and SIGLE from January 1990 to August 2011 for randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness of interventions on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The processes of study search, selection, and quality assessment were conducted independently in duplicate by two review authors. Original outcome data, if possible, underwent statistical pooling by using Review Manager 5. Results: Through a predefined search strategy, we finally included nine eligible studies. Among them, five interventions were studied (ie, low-level laser therapy, corticotomy, electrical current, pulsed electromagnetic fields, and dentoalveolar or periodontal distraction). Six outcomes were evaluated in these studies (ie, accumulative moved distance or movement rate, time required to move tooth to its destination, anchorage loss, periodontal health, pulp vitality, and root resorption). Conclusion: Among the five interventions, corticotomy is effective and safe to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement, low-level laser therapy was unable to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement, current evidence does not reveal whether electrical current and pulsed electromagnetic fields are effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, and dentoalveolar or periodontal distraction is promising in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement but lacks convincing evidence.

Angle Orthod 2012 Jun 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22720793

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Deciphering the Neuronal Circuitry Controlling Local Blood Flow in the Cerebral Cortex with Optogenetics in PV::Cre Transgenic Mice.

Urban A, Rancillac A, Martinez L, Rossier J

Laboratoire de Neurobiologie, Equipe Optogenetics and Brain Imaging, CNRS UMR 7637, Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles ParisTech PARIS, France.

Although it is know since more than a century that neuronal activity is coupled to blood supply regulation, the underlying pathways remains to be identified. In the brain, neuronal activation triggers a local increase of cerebral blood flow (CBF) that is controlled by the neurogliovascular unit composed of terminals of neurons, astrocytes, and blood vessel muscles. It is generally accepted that the regulation of the neurogliovascular unit is adjusted to local metabolic demand by local circuits. Today experimental data led us to realize that the regulatory mechanisms are more complex and that a neuronal system within the brain is devoted to the control of local brain-blood flow. Recent optogenetic experiments combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that light stimulation of neurons expressing the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV) is associated with positive blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the corresponding barrel field but also with negative BOLD in the surrounding deeper area. Here, we demonstrate that in acute brain slices, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) based photostimulation of PV containing neurons gives rise to an effective contraction of penetrating arterioles. These results support the neurogenic hypothesis of a complex distributed nervous system controlling the CBF.

Front Pharmacol 2012 3 105

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22715327

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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