LLLT Literature Watch November 2010

65 LLLT papers for you to review, a new record high for this bi-monthly literature watch. This edition finds 14 human clinical trials, eleven of which happen to be maxillofacial or intraoral related conditions including LLLT treatments for mouth dryness, desensitisation of teeth, periodontitis, complex regional pain syndrome, preventing restenosis after percutaneous angioplasty and a case report where LLLT was highly effective in reversing the effects of  Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

Clinical evaluation of Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and diode laser therapy for desensitization of teeth with gingival recession.

Dilsiz A, Aydin T, Canakci V, Gungormus M

Department of Periodontology, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. aydilsiz@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three types of lasers, Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and GaAlAs (Diode), as dentin desensitizers, as well as to determine both the immediate and late therapeutic effects on teeth with gingival recessions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 24 patients with 96 teeth with Miller’s class I or class II gingival recessions with clinically elicitable dentin hypersensitivity (DH) divided into three test groups: (A) Er:YAG, 2,940 nm, 60 mJ/pulse, 2 Hz, 20 s; (B) Nd:YAG, 1,064 nm, 100 mJ/pulse, 15 Hz, 100 s, (C) diode; 808 nm, 100 mW, 20s; and one control group (d) control not irradiated. DH was assessed by means of air stimulus. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure DH. The selected teeth in three groups received laser therapy for three sessions. The measurements were performed before each treatment session and at 30 min after the laser application (immediate effect), and additional measurements were also performed at 15, 30, and 60 days after the conclusion of treatment (late effect) to assess the extent of desensitization obtained with the different laser devices. RESULTS: Significant reduction of DH occurred at all times measured during the three treatment sessions in groups treated with Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and diode lasers. Comparing the means of the responses in the three treatment sessions of the four groups, Group b showed a higher degree of desensitization in teeth with gingival recession compared with the other groups (p < 0.001). The immediate and late therapeutic effects of group b were more evident compared with the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and diode lasers can be used to reduce DH. Nd:YAG laser irradiation is more effective in the treatment of DH than are Er:YAG and diode laser. Within the limitations of the present study, the Nd:YAG laser seems to be a suitable tool for successful reduction of DH, especially because the 3-month results of this treatment modality are promising.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28 Suppl 2 S11-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20932130

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

The Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy as an Adjunct to Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment.

Aykol G, Baser U, Maden I, Kazak Z, Onan U, Tanrikulu-Kucuk S, Ademoglu E, Issever H, Yalcin F

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy of smoking and non smoking patients with moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis. Methods: All 36 systemically healthy patients who were included in our study, initially received non-surgical periodontal therapy. The LLLT group (n=18) received GaAlAs diode laser therapy as an adjunct to non surgical periodontal therapy. A diode laser with a wavelength of 808 nm was used for the low level laser therapy. Energy density of 4 J/cm(2) was applied to the gingival surface following the periodontal treatment on the 1(st), 2(nd) and 7(th) days. Each of the LLLT and control groups were divided into two groups as smoking and nonsmoking patients to investigate the effect of smoking on the treatment. GCF samples were collected from all patients and clinical parameters were recorded on baseline, the 1st, 3rd and 6th months after treatment. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-ss1 and basic-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) levels in the collected gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were measured. Results: The primary outcome variable was gingival bleeding and inflammation changes in this study. At all time points, the LLLT group showed significantly more improvement in SBI, CAL, PD levels when compared to the control group (p<0.001). There were clinically significant improvements in the laser applied smokers’ PD and SBI levels when compared to smokers to whom laser was not applied, between the baseline and all time points (p<0.001). (SBI score; control group: 1.12, LLLT group: 1.49, PD; control group: 1.21mm, LLLT group: 1.46mm, between baseline and 6 months). TGF-ss1 levels and the ratio of MMP-1 to TIMP-1 decreased significantly in both groups in 1, 3 and 6 months after periodontal therapy (p<0.001). b-FGF levels significantly decreased in both groups at the 1(st) month after the treatment, then increased at the 3(rd) and 6(th) months (p<0.005). No marker level change showed significant differences between the groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: LLLT as an adjunctive therapy to nonsurgical periodontal treatment improves periodontal healing.

J Periodontol 2010 Oct 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20932157

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Laser Phototherapy for Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: A Case Report.

Simoes A, de Freitas PM, Bello-Silva MS, Tuner J, de Paula Eduardo C

1 Centro de Pesquisa em Biologia Oral, Departamento de Materiais Dentarios, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo , Sao Paulo, Brazil .

Abstract Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a life-threatening dermatosis characterized by epidermal sloughing and stomatitis. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy in whom laser phototherapy (LPT) was highly effective in reversing the effects of an initial episode of SJS that had apparently developed in association with treatment with phenobarbital for a seizure disorder. The patient was first seen in the intensive care unit (ICU) of our institution with fever, cutaneous lesions on his extremities, trunk, face, and neck; mucosal involvement of his genitalia and eyes (conjunctivitis); ulcerative intraoral lesions; and swollen, crusted, and bleeding lips. He reported severe pain at the sites of his intraoral and skin lesions and was unable to eat, speak, swallow, or open his mouth. Trying to prevent and minimize secondary infections, gastric problems, pain, and other complications, the patient was given clindamycin, ranitidine, dipyrone, diphenhydramine (Benadryl) drops, and morphine. In addition, he was instructed to use bicarbonate solution and Ketoconazole (Xylogel) in the oral cavity. Because of the lack of progress of the patient, the LPT was selected. At 5 days after the initial session of LPT, the patient was able to eat gelatin, and on the following day, the number and severity of his intraoral lesions and his labial crusting and swelling had diminished. By 6 days after his initial session of LPT, most of the patient’s intraoral lesions had disappeared, and the few that remained were painless; the patient was able to eat solid food by himself and was removed from the ICU. Ten sessions of LPT were conducted in the hospital. The patient underwent three further and consecutive sessions at the School of Dentistry, when complete healing of his oral lesions was observed. The outcome in this case suggests that LPT may be a new adjuvant modality for SJS complications.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20973736

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

The Prevention of Induced Oral Mucositis with Low-Level Laser Therapy in Bone Marrow Transplantation Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Silva GB, Mendonca EF, Bariani C, Antunes HS, Silva MA

1 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Unit, Araujo Jorge Hospital, Goias Fight Cancer Association , Goiania, Goias, Brazil .

Abstract Background Data and Objective: Patients who have received high doses of chemotherapy, either alone or in combination with total body irradiation often cite oral mucositis (OM) as the most debilitating side effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the prevention of conditioning-induced OM in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: We randomized 42 patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic HSCT. A low-level InGaAlP diode laser was used, emitting light at 660 nm, 40 mW, and 4 J/cm(2). An evaluation of OM was carried out using the World Health Organization scale. Results and Conclusion: In the LLLT group, 57.1% of patients had an OM grade 0, 9.6% had grade 1, and 33.3% had grade 2, whereas in the control group, only 4.8% of patients were free of OM (grade 0). Our results indicate that the preventive use of LLLT in patients who have undergone HSCT is a powerful instrument in reducing OM incidence.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20969443

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome with a Low-Level Energy Diode Laser.

Yang HW, Huang YF

1 Oral Medicine Center, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital , Taichung City, Taiwan .

Abstract Objective: To test the therapeutic efficacy of low-level energy diode laser on burning mouth syndrome. Background: Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by burning and painful sensations in the mouth, especially the tongue, in the absence of significant mucosal abnormalities. Although burning mouth syndrome is relatively common, little is known regarding its etiology and pathophysiology. As a result, no treatment is effective in all patients. Low-level energy diode laser therapy has been used in a variety of chronic and acute pain conditions, including neck, back and myofascial pain, degenerative osteoarthritis, and headache. Methods: A total of 17 patients who had been diagnosed with burning mouth syndrome were treated with an 800-nm wavelength diode laser. A straight handpiece was used with an end of 1-cm diameter with the fiber end standing 4 cm away from the end of handpiece. When the laser was applied, the handpiece directly contacted or was immediately above the symptomatic lingual surface. The output used was 3 W, 50 msec intermittent pulsing, and a frequency of 10 Hz, which was equivalent to an average power of 1.5 W/cm(2) (3 W x 0.05 msec x 10 Hz = 1.5 W/cm(2)). Depending on the involved area, laser was applied to a 1-cm(2) area for 70 sec until all involved area was covered. Overall pain and discomfort were analyzed with a 10-cm visual analogue scale. Results: All patients received diode laser therapy between one and seven times. The average pain score before the treatment was 6.7 (ranging from 2.9 to 9.8). The results showed an average reduction in pain of 47.6% (ranging from 9.3% to 91.8%). The burning sensation remained unchanged for up to 12 months. Conclusion: Low-level energy diode laser may be an effective treatment for burning mouth syndrome.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20969436

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Measurements of jaw movements and TMJ pain intensity in patients treated with GaAlAs laser.

Mazzetto MO, Hotta TH, Pizzo RC

Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora, Ribeirao Preto Dental School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. mazzetto@forp.usp.br

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the improvement of the mandibular movements and painful symptoms in individuals with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Forty patients were randomly divided into two groups (n=20): Group 1 received the effective dose (GaAlAs laser lambda 830 nm, 40 mW, 5J/cm(2)) and Group 2 received the placebo application (0 J/cm(2)), in continuous mode on the affected condyle lateral pole: superior, anterior, posterior, and posterior-inferior, twice a week during 4 weeks. Four evaluations were performed: E1 (before laser application), E2 (right after the last application), E3 (one week after the last application) and E4 (30 days after the last application). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant more improvements (p<0.01) in painful symptoms in the treated group than in the placebo group. A significant improvement in the range of mandibular movements was observed when the results were compared between the groups at E4. Laser application can be a supportive therapy in the treatment of TMD, since it resulted in the immediate decrease of painful symptoms and increased range of mandibular movements in the treated group. The same results were not observed in the placebo group.

Braz Dent J 2010 21(4) 356-60

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20976388

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Clinical evaluation of low-level laser treatment for recurring aphthous stomatitis.

De Souza TO, Martins MA, Bussadori SK, Fernandes KP, Tanji EY, Mesquita-Ferrari RA, Martins MD

Rehabilitation Sciences Department, Nove de Julho University, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of low-level laser on the control of pain and the repair of recurring aphthous stomatitis (RAS). BACKGROUND: One of the most frequent pathologic conditions in the oral cavity is RAS. This multifactor immunologic inflammatory lesion causes patient discomfort, and treatment is controversial because of its unknown etiology. A number of treatment modalities have been proposed, but none is definitive. Low-level laser treatment (LLLT) has been used for lesions of an inflammatory nature, not as an inhibitor of the process, but for its modulating action and reparative effect on tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with RAS were divided into one group treated with a topical corticoid agent (n = 5) and another group treated with laser (n = 15). Group I received conventional treatment with triamcinolone acetonide 4 times per day. The patients in Group II received laser treatment with an InGaA1P diode laser with wavelength of 670 nm, 50 mW, 3 J/cm(2) per point in daily sessions (once per day) on consecutive days. Both treatments were applied until the disappearance of the lesions. All patients were evaluated on a daily basis, and the following clinical parameters were determined during each session: pain intensity before and after treatment and clinical measurement of lesion size. RESULTS: The results revealed that 75% of the patients reported a reduction in pain in the same session after laser treatment, and total regression of the lesion occurred after 4 days. Total regression in the corticoid group was from 5 to 7 days. CONCLUSION: The use of LLLT under the conditions administered in the present study demonstrated analgesic and healing effects with regard to RAS.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28 Suppl 2 S85-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20950190

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Calibration of low-level laser therapy equipment.

Fukuda TY, Jesus JF, Santos MG, Cazarini Junior C, Tanji MM, Plapler H

Physical Therapy Sector, Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo (ISCMSP), Sao Paulo (SP), Brazil. tfukuda10@yahoo.com.br

BACKGROUND: Despite the increase in the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), there is still a lack of consensus in the literature regarding how often the equipment must be calibrated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the real average power of LLLT devices in the Greater Sao Paulo area. METHODS: For the evaluation, a LaserCheck power meter designed to calibrate continuous equipment was used. The power meter was programmed with data related to the laser’s wavelength to gauge the real average power being emitted. The LLLT devices were evaluated in two ways: first with the device cooled down and then with the device warmed up for 10 minutes. For each condition, three tests were performed. The laser probe was aligned with the power meter, which provided the real average power being emitted by the LLLT device. All of the data and information related to the laser application were collected with the use of a questionnaire filled in by the supervising therapists. RESULTS: The 60 devices evaluated showed deficit in real average power in the cooled-down and warmed-up condition. The statistical analysis (ANOVA) showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the real average power measured in relation to the manufacturer’s average power. On average, the most common dose in the clinics was 4 J/cm(2), and the most desired effects were healing and anti-inflammatory effects. According to the World Association for Laser Therapy (WALT), 1 to 4 J of final energy are necessary to achieve these effects, however only one device was able to reach the recommended therapeutic window. CONCLUSION: The LLLT devices showed a deficit in real average power that emphasized a lack of order in the application of this tool. The present study also showed the need for periodical calibration of LLLT equipment and a better technical knowledge of the therapists involved.

Rev Bras Fisioter 2010 Aug 14(4) 303-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20949231

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Taking a light approach to treating acute ischemic stroke patients: Transcranial near-infrared laser therapy translational science.

Lapchak PA

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Abstract Transcranial near-infrared laser therapy (NILT) has been investigated as a novel neuroprotective treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS), for approximately 10 years. Two clinical trials, NeuroThera Effectiveness and Safety Trial (NEST)-1 and NEST-2, have evaluated the use of NILT to promote clinical recovery in patients with AIS. This review covers preclinical, translational, and clinical studies documented during the period 1997-2010. The primary aim of this article is to detail the development profile of NILT to treat AIS. Secondly, insight into possible mechanisms involved in light therapy will be presented. Lastly, possible new directions that should be considered to improve the efficacy profile of NILT in AIS patients will be discussed. The use of NILT was advanced to clinical trials based upon extensive translational research using multiple species. NILT, which may promote functional and behavioral recovery via a mitochondrial mechanism and by enhancing cerebral blood flow, may eventually be established as an Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for stroke. The NEST-3 trial, which is the pivotal trial for FDA approval, should incorporate hypotheses derived from translational studies to ensure efficacy in patients. Future NILT studies should consider administration of a thrombolytic to enhance cerebral reperfusion alongside NILT neuroprotection.

Ann Med 2010 Dec 42(8) 576-86

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21039081

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

The Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Salivary Glands in Patients With Xerostomia.

Loncar B, Mravak Stipetic M, Baricevic M, Risovic D

1 Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb , Croatia

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser irradiation on the secretory function of salivary glands in 34 patients with xerostomia (dry mouth). Background Data: Xerostomia, a common complaint of oral dryness within the elderly population, is caused by a reduction in normal salivary secretion due to different causes. Treatment is aimed at increasing salivary flow, although in most cases it remains palliative. Materials and Methods: In this study, laser light from a pulsed Ga-As laser operating at 904 nm was applied bilaterally on each salivary gland area: extraorally on the parotid and submandibular gland areas and intraorally on the sublingual gland area. The operational probe distance from the irradiated area was 0.5 cm resulting in an irradiance of 246 mW/cm(2). The exposure time was 120 sec per daily treatment during 10 consecutive days. The average energy density per exposure was 29.5 J/cm(2). The control group consisted of 16 patients who were treated with 15 mL of a 2% citric acid solution applied as a mouth rinse for 30 sec. Results: The average difference in the amount of salivation (dQ-sal, mL/min) before and after laser therapy increased linearly from dQ-sal = 0.05 mL/min on the first day, up to dQ-sal = 0.13 mL/min on the last (10th) day of therapy. In the control group, the average dQ-sal initially demonstrated a gradual increase, with a reversal of the trend toward the end of the therapy period and eventually yielding no correlation between the duration of therapy and dQ-sal. Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that the effects of low-level laser therapy on salivary glands are not only stimulating, but also regenerative to a degree since the glandular response to the same amount of applied laser energy increased linearly over time.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Nov 6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21054200

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

[Evaluation of low level laser and interferential current in the therapy of complex regional pain syndrome by infrared thermographic camera].

Kocic M, Lazovic M, Dimitrijevic I, Mancic D, Stankovic A

Klinicki centar Nis, Klinika za fizikalnu medicinu, rehabilitaciju i protetiku, Nis, Srbija. kocicm60@gmail.com

BACKGROUND/AIM; Complex regional pain syndrom type I (CRPS I) is characterised by continuous regional pain, disproportional according to duration and intensity and to the sort of trauma or other lesion it was caused by. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare, by using thermovison, the effects of low level laser therapy and therapy with interferential current in treatment of CRPS I. METHODS: The prospective randomized controlled clinical study included 45 patients with unilateral CRPS 1, after a fracture of the distal end of the radius, of the tibia and/or the fibula, treated in the Clinical Centre in Nis from 2004 to 2007. The group A consisted of 20 patients treated by low level laser therapy and kinesy-therapy, while the patients in the group B (n = 25) were treated by interferential current and kinesy-therapy. The regions of interest were filmed by a thermovision camera on both sides, before and after the 20 therapeutic procedures had been applied. Afterwards, the quantitative analysis and the comparing of thermograms taken before and after the applied therapy were performed. RESULTS: There was statistically significant decrease of the mean maximum temperature difference between the injured and the contralateral extremity after the therapy in comparison to the status before the therapy, with the patients of the group A (p < 0.001) as well as those of the group B (p < 0.001). The decrease was statistically significantly higher in the group A than in the group B (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: By the use of the infrared thermovision we showed that in the treatment of CRPS I both physical medicine methods were effective, but the effectiveness of laser therapy was statistically significantly higher compared to that of the interferential current therapy.

Vojnosanit Pregl 2010 Sep 67(9) 755-60

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20954414

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Effects of low-level laser treatment on mouth dryness.

Juras DV, Lukac J, Cekic-Arambasin A, Vidovic A, Canjuga I, Sikora M, Carek A, Ledinsky M

Dental Clinic, Zagreb University Hospital Center, Zagreb, Croatia. djuras@sfzg.hr

Mouth dryness (MD) is usually followed by inadequate mechanical cleaning of the mouth and decrease in the levels of salivary antimicrobial proteins (including secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA)). It is accompanied by difficulties during speaking and food swallowing, with an unpleasant taste, burning sensations in the mouth and higher susceptibility to oral diseases. Low-level laser treatment (LLLT) can intensify cell metabolism and its application on salivary glands could improve salivation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of LLLT on salivation of patients suffering from MD. The study included 17 patients with MD. Their major salivary glands were treated with low intensity laser BTL2000 on 10 occasions. The whole unstimulated and stimulated saliva quantities were measured just before the 1st, after the 10th and thirty days following the last (10th) treatment. In the samples of unstimulated saliva concentrations of sIgA were estimated by using ELISA method and its quantity in the time unit was calculated. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used to assess burning and/or pain intensity at these three time points. Statistical tests revealed significant salivation improvement quantitatively and qualitatively, i.e. increase in the quantity of saliva and sIgA. VAS score was also significantly improved and no side effects were observed. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, application of LLLT to xerostomic patients’ major salivary glands stimulates them to produce more saliva with better antimicrobial characteristics and improves the difficulties that are associated with MD. This simple non-invasive method could be used in everyday clinical practice for the treatment of MD.

Coll Antropol 2010 Sep 34(3) 1039-43

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20977100

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Comparison of total oxidant/antioxidant status in unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia of newborn before and after conventional and LED phototherapy: A prospective randomized controlled trial.

Demirel G, Uras N, Celik IH, Aksoy HT, Oguz SS, Erdeve O, Erel O, Dilmen U

Zekai Tahir Burak Maternity Teaching Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. kgamze@hotmail.com

PURPOSE: We evaluated and compared the oxidant and antioxidant status of hyperbilirubinemic infants before and after the two forms of phototherapy: conventional and LED phototherapy, in order to identify the optimal treatment method. METHOD: Thirty newborns exposed to conventional (Group I) phototherapy and 30 infants exposed to LED phototherapy (Group II) were studied. The serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the total oxidant status (TOS) were assessed by EREL’s method. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in TAC or TOS levels between Group I and Group II prior to phototherapy, and no statistically significant difference in TAC levels between the two groups after phototherapy; however, TOS levels were significantly lower in Group II compared to Group I after phototherapy. Oxidative stress index (OSI) increased after conventional phototherapy (p < 0.05) CONCLUSION: The increase in TOS following conventional phototherapy was not not observed following LED phototherapy. This difference should be considered when using phototherapy.

Clin Invest Med 2010 33(5) E335-41

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20926040

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Usefulness of intravascular low-power laser illumination in preventing restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention.

Derkacz A, Protasiewicz M, Poreba R, Szuba A, Andrzejak R

Department of Internal Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland. aderkacz@chirs.am.wroc.pl

Despite the several years of studies, no factor that could reduce the restenosis rate without significant limitations has been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of low-power 808-nm laser illumination of coronary vessels after percutaneous angioplasty in preventing restenosis. The procedure of laser intravascular illumination was performed on 52 patients (laser group), and another 49 patients formed the control group. All patients were monitored for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at the 6- and 12-month follow-up points. The MACE rate after 6 and 12 months was 7.7% in the laser group at both points. The MACE rate was 14.3% and 18.5% at 6 and 12 months of follow-up in the control group, respectively (p = NS). Follow-up coronary angiography was performed after 6 months. The difference in the restenosis rate was insignificant (15.0% vs 32.4%); however, significant differences were observed in the minimal lumen diameter (2.18 +/- 0.70 vs 1.76 +/- 0.74 mm; p < 0.05), late lumen loss (0.53 +/- 0.68 vs 0.76 +/- 0.76 mm; p < 0.01), and the late lumen loss index (0.28 +/- 0.39 vs 0.46 +/- 0.43; p < 0.005) in favor of the laser group. In conclusion, the new therapy seemed effective and safe. Marked differences between late loss, late loss index, and minimal lumen diameter were observed. The late lumen loss in the laser group was only slightly greater than that in studies of drug-eluting stents, and MACE rate remained within very comparable ranges. This suggests that intravascular laser illumination could bring advantages comparable to those of drug-eluting stents without the risk of late thrombosis.

Am J Cardiol 2010 Oct 15 106(8) 1113-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20920649

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Infrared laser therapy after surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion to diminish pain and accelerate bone healing.

Abreu ME, Viegas VN, Pagnoncelli RM, de Lima EM, Farret AM, Kulczynski FZ, Farret MM

The aim of this study was to illustrate how gallium arsenite aluminum diode laser (824 nm) irradiation can reduce postsurgical edema and discomfort and accelerate sutural osseous regeneration after surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). An adult patient with an 8-mm transverse maxillary discrepancy was treated with SARPE. Infrared laser therapy was started on the 7th postoperative day, with a total of eight sessions at intervals of 48 hours. The laser probe spot had a size of 0.2827 cm2 and was positioned in contact with the following (bilateral) points: infraorbital foramen, nasal alar, nasopalatine foramen, median palatal suture at the height of the molars, and transverse palatine suture distal to the second molars. The laser was run in continuous mode with a power of 100 mW and a fluency of 1.5 J/cm2 for 20 seconds at each point. Subsequently, an absence of edema and pain was observed. Further, fast bone regeneration in the median palatal suture could be demonstrated by occlusal radiographs. These findings suggest that laser therapy can accelerate bone regeneration of the median palatal suture in patients who have undergone SARPE. World J Orthod 2010;11:273-277.

World J Orthod 2010 Fall 11(3) 273-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20877738

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Effects of the combined desensitizing dentifrice and diode laser therapy in the treatment of desensitization of teeth with gingival recession.

Dilsiz A, Aydin T, Emrem G

Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. aydilsiz@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare clinically the efficacy of desensitizer toothpaste alone and in combination with the diode laser in the management of dentin hypersensitivity (DH), as well as both the immediate and late therapeutic effects on teeth with gingival recessions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 52 teeth diagnosed with DH in 13 (seven women, six men, aged 16-48 years) healthy adult patients were included in this study, and teeth were randomly divided equally into two groups: the test group, which received treatment with desensitizer toothpaste and GaAlAs (diode) laser, and the control group, treated with desensitizer toothpaste. DH was assessed by means of an air stimulus, and a visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure DH. The selected teeth in the test group received laser therapy for three sessions. Teeth subjected to diode-laser treatment were irradiated at 100 mW for 25 sec at 808 nm, with continuous-emission, noncontact mode, perpendicular to the surface, with scanning movements on the region of exposed root surfaces. RESULTS: Significant reduction of DH occurred at all times measured during the three treatment sessions in the test group. When compared with the means of the responses in the three treatment sessions of the two groups, the test group showed a higher degree of desensitization in teeth with gingival recession than did the control group (p < 0.001). The immediate and late therapeutic effects of the diode laser were more evident compared with those of desensitizer toothpaste. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, a significant effect of combined desensitizer toothpaste and diode laser therapy occurs in the treatment of desensitization of teeth with gingival recession. Desensitizer toothpaste appears to have the therapeutic potential to alleviate DH. Conversely, diode laser can be used to reduce DH.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28 Suppl 2 S69-74

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20863237

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Combined photodynamic and low-level laser therapies as an adjunct to nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis.

Lui J, Corbet EF, Jin L

Faculty of Dentistry, Periodontology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background and Objective: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of dental lasers for treatment of periodontal diseases. The purpose of this short-term clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of a combination of photodynamic therapy with low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis. Material and Methods: Twenty-four nonsmoking adults with untreated chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned in a split-mouth design to receive scaling and root debridement with or without one course of adjunctive photodynamic therapy and low-level laser therapy within 5 d. Plaque, bleeding on probing, probing depth and gingival recession were recorded at baseline, 1 and 3 mo after the treatment. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected for assay of interleukin-1beta levels at baseline, 1 wk and 1 mo. Results: The test teeth achieved greater reductions in the percentage of sites with bleeding on probing and in mean probing depth at 1 mo compared with the control teeth (p < 0.05). A significant decrease in gingival crevicular fluid volume was observed in both groups at 1 wk (p < 0.001), with a further decrease at 1 mo in the test sites (p < 0.05). The test sites showed a greater reduction of interleukin-1beta levels in gingival crevicular fluid at 1 wk than the control sites (p < 0.05). No significant differences in periodontal parameters were found between the test and control teeth at 3 mo. Conclusions: The present study suggests that a combined course of photodynamic therapy with low-level laser therapy could be a beneficial adjunct to nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis on a short-term basis. Further studies are required to assess the long-term effectiveness of the combination of photodynamic therapy with low-level laser therapy as an adjunct in nonsurgical treatment of periodontitis.

J Periodontal Res 2010 Sep 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20860592

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Low-level laser therapy on hands of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Meireles SM, Jones A, Natour J

Rheumatology Rehabilitation Section, Rheumatology Division, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Clin Rheumatol 2010 Oct 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20972593

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Low-Level Laser Therapy Reduces Delayed Hypersensitivity Reaction to Ovalbumin in Balb/C Mice.

de Oliveira RG, Aarestrup FM, Miranda C, Vieira BJ, Ferreira AP, Andrade LC

1 Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, SUPREMA, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil.

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in an experimental model of delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DTH). LLLT has been used clinically to treat numerous diseases and has been tested in different experimental models, but some of its effects have yet to be explained. We assessed the effects of LLLT on DTH to ovalbumin (OVA), a protein that has commonly been used as an antigen to sensitize laboratory animals. This experimental model is broadly used to assess the effects of substances that can potentially modulate the immune system and inflammatory reactions. Balb/C mice were randomly divided into four groups: (I) immunized, untreated, and challenged (n = 6); (II) not immunized, untreated, and challenged (n = 6); (III) immunized, treated with azathioprine (AZA), and challenged (n = 6); and (IV) immunized, treated with LLLT, and challenged (n = 6). Forty-eight hours after the challenge, the animals were submitted to a paw edema test and euthanized for histopathology analysis of their plantar pads. The results obtained in DTH units were as follows: Group I, 19.6 +/- 8.9; Group II, 5.8 +/- 2.6; Group III, 5.6 +/- 2.5; and Group IV, 5.2 +/- 2.6. DTH was less intense for the groups treated with AZA and laser compared with Group I (p < 0.05). We observed no statistical difference between the AZA- and LLLT-treated groups. The slides obtained from the footpad specimens showed that AZA and laser acted similarly on the normal pattern of DTH triggering. Our results suggest that treatment with LLLT has an immunomodulatory effect on DTH to OVA.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20969445

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

POSSIBLE ROLE OF LOW LEVEL LASER THERAPY ON BONE TURNOVER IN OVARIECTOMIZED RATS.

Saad A, Yamany ME, Abbas O, Yehia, M

Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats.
Methods. Thirty adult female albino rats were divided into three groups; Group 1: 10 sham- operated control rats; Group 2: 10 bilaterally ovariectomized rats (OVX); Group 3: 10 OVX rats exposed to LLLT. LLLT was applied on the neck and shaft of femur, five times per week for 8 weeks. The dose applied on each point was 1000 Hertz, 5 Watts for 30 seconds with a total dose of 15 mJoule/cm2. At the end of experiment, blood samples were collected and sera were separated for determination of serum calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (Pi), osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, a 24 hour urine sample was also collected from each rat for the determination of urinary calcium, phosphorous and deoxypyridinoline (U-DPD)/creatinine. Results. Significant increase in serum Ca, Pi , ALP, osteocalcin and significant decrease in U-DPD/creatinine in LLLT exposed group was found as compared to the other two groups. Bone morphological findings revealed the increase in calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase of femoral bones in LLLT exposed group as compared to sham-operated and OVX rats. The software image analysis showed increased osteoblast numbers, decreased osteoclast numbers and increased compact bone thickness in LLLT exposed group. Significant positive correlations was obtained between osteoblast numbers and serum Ca , Pi, ALP and osteocalcin in LLLT exposed group ,while a significant negative correlation was noticed with U-DPD. Conclusion. The use of LLLT was found effective in enhancing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption in the osteoporotic OVX rats. Further studies are necessary to investigate the effect of different parameters of LLLT as wave length, duration and also numbers of sessions. The potential use of LLLT in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis is needed to be verified. Keywords: Ovariectomy – Laser – Calcium – Phosphorus – Alkaline phosphatase – Osteocalcin – Osteoporosis.

Endocr Regul 2010 44(4) 155-163

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21077725

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

[Muscle regeneration and the state of the thymus in adult rats under laser irradiation and alloplasty of newborn gastrocnemius muscle and diaphragm].

The regeneration of gastrocnemius muscles of adult rats under implantation conditions in areas of muscle tissue damage in newborn rats has been studied. Alloplasty was performed using minced gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles, which differs at birth in animals by degree of differentiation. The rat-recipient area of alloplasty was subjected to He-Ne laser radiation before operation, with the aim of reducing the immune response to allogenic muscle tissue. It has been shown that the number of regenerating myofibers produced in implanted gastrocnemius muscles is more than in alloplants from diaphragms. However, the formation of cartilage, bone, and adipose tissue foci were observed in the alloplastic region throughout the whole regeneration period. After implantation of minced diaphragm muscles, cartilage nodes were observed only in 7-day regenerates. At the end of observation, in the first instance, the area of muscle trauma in adult rat muscles was replaced by adipose tissue, even in the case of initial laser irradiation. During the implantation of diaphragm muscles, the area of trauma was filled with regenerating muscle tissue.

Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol 2010 Sep-Oct (5) 535-46

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21077362

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Identification of source of calcium in HeLa cells by femtosecond laser excitation.

He H, Kong SK, Chan KT

Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Electronic Engineering, Hong Kong.

Calcium is an important messenger in cells and whose store and diffusion dynamics at the subcellular level remain unclear. By inducing a controlled slow subcellular Ca(2+) release through femtosecond laser irradiation in HeLa cells immersed in different media, cytoplasm is identified to be the major intracellular Ca(2+) store, with the nucleus being the minor store and the extracellular Ca(2+) also contributing to the total cellular Ca(2+) level. Furthermore, Ca(2+) released in either the cytoplasm or nucleus diffuses into the nucleus or cytoplasm, respectively, at different rates and influences the Ca(2+) release in those regions.

J Biomed Opt 2010 Sep-Oct 15(5) 057010

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21054126

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Effects of low-level laser therapy on expression of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta in skeletal muscle during the repair process.

Mesquita-Ferrari RA, Martins MD, Silva JA Jr, da Silva TD, Piovesan RF, Pavesi VC, Bussadori SK, Fernandes KP

Departamento de Pos Graduacao, Mestrado em Ciencias da Reabilitacao, Universidade Nove de Julho – UNINOVE, Av. Francisco Matarazzo, 612, Agua Branca, CEP 05001-100, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, raquel.mesquita@gmail.com.

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the expression of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta in the tibialis anterior muscle of rats following cryoinjury. Muscle regeneration involves cell proliferation, migration and differentiation and is regulated by growth factors and cytokines. A growing body of evidence suggests that LLLT promotes skeletal muscle regeneration by reducing the duration of acute inflammation and accelerating tissue repair. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 35) were randomly divided into three groups: control group (no lesion, untreated, n = 5), cryoinjury without LLLT group (n = 15), and cryoinjury with LLLT group (n = 15). The injured region was irradiated three times a week using an AlGaInP laser (660 nm; beam spot 0.04 cm(2), output power 20 mW, power density 500 mW/cm(2), energy density 5 J/cm(2), exposure time 10 s). Muscle remodeling was evaluated at 1, 7 and 14 days (long-term) following injury. The muscles were removed and total RNA was isolated using TRIzol reagent and cDNA synthesis. Real-time polymerase chain reactions were performed using TNF-alpha and TGF-beta primers; GAPDH was used to normalize the data. LLLT caused a decrease in TNF-alpha mRNA expression at 1 and 7 days following injury and in TGF-beta mRNA expression at 7 days following cryoinjury in comparison to the control group. LLLT modulated cytokine expression during short-term muscle remodeling, inducing a decrease in TNF-alpha and TGF-beta.

Lasers Med Sci 2010 Nov 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21053039

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

A novel laser vaccine adjuvant increases the motility of antigen presenting cells.

Chen X, Kim P, Farinelli B, Doukas A, Yun SH, Gelfand JA, Anderson RR, Wu MX

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

BACKGROUND: Development of a potent vaccine adjuvant without introduction of any side effects remains an unmet challenge in the field of the vaccine research. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that laser at a specific setting increased the motility of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and immune responses, with few local or systemic side effects. This laser vaccine adjuvant (LVA) effect was induced by brief illumination of a small area of the skin or muscle with a nondestructive, 532 nm green laser prior to intradermal (i.d.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration of vaccines at the site of laser illumination. The pre-illumination accelerated the motility of APCs as shown by intravital confocal microscopy, leading to sufficient antigen (Ag)-uptake at the site of vaccine injection and transportation of the Ag-captured APCs to the draining lymph nodes. As a result, the number of Ag(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in draining lymph nodes was significantly higher in both the 1 degrees and 2 degrees draining lymph nodes in the presence than in the absence of LVA. Laser-mediated increases in the motility and lymphatic transportation of APCs augmented significantly humoral immune responses directed against a model vaccine ovalbumin (OVA) or influenza vaccine i.d. injected in both primary and booster vaccinations as compared to the vaccine itself. Strikingly, when the laser was delivered by a hair-like diffusing optical fiber into muscle, laser illumination greatly boosted not only humoral but also cell-mediated immune responses provoked by i.m. immunization with OVA relative to OVA alone. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate the ability of this safe LVA to augment both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In comparison with all current vaccine adjuvants that are either chemical compounds or biological agents, LVA is novel in both its form and mechanism; it is risk-free and has distinct advantages over traditional vaccine adjuvants.

PLoS One 2010 5(10) e13776

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21048884

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Metrical and histological investigation of the effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement.

Altan BA, Sokucu O, Ozkut MM, Inan S

Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cumhuriyet University, 58140, Sivas, Turkey, burcuk12@yahoo.com.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 820-nm diode laser on osteoclastic and osteoblastic cell proliferation-activity and RANKL/OPG release during orthodontic tooth movement. Thirty-eight albino Wistar rats were used for this experiment. Maxillary incisors of the subjects were moved orthodontically by a helical spring with force of 20 g. An 820-nm Ga-Al-As diode laser with an output power of 100 mW and a fiber probe with spot size of 2 mm in diameter were used for laser treatment and irradiations were performed on 5 points at the distal side of the tooth root on the first, second, and 3rd days of the experiment. Total laser energy of 54 J (100 mW, 3.18 W/cm(2), 1717.2 J/cm(2)) was applied to group II and a total of 15 J (100 mW, 3.18 W/cm(2), 477 J/cm(2)) to group III. The experiment lasted for 8 days. The number of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, inflammatory cells and capillaries, and new bone formation were evaluated histologically. Besides immunohistochemical staining of PCNA, RANKL and OPG were also performed. No statistical difference was found for the amount of tooth movement in between the control and study groups (p > 0.05). The number of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, inflammatory cells, capillary vascularization, and new bone formation were found to be increased significantly in group II (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining findings showed that RANKL immunoreactivity was stronger in group II than in the other groups. As to OPG immunoreactivity, no difference was found between the groups. Immunohistochemical parameters were higher in group III than in group I, while both were lower than group II. On the basis of these findings, low-level laser irradiation accelerates the bone remodeling process by stimulating osteoblastic and osteoclastic cell proliferation and function during orthodontic tooth movement.

Lasers Med Sci 2010 Oct 31

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21038101

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

[Efficacy and safety evaluation of systemic red light therapy for burn wound repair].

Liu J, Fang Q, Zheng J, Dou Y, Zhang Q, Liao Z, Lin C, Xu J

Burn Center, Ruijin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025, China. jennetrj@hotmail.com

OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of systemic red light therapy on wound repair of burned patients and discuss its possible mechanisms of wound healing promotion. METHODS: 138 burned patients were randomly divided into systemic red light treatment group (n = 69) and control group (n = 69). Patients in control group received routine therapy, while those in test group were given systemic red light therapy once a day, 30 minutes at a time until the wounds were recovered. The clinical findings and variables indicating wound repair were assessed on the 7th, 10th, 14th day, 21st day post-burn and the day when the wounds were healed. RESULTS: Mean time of wound recovery were 19.86 +/- 2.43 days and 21.02 +/- 2.97 days respectively of those deep-thickness wounds in test group and control group, with statistically significance (P < 0.05). For the severity of the pain, VAS during time of dressing change on the 10th, 14th day post burn was lower in test group than that in control group which indicated less painful in test group (P < 0.05), suggesting pain relief effect of systemic red light therapy. CONCLUSION: Systemic red light therapy was effective to promote wound healing of deep-thickness burn wounds and other similar acute wounds. Simultaneously, it is efficacious in pain relief and safe for those patients.

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2010 Jul 34(4) 293-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21033120

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Controversy: is there a role for adjuvants in the management of male pattern hair loss?

Rajput RJ

R R Institute, 201-A, Gasper Enclave, Ambedkar Road, Pali Hill Market, Bandra (W), Mumbai 400050, India.

Patients with hair loss are seeking treatment at a younger age and during earlier stages. Not all need hair transplants. Because of the lack of assured management and the fear of side-effects, patients are turning to ineffective alternative remedies from self-claimed experts. In this report, we discuss the available treatment options and how best they can be used in combination to produce satisfactory results. The traditional approach consists of administration of drugs such as minoxidil and finasteride. We propose a hypothesis that nutritional supplements, 2% ketoconazole shampoo and low-level laser therapy along with finasteride 1 mg used once in 3 days with 2% minoxidil used everyday, given in a cyclical medicine program may be useful to manage hair loss and achieve new hair growth. The scientific rationale for such an approach is explained. The need for further studies to establish the efficacy of the regime is stressed upon.

J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2010 May 3(2) 82-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21031065

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

The reactive oxygen species-Src-Stat3 pathway provokes negative feedback inhibition of apoptosis induced by high-fluence low-power laser irradiation.

Sun X, Wu S, Xing D

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science & Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

High-fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) can induce apoptosis by triggering mitochondrial oxidative stress. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is an important transcription factor in the modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, using real-time single-cell analysis and western blotting analysis, we investigated the changes in activities of Stat3 in COS-7 cells upon HF-LPLI (633 nm, 80 and 120 J.cm(-2)) and the underlying mechanisms involved. We found that Stat3 was significantly activated by HF-LPLI in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Stat3 activation attenuated HF-LPLI-induced apoptosis, as shown by the fact that both dominant negative Stat3 (Y705F) and Stat3 small interfering RNA expression enhanced cellular apoptosis induced by HF-LPLI. Moreover, we also found that Src kinase was the major positive regulator of Stat3 activation induced by HF-LPLI. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was essential for Stat3 and Src activation upon HF-LPLI, because scavenging of ROS by vitamin C or N-acetylcysteine totally abrogated the activation of Stat3 and Src. Taken together, these findings show that the ROS-Src-Stat3 pathway mediates a negative feedback inhibition of apoptosis induced by HF-LPLI in COS-7 cells. Our research will provide new insights into the mechanism of apoptosis caused by HF-LPLI, and also extend the functional study of Stat3.

FEBS J 2010 Nov 277(22) 4789-802

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20977672

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Effects of 660 and 780 nm low-level laser therapy on neuromuscular recovery after crush injury in rat sciatic nerve.

Gigo-Benato D, Russo TL, Tanaka EH, Assis L, Salvini TF, Parizotto NA

Thermophototherapy Unit, Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP13565-905, Brazil. benatodavilene@yahoo.com.br

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Post-traumatic nerve repair is still a challenge for rehabilitation. It is particularly important to develop clinical protocols to enhance nerve regeneration. The present study investigated the effects of 660 and 780 nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) using different energy densities (10, 60, and 120 J/cm(2)) on neuromuscular and functional recovery as well as on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity after crush injury in rat sciatic nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats received transcutaneous LLLT irradiation at the lesion site for 10 consecutive days post-injury and were sacrificed 28 days after injury. Both the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscles were analyzed. Nerve analyses consisted of histology (light microscopy) and measurements of myelin, axon, and nerve fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). S-100 labeling was used to identify myelin sheath and Schwann cells. Muscle fiber CSA and zymography were carried out to assess the degree of muscle atrophy and MMP activity, respectively. Statistical significance was set at 5% (P

Lasers Surg Med 2010 Nov 42(9) 673-82

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20976807

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Low-level laser therapy for protection against skeletal muscle damage after ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat hindlimbs.

Lakyova L, Toporcer T, Tomeckova V, Sabo J, Radonak J

Faculty of Medicine, 1st Department of Surgery, Pavol Jozef Soafarik University in Kosoice, Kosoice 040 11, Slovak Republic. lalucka@gmail.com

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous hypotheses regarding the action of laser light, the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury is still being verified. The present study investigates the effects of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on I/R injury of the musculus gracilis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: I/R injury of the musculus gracilis flap was induced in male adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 84). Rats were subdivided depending on treatment into four subgroups: (1) healthy group, (2) I/R injury without irradiation, (3) R group irradiated only during reperfusion after injury, and (4) IR group irradiated during ischemia and reperfusion injury. LLLT (AlGaInP; lambda = 670 nm; 4 J/cm(2); 40 mW/cm(2)) was applied to the injured muscle four times daily until euthanasia. RESULTS: Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the irradiated groups during the first 12-120 hours, while the lower creatine kinase (CK) level reached statistical significance only at 24 hours in the irradiated group when compared to the control group. The number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the gracilis muscle was significantly lower in the treated group only on the second day (P<0.0001). The lowered percentage of necrosis in the muscle tissue was statistically significant after 6 and 10 days of treatment (P<0.0001), while lower atrophy and higher neovascularization were observed at 6-14 days of irradiation (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the group irradiated only during reperfusion and that irradiated during ischemia and reperfusion. CONCLUSION: LLLT confers a protective effect against early inflammatory tissue response, further atrophy, and necrosis of the muscle and it stimulates neovascularization after I/R injury.

Lasers Surg Med 2010 Nov 42(9) 665-72

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20976806

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Laser photobiostimulation of wound healing: defining a dose response for splinted wounds in diabetic mice.

Chung TY, Peplow PV, Baxter GD

Department of Anatomy & Structural Biology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We have used a 660 nm, 80 mW laser diode in genetic diabetic mice to stimulate the healing of wounds covered with a Tegaderm HP dressing that causes a retardation of contraction (splinted wounds). The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of irradiating the wounds for different time intervals in order to determine a dose response relationship. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A circular excisional wound was made on the left flank of diabetic mice using a 5-mm skin punch, and covered with a Tegaderm HP dressing. Mice were allocated to four groups in which wounds were irradiated 660 nm, 80 mW for 0, 10, 20, or 40 seconds each day for 7 days. In total, 51 mice were used. Wounds were harvested on day 14 and the healing assessed from hematoxylin-eosin stained sections examined by light microscopy. RESULTS: The wounds were splinted in 40 of the mice, and splinting caused a retardation of healing. The findings for the four treatments showed that irradiation for 20 second/day for 7 days brought about the greatest extent of healing. The wounds healed mainly by re-epithelization and granulation tissue formation. This duration of irradiation represents an energy dose of 1.6 J per irradiation and, for an estimated area of irradiation of 32-43 mm(2), corresponds to an energy density of 3.7-5.0 J/cm(2). CONCLUSION: Irradiation with 660 nm, 80 mW at an energy density of 3.7-5.0 J/cm(2) each day for 7 days caused the maximal stimulation of healing in splinted wounds of diabetic mice.

Lasers Surg Med 2010 Nov 42(9) 656-64

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20976805

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Does Low-Level Laser Therapy Have an Antianesthetic Effect? A Review.

Aras MH, Omezli MM, Gungormus M

1 Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Gaziantep University , Gaziantep, Turkey .

Abstract Because local anesthetics are vasodilators, they tend to be absorbed into the bloodstream from the operative field as a result of the vasodilation of peripheral arterioles. To counteract this vasodilation, vasoconstrictive agents are often included in local anesthetic solutions to provide a longer duration of anesthesia. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has the same benefits, such as microcirculation activation and more-efficient tissue metabolism, analgesic effects, and vasodilatation. If LLLT is used to prevent pain postoperatively, improvements in local circulation and increased vasodilatation may increase the absorption of a local anesthetic agent. This may reduce the duration of the anesthesia, thereby allowing postoperative pain management to begin sooner. The maximal intensity of pain occurs during the first hours after surgery, when the local anesthetic has worn off. Theoretically, postoperative pain control can be increased with the use of a local anesthetic with a more-prolonged action. If a treatment method has both analgesic and antianesthetic effects, then the method may block its own effects. We review whether LLLT applied postoperatively to operated-on areas has an antianesthetic effect, that is, whether pain in the first hours after surgery was greater for patients who received LLLT than for control patients. Not too much evidence supports the antianesthetic effects of LLLT. However, additional experimental and clinical studies must be performed to investigate the effects of LLLT on the duration of anesthesia.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20973738

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

[Hemodynamic changes of pregnant rats with pre-eclampsia after treatment with low-energy laser irradiation of the chest].

Sun L, Liu P, Quan S

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. sunli.gz_1980@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVE: To observe the hemodynamic changes and liver and kidney function variations in pregnant rats with pre-eclampsia after treatment with low-energy laser irradiation. METHODS: Forty pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into the experimental group (group A), experimental control group (group B), blank control group (group C) and blank exposure group (group D) (n=10). The rats in groups A and B were injected with 1 microg/kg endotoxin via the tail vein at the 14th day of gestation, and those in groups C and D received normal saline injections. In groups A and B, low-energy laser irradiation of the chest was carried out since day 16 of gestation. Blood pressure, urine protein, liver and kidney function and the hemodynamic changes in the rats were observed. RESULTS: After the treatment, blood pressure, urine protein, ALT, BUN and Cr of group A were lower than those of group B (P<0.05), but similar with those in groups C and D (P>0.05). The blood and plasma viscosity and hematocrit of group A were also lower than those of group B (P<0.01), but comparable with those in groups C and D. CONCLUSION: Low-energy laser irradiation in the chest area may improve the hemodynamic indices, decrease blood pressure and urine protein, and ameliorate liver and kidney functions in pregnant rats with pre-eclampsia.

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2010 Oct 30(10) 2259-62

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20965819

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Photomedicine and LLLT literature watch.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28(5) 711-2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20961236

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Long-term safety of single and multiple infrared transcranial laser treatments in Sprague-Dawley rats.

McCarthy TJ, De Taboada L, Hildebrandt PK, Ziemer EL, Richieri SP, Streeter J

PhotoThera, Inc., 5925 Priestly Drive, Suite 120, Carlsbad, California, USA. tmccarthy@photothera.com

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Growing interest exists in the use of near-infrared laser therapies for the treatment of numerous neurologic conditions, including acute ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. In consideration of these trends, the objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety of transcranial laser therapy with continuous-wave (CW) near-infrared laser light (wavelength, 808 +/- 10 nm, 2-mm diameter) with a nominal radiant power of 70 mW; power density, 2,230 mW/cm(2), and energy density, 268 J/cm(2) at the scalp (10 mW/cm(2) and 1.2 J/cm(2) at the cerebral cortical surface) in healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 120 anesthetized rats received sequential transcranial laser treatments to the right and left parietal areas of the head on the same day (minimum of 5 min between irradiation of each side), on either Day 1 or on each of Days 1, 3, and 5. Sixty anesthetized rats served as sham controls. Rats were evaluated 1 year after treatment for abnormalities in clinical hematology and brain and pituitary gland histopathology. RESULTS: No toxicologically important differences were found in the clinical hematology results between sham-control and laser-treated rats for any hematologic parameters examined. All values fell within historic control reference ranges for aged Sprague-Dawley rats. Similarly, brain and pituitary gland histopathology showed no treatment-related abnormalities or induced neoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Single and multiple applications of transcranial laser therapy with 808-nm CW laser light at a nominal power density of 10 mW/cm(2) at the surface of the cerebral cortex appears to be safe in Sprague-Dawley rats 1 year after treatment.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28(5) 663-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20961232

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

A combination of 670 nm and 810 nm diode lasers for wound healing acceleration in diabetic rats.

Jahangiri Noudeh Y, Shabani M, Vatankhah N, Hashemian SJ, Akbari K

Medical Students Research Committee, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. y.jahangiri@gmail.com

OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of the combination of 670 nm and 810 nm diode lasers on diabetic wound healing parameters in rats. BACKGROUND: An alternative to traditional treatment modalities for diabetic ulcers is low-level laser therapy (LLLT). A number of published studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of LLLT, although several other studies also exist which indicate results to the contrary. METHODS: Four groups were present in our study: Diabetic-laser (n = 5), Diabetic-control (n = 4), Nondiabetic-laser (n = 5) and Nondiabetic-control (n = 5) groups. Two intervention (laser) groups underwent low level laser therapy using 670 nm diode laser (500 mW, 10 J, 48 s) in the wound context, and 810 nm diode laser (250 mW, 12 J, 50 s) to the wound margins. The wound area was measured using computer software after digital microscopic photography on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, and 24. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups in the wound area, percentage of open wound area, and wound healing rate throughout the repeated measurements of the study. After seven days of low level laser therapy in the non-diabetic group, urine excretion was significantly increased in comparison with the control group. CONCLUSION: Overall, our study showed results of measured wound healing parameters that were not significantly different in the LLLT group compared with the control group. The urine volume increase in non-diabetic rats after LLLT was an incidental observation that warrants future study.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28(5) 621-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20961229

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Polarized light (lambda400-2000 nm) on third-degree burns in diabetic rats: immunohistochemical study.

Oliveira PC, Pinheiro AL, Reis Junior JA, de Castro IC, Gurgel C, Noia MP, Meireles GC, Cangussu MC, Ramalho LM

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil.

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate with light microscopy the healing process of third-degree burns on diabetic rats treated with polarized light (lambda400-2000 nm, 20 or 40 J/cm(2)/session, 40 mW/cm(2), 2.4 J/cm(2)/min, 5.5-cm beam diameter). BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus causes severe disruption of the body’s metabolism, including healing. Polarized light sources have been shown to be effective in improving healing in many situations. ANIMALS AND METHODS: Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) in 45 male Wistar albino rats, and a third-degree burn (1.5 by 1.5 cm) was created on the dorsum of each animal under general anesthesia. The animals were randomly distributed into three groups: control, 20 J/cm(2), and 40 J/cm(2). Each group was then divided into three subgroups based on time of death (7, 14, 21 d). Phototherapy (20 or 40 J/cm(2) per session) was carried out immediately after the burning and repeated daily until the day before death. Following animal death, specimens were removed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) or Sirius Red or immunomarked with CK AE1/AE3 antibody. Qualitative and semiquantitative analyses were performed under light microscopy. The results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The animals treated with 20 J/cm(2) showed significant differences with regard to revascularization and re-epithelialization. Although the 40 J/cm(2) group showed stimulation of fibroblastic proliferation as an isolated feature, no other difference from the control was observed. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the use of polarized light at 20 J/cm(2) effectively improves the healing of third-degree burns on diabetic animals at both early and late stages of repair.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28(5) 613-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20961228

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Comparative study of the effects of gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser photobiomodulation and healing oil on skin wounds in wistar rats: a histomorphometric study.

Goncalves RV, Novaes RD, Matta SL, Benevides GP, Faria FR, Pinto MV

Laboratory of Structural Biology, Department of General Biology, Federal University of Vicosa, MG, Brazil. reggysvilela@yahoo.com.br

OBJECTIVE: The present study compared the effects of gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser and healing oil on fibroblasts, blood vessels, and collagen maturation of skin wounds in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four male rats weighing 325 +/- 27 g were used. Five wounds, 12 mm in diameter, were made on the animals’ backs. The rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Control group: saline solution; L30 group: 30 J/cm(2) laser; L60 group: 60 J/cm(2) laser; Oil group: healing oil. Histomorphometric analysis was performed on the scar tissue removed from the different wounds every 4 d for 20 d. RESULTS: On day 4, there were significantly more fibroblasts in the wounds treated with the laser and the healing oil compared to the controls. On day 8, there were significantly more fibroblasts in the oil group compared to the L30 and L60 groups. On the same day, the quantity of vessels was significantly greater in the L60 group compared to the other groups. On day 16, there was a significant increase in the number of blood vessels in the wounds treated with the 60 J/cm(2) laser compared to the other groups. Analysis of the collagen maturation index throughout the experiment showed significantly higher values in the L60 group compared to the other groups at all time points. CONCLUSION: The healing oil exerted a greater effect on fibroblast proliferation, whereas the 60 J/cm(2) laser was more effective in stimulating angiogenesis and scar-tissue maturation.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28(5) 597-602

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20961227

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Abstracts of Laser Florence 2010, 24th International Congress of Laser Medicine. November 5-6, 2010. Florence, Italy.

Lasers Med Sci 2010 Nov 25(Suppl 1) S18-55

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20936398

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Low-level laser therapy for neck pain.

Peres MF

Cephalalgia 2010 Nov 30(11) 1408

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20959437

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Different brain network activations induced by modulation and nonmodulation laser acupuncture.

Hsieh CW, Wu JH, Hsieh CH, Wang QF, Chen JH

Department of Photonic and Communication Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan.

The aim of this study is to compare the distinct cerebral activation with continued wave (CW) and 10 Hz-modulated wave (MW) stimulation during low-level laser acupuncture. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies were performed to investigate the possible mechanism during laser acupuncture stimulation at the left foot’s yongquan (K1) acupoint. There are 12 healthy right-handed volunteers for each type of laser stimulation (10-Hz-Modulated wave: 8 males and 4 females; continued wave: 9 males and 3 females). The analysis of multisubjects in this experiment was applied by random-effect (RFX) analysis. In CW groups, significant activations were found within the inferior parietal lobule, the primary somatosensory cortex, and the precuneus of left parietal lobe. Medial and superior frontal gyrus of left frontal lobe were also aroused. In MW groups, significant activations were found within the primary motor cortex and middle temporal gyrus of left hemisphere and bilateral cuneus. Placebo stimulation did not show any activation. Most activation areas were involved in the functions of memory, attention, and self-consciousness. The results showed the cerebral hemodynamic responses of two laser acupuncture stimulation modes and implied that its mechanism was not only based upon afferent sensory information processing, but that it also had the hemodynamic property altered during external stimulation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011 2011

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20953400

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Comparison of the effects of electrical field stimulation and low-level laser therapy on bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats.

Medalha CC, Amorim BO, Ferreira JM, Oliveira P, Pereira RM, Tim C, Lirani-Galvao AP, da Silva OL, Renno AC

Department of Bioscience, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Santos, SP, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and electrical stimulation (ES) on bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard control group (CG); spinal cord-injured control (SC); spinal cord-injured treated with laser (SCL; GaAlAs, 830 nm, CW, 30 mW/cm, 250 J/cm(2)); and spinal cord-injured treated with electrical field stimulation (SCE; 1.5 MHz, 1:4 duty cycles, 30 mW, 20 min). Biomechanical, densitometric, and morphometric analyses were performed. RESULTS: SC rats showed a significant decrease in bone mass, biomechanical properties, and morphometric parameters (versus CG). SCE rats showed significantly higher values of inner diameter and internal and external areas of tibia diaphyses; and the SCL group showed a trend toward the same result (versus SC). No increase was found in either mechanical or densitometric parameters. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the mentioned treatments were able to initiate a positive bone-tissue response, maybe through stimulation of osteoblasts, which was able to determine the observed morphometric modifications. However, the evoked tissue response could not determine either biomechanical or densitometric modifications.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28(5) 669-74

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20939678

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Laser-Modulation of Heat and Capsaicin Receptor TRPV1 Leads to Thermal Antinociception.

Ryu JJ, Yoo S, Kim KY, Park JS, Bang S, Lee SH, Yang TJ, Cho H, Hwang SW

Er,Cr:YSGG lasers are used clinically in dentistry. The advantages of laser therapy include minimal thermal damage and the alleviation of pain. This study examined whether the Er,Cr:YSGG laser has in vivo and in vitro antinociceptive effects in itself. In capsaicin-evoked acute licking/shaking tests and Hargreaves tests, laser irradiation with an aerated water spray suppressed nociceptive behavior in mice. Laser irradiation attenuated TRPV1 activation by capsaicin in Ca(2+) imaging experiments with TRPV1-overexpressing cells and cultured trigeminal neurons. Therefore, the laser-induced behavioral changes are probably due to the loss of TRPV1 activity. TRPV4 activity was also attenuated, but limited mechanical antinociception by the laser was observed. The laser failed to alter the other receptor functions, which indicates that the antinociceptive effect of the laser is dependent on TRPV1. These results suggest that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser has analgesic effects via TRPV1 inhibition. Such mechanistic approaches may help define the laser-sensitive pain modality and increase its beneficial uses.

J Dent Res 2010 Oct 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20935279

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Low-level laser intensity application in masseter muscle for treatment purposes.

Rizzi EC, Issa JP, Dias FJ, Leao JC, Regalo SC, Siessere S, Watanabe IS, Iyomasa MM

Department of Morphology, Stomatology and Physiology, Ribeirao Preto School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated with histochemical analysis how the number of laser applications can affect the masseter muscle. BACKGROUND: In dentistry today, the laser is used in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), mainly for radiating pain in the masticatory muscles, whose origins may be associated with malocclusion, although the laser effects are not well understood on the cellular level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty mice (HRS/J lineage) were randomly distributed into groups according to the number of laser applications (three, six, and 10). For each group of laser applications (experimental, n = 5), it was considered the control group (n = 5), which was not irradiated. All animals inhaled halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1, 1, 1-trifluoroethane, minimum 99%, Sigma Aldrich, India) before each laser irradiation performed on the left masseter muscle region, on alternate days with 20 J/cm(2), 40 mW, for 20 sec. The muscle samples were collected for histochemical analysis with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme 72 h after the last application. RESULTS: (a) A decrease in area of light fibers type (35.91% +/- 6.9%; 32.08% +/- 6.3%, and 27.88% +/- 6.3%), according to the increase of laser applications (p < 0.05); (b) significant increase (p < 0.05) in the area of intermediate fibers, with an increase of laser application (11.08% +/- 3.9%; 16.52% +/- 5.7%, and 15.96% +/- 3.9%), although the increase with 10 applications was small; (c) area increase of dark fibers in the group with three laser applications (0.16% +/- 0.3%) (p < 0.05), and in groups with six and 10 laser applications, respectively (9.68% +/- 6.0% and 9.60% +/- 4.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The SDH enzyme activity revealed that the number of laser applications increases the metabolic pattern of the muscle fibers. A minimal difference in metabolic activity between six and 10 applications of a laser suggests that further analyses should be done to confirm that six applications are enough to produce the same clinical effects, thereby contributing data to professionals from different fields in regard to the cost-benefit ratio of this therapy.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28 Suppl 2 S31-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20932186

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Effect of laser (670 nm) on healing of wounds covered with occlusive dressing: a histologic and biomechanical analysis.

de Oliveira Guirro EC, de Lima Montebelo MI, de Almeida Bortot B, da Costa Betito Torres MA, Polacow ML

Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor System, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. ecguirro@fmrp.usp.br

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), 670 nm, with doses of 4 and 7 J/cm(2), on the repair of surgical wounds covered by occlusive dressings. Background Data: The effect of LLLT on the healing process of covered wounds is not well defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the histologic analysis with HE staining, 50 male Wistar rats were submitted to surgical incisions and divided into 10 groups (n = 5): control; stimulated with 4 and 7 J/cm(2) daily, for 7 and 14 days, with or without occlusion. Reepithelization and the number of leukocytes, fibroblasts, and fibrocytes were obtained with an image processor. For the biomechanical analysis, 25 rats were submitted to a surgical incision and divided into five groups (n = 5): treated for 14 days with and without occlusive dressing, and the sham group. Samples of the lesions were collected and submitted to the tensile test. One-way analysis of variance was performed, followed by post hoc analysis. A Tukey test was used on the biomechanical data, and the Tamhane test on the histologic data. A significance level of 5% was chosen (p

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28(5) 629-34

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20932185

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Influence of laser (lambda670 nm) and dexamethasone on the chronology of cutaneous repair.

Marchionni AM, Medrado AP, Silva TM, Fracassi LD, Pinheiro AL, Reis SR

Laser Center, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effect of LLLT associated with and without dexamethasone on inflammation and wound healing in cutaneous surgical wounds. Background: Limited studies are directed at the possible interference of laser photobiomodulation on the formation of myofibroblasts, associated with an antiinflammatory drug. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Standard skin wounds were performed on 80 Wistar rats, distributed into four groups: no treatment (sham group), laser only (lambda670 nm, 9 mW, 0.031 W/cm(2), 4 J/cm(2), single dose after surgery), dexamethasone only (2 mg/kg 1 h before surgery), and laser with dexamethasone. Tissue was examined histologically to evaluate edema, presence of polymorphonuclear, mononuclear cells, and collagen. The analysis of myofibroblasts was assessed by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. The intensity was rated semiquantitatively. RESULTS: The results showed that laser and dexamethasone acted in a similar pattern to reduce acute inflammation. Collagen synthesis and myofibroblasts were more intense in the laser group (p = 0.048), whereas animals treated with dexamethasone showed lower results for these variables. In a combination of therapies, the synthesis of collagen and actin and desmin-positive cells was less than laser group. CONCLUSIONS: Laser was effective in reducing swelling and polymorphonuclear cells and accelerated tissue repair, even in the presence of dexamethasone.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28(5) 639-46

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20932183

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Enhanced liver regeneration following acute hepatectomy by low-level laser therapy.

Oron U, Maltz L, Tuby H, Sorin V, Czerniak A

Department of Zoology, Life Sciences Faculty, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. oronu@post.tau.ac.il

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on liver regeneration following hepatectomy. Background: LLLT has been found to modulate various biological processes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve mature male rats were used. The liver was exposed, and 70% of it was excised. The rats were assigned randomly to two groups: control, non-laser treated, and experimental, laser-treated (diode [Ga-Al-As] laser 804 nm) group. For determination of newly formed blood vessels and proliferating cells, 5-Bromo-2’deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected intraperitoneally. The rats were sacrificed 2 d post hepatectomy, and histological sections from each liver were processed for analysis of new blood-vessel formation using BrdU immunostaining kit. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were assessed using c-kit immunostaining. BrdU-labeled cells were counted as for estimation of newly formed hepatic cells. RESULTS: It was found that the number of proliferating cells (BrdU positive cells) per area in the regenerating regions of the livers were significantly (p < 0.01) 2.6-fold higher in the laser-treated rats than in the control non-laser-treated rats. The density of the newly formed blood vessels and c-kit immunopositive cells in the regenerating area of the laser-treated livers was significantly (p < 0.01) 3.3- and 2.3-fold respectively higher than the control non-laser treated livers. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that LLLT following acute hepatectomy most probably stimulates a significant enhancement of liver regeneration conducive to both the formation of new hepatocytes and MSCs and angiogenesis in the regenerating liver.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28(5) 675-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20932182

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Tooth movement after infrared laser phototherapy: clinical study in rodents.

Gama SK, Habib FA, Monteiro JS, Paraguassu GM, Araujo TM, Cangussu MC, Pinheiro AL

Centro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial Prof. Jose Edimo Soares Martins, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA, Brazil.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of low-power laser on tooth movement in rats. BACKGROUND: Tooth movement is closely related to the process of bone remodeling. The biologic result, with the application of a force to the tooth, is bone absorption on the pressure side and neoformation on the traction side of the alveolar bone. The laser photobiomodulation is capable of providing an increase in cellular metabolism, blood flow, and lymphatic drainage. METHODS: Thirty young-adult male Wistar rats weighing between 250 and 300 g were divided into two groups, control and experimental, containing 15 animals each. The animals received orthodontic devices calibrated to release a force of 40 g/F, with the purpose of moving the first upper molar mesially. Low-intensity laser, wavelength 790 nm, was used in the experimental group; the dose was 4.5 J/cm(2) per point, mesial and distal, on the palatal side, 11 J/cm(2) on the buccal side, and this procedure was repeated every 48 h, totaling nine applications. The active movement was clinically evaluated after 7, 13, and 19 days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results showed no statistically significant difference, p = 0.079 (T0-T7), p = 0.597 (T7-T13), and p = 0.550 (T13-T19) between the laser and control groups on the amount of tooth movement in the different times evaluated. It may be concluded that laser phototherapy, with the parameters in the present study, did not significantly increase the amount of tooth displacement during induced orthodontic movement in rodents.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28 Suppl 2 S79-83

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20932152

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Histological and radiographic evaluation of the muscle tissue of rats after implantation of bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2) in a scaffold of inorganic bone and after stimulation with low-power laser light.

Bengtson AL, Bengtson NG, Bengtson CR, Mendes FM, Pinheiro SR

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Metropolitan University of Santos (UNIMES). R. Constituicao, 374, Santos/SP, 11015-470, Brazil. al.bengtson@uol.com.br

OBJECTIVE: The present study histologically and radiologically evaluates the muscle tissue of rats after implantation of bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2) in a natural inorganic bone mineral scaffold from a bull calf femur and irradiation with low-power light laser. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The right and left hind limbs of 16 rats were shaved and an incision was made in the muscle on the face corresponding to the median portion of the tibia, into which rhBMP-2 in a scaffold of inorganic bone was implanted. Two groups of limbs were formed: control (G1) and laser irradiation (G2). G2 received diode laser light applied in the direction of the implant, at a dose of 8 J/cm2 for three minutes. On the 7th, 21st, 40th and 112th days after implantation, hind limbs of 4 animals were radiographed and their implants removed together with the surrounding tissue for study under the microscope. The histological results were graded as 0=absence, 1=slight presence, 2=representative and 3=very representative, with regard to the following events: formation of osteoid structure, acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, fibrin deposition, neovascularization, foreign-body granuloma and fibrosis. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in these events at each evaluation times, between the two groups (P > 0.05; Mann-Whitney test). Nevertheless, it could be concluded that the natural inorganic bone matrix with rhBMP-2, from the femur of a bull calf, is a biocompatible combination. CONCLUSIONS: Under these conditions, the inductive capacity of rhBMP-2 for cell differentiation was inhibited. There was a slight acceleration in tissue healing in the group that received irradiation with low-power laser light.

Indian J Dent Res 2010 Jul-Sep 21(3) 420-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20930356

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Raman spectroscopy validation of DIAGNOdent-assisted fluorescence readings on tibial fractures treated with laser phototherapy, BMPs, guided bone regeneration, and miniplates.

Pinheiro AL, Lopes CB, Pacheco MT, Brugnera A Jr, Zanin FA, Cangussu MC, Silveira L Jr

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil. albp@ufba.br

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess through Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence the levels of calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA) and lipids and proteins in complete fractures treated with internal rigid fixation (IRF) treated or not with laser phototherapy (LPT) and associated or not with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and guided bone regeneration (GBR). BACKGROUND: Fractures have different etiologies and treatments and may be associated with bone losses. LPT has been shown to improve bone healing. METHODS: Tibial fractures were created on 15 animals and divided into five groups. LPT started immediately after surgery, repeated at 48-h intervals. Animal death occurred after 30 days. RESULTS: Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence were performed at the surface. Fluorescence data of group IRF + LPT + Biomaterial showed similar readings to those of the group IRF-no bone loss. Significant differences were seen between groups IRF + LPT + Biomaterial and IRF + LPT; IRF + LPT + Biomaterial; and IRF + Biomaterial; and between IRF + LPT + Biomaterial and IRF. CH groups of lipids and proteins readings showed decreased levels of organic components in subjects treated with the association of LPT, biomaterial, and GBR. Pearson correlation showed that fluorescence readings of both CHA and CH groups of lipids and proteins correlated negatively with the Raman data. CONCLUSIONS: The use of both methods indicates that the use of the biomaterials associated with infrared LPT resulted in a more-advanced and higher quality of bone repair in fractures treated with miniplates and that the DIAGNOdent may be used to perform optical biopsy on bone.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28 Suppl 2 S89-97

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20929388

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Biosilicate((R)) and low-level laser therapy improve bone repair in osteoporotic rats.

Bossini PS, Muniz Renno AC, Ribeiro DA, Fangel R, Peitl O, Zanotto ED, Parizotto NA

Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Rodovia Washington Luis (SP-310), km 235, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel bioactive material (Biosilicate((R))) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone fracture consolidation in osteoporotic rats. Forty female Wistar rats were submitted to ovariectomy (OVX) to induce osteopenia. Eight weeks after surgery, the animals were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each: a bone defect control group (CG); a bone defect filled with Biosilicate group (BG); a bone defect filled with Biosilicate and irradiated with LLLT at 60 J/cm(2) group (BG60); and a bone defect filled with Biosilicate and irradiated with LLLT at 120 J/cm(2) group (BG120). Bone defects were surgically performed on both tibias. The size of particle used for Biosilicate was 180-212 microm. Histopathological analysis showed that bone defects were predominantly filled with the biomaterial in specimens treated with Biosilicate. LLLT with either 60 or 120 J/cm(2) was able to increase collagen, Cbfa-1, VGEF and COX-2 expression in the circumjacent cells of the biomaterial. A morphometric analysis revealed that the Biosilicate + laser groups showed a higher amount of newly formed bone. Our results indicate that laser therapy improves bone repair process in contact with Biosilicate as a result of increasing bone formation, as well as COX-2 and Cbfa-1 immunoexpression, angiogenesis and collagen deposition in osteoporotic rats. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2010 Oct 5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20925130

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Inflicting Controlled Nonthermal Damage to Subcellular Structures by Laser-Activated Gold Nanoparticles.

Krpetic Z, Nativo P, See V, Prior IA, Brust M, Volk M

Centre for Nanoscale Science, Department of Chemistry, Crown Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZD, United Kingdom.

We show that low-intensity laser irradiation of cancer cells containing endosomal gold nanoparticles leads to endosome rupture and escape of the nanoparticles into the cytosol without affecting the cells’ viability. The low light intensity of our experiments allows us to rule out photothermal effects as the underlying mechanism, and we present results that suggest photoinduced radicals as the photogenerated active species. This nonthermal mechanism may also be important in the context of cell death at higher laser intensities, which had been reported previously.

Nano Lett 2010 Oct 5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20923168

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Laser acupuncture and prevention of bone loss in tail-suspended rats.

Guo X, Liu MQ, Man HC, Wang XY, Mu JJ, Li YZ, Feng JS, Shi SQ, Zhang M

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China. rsguoxia@inet.polyu.edu.hk

BACKGROUND: Skeletal unloading during spaceflight results in bone loss. This study investigated whether laser acupuncture could be an effective countermeasure to prevent unloading-induced bone loss in rats. METHODS: There were 18 rats that were randomly assigned into three groups: a control group, a tail-suspended group (TS), and a tail-suspended with laser acupuncture treatment group (TSA). The rats in the TSA group were treated with laser acupuncture at the KI1 (Yong Quan) and ST36 (Zu San Li) acupoints of the left leg for 3 min per day. Bone mineral density (BMD), biomechanical properties, and histomorphometry of both tibiae were determined after the animals were euthanized at the end of week 4. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, BMD in the TS group significantly decreased by 12.3% in cortical bone and 15.1% in cancellous bone, whereas BMD in the TSA group decreased by only 3.1% in cortical bone and 9.0% in cancellous bone. The hardness of cortical bone dropped 44.1% in the TS group and 22.3% in the TSA group compared with the control group. The histomorphometry data were in accordance with BMD measurements. Although acupuncture treatment was applied only to the left side, we observed similar changes between the measurements of both the left and right tibiae. CONCLUSION: Laser acupuncture on KI1 and ST36 can inhibit bone loss in rats subjected to unloading. The fact that similar changes between the right and left sides when only the left limbs were treated suggests that the preventive effect of laser acupuncture occurs via a systemic regulation.

Aviat Space Environ Med 2010 Oct 81(10) 914-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20922882

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

[Effects of 650 nm laser and moxibustion pretreatment on enteric nervous system and medullary visceral zone in rats with visceral traction pain].

Yang HY, Guo TT, Ma YN, Liu TY, Gao M

Acupuncture and Massage College, Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai 201203, China. yhyabcd@sina.com

OBJECTIVE: To explore effects of 650 nm laser and moxibustion pretreatment on visceral traction pain (VTP) and its mechanism. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomly devided into a sham operation group (group A), a VTP group (group B), a 650 nm laser pretreatment group (group C), a moxibustion pretreatment group (group D). Rats in group A and group B were not treated except sham operation or VTP model. In group C and D, the VTP models were produced immediate after 650 nm laser irradiation or moxibustion at “Zusanli” (ST 36), respectively. The changes of pain score and systolic pressure were investigated and the activity of AChE, the content of SP and leu-enkephaline (LEK), and the positive index of c-Fos protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were detected by biochemistry, radio-immunity method and immunohistochemistry, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with group A, the pain score, systolic pressure, the activity of AChE, the content of SP, and the positive index of c-Fos protein and GFAP of group B increased significantly (all P < 0.05); compared with group B, the pain score, AChE activity, the content of SP and the positive index of c-Fos protein and GFAP of both group C and group D decreased significantly (all P < 0.05); compared with group B, the content of LEK increased and systolic pressure decreased significantly in group C (both P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Both 650 nm laser and moxibustion pretreatment can inhibit VTP and the mechanism may be related to reducing the activity of AChE and the content of SP, and increasing the activity of LEK and decreasing the expression of c-Fos protein and GFAP.

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2010 Sep 30(9) 745-51

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20886795

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Estimation of the optimal wavelengths for laser-induced wound healing.

Ankri R, Lubart R, Taitelbaum H

Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: According to earlier in vitro low level laser therapy (LLLT) studies, wavelengths in the red and near infrared range, that are absorbed by cytochrome oxidase, stimulate cell growth and hence wound healing. Wavelengths in the blue region that are absorbed by flavins were found to exert a bactericidal effect that is very important for treating infected wounds. However, as far as therapeutic application of light is concerned, penetration into the tissue must be considered. For this purpose we estimated the penetration depth as a function of the relevant wavelengths, using the formulae of the photon migration model for skin tissue. METHODS: We use the photon diffusion model, which is an analytical model for describing light transfer in biological tissues. We refer to the most common chromophores in human tissue and evaluate their volume fraction and concentration in skin cells. These empirically estimated mean wavelength-dependent absorption coefficients are then substituted in the theoretical expressions for the optical penetration depth in the tissue. The wavelengths, for which the penetration depth is the highest, are the optimal wavelengths to be used in wound healing treatments. RESULTS: Our model suggests that the optimal wavelengths for therapeutic treatments are in the red region with a local maximum at 730 nm. As to the blue region, a local maximum at 480 nm was found. CONCLUSION: Light at 480 nm should be used for treating infected wounds followed by 730 nm light for enhancing wound closure.

Lasers Surg Med 2010 Oct 42(8) 760-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20886508

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Low energy laser light (632.8 nm) suppresses amyloid-beta peptide-induced oxidative and inflammatory responses in astrocytes.

Yang X, Askarova S, Sheng W, Chen JK, Sun AY, Sun GY, Yao G, Lee JC

Department of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.

Oxidative stress and inflammation are important processes in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent studies have implicated the role of amyloid beta-peptides (Abeta) in mediating these processes. In astrocytes, oligomeric Abeta induces the assembly of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complexes resulting in its activation to produce anionic superoxide. Abeta also promotes production of pro-inflammatory factors in astrocytes. Since low energy laser has previously been reported to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation in biological systems, the objective of this study was to examine whether this type of laser light was able to abrogate the oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by Abeta. Primary rat astrocytes were exposed to Helium-Neon laser (lambda=632.8 nm), followed by the treatment with oligomeric Abeta. Primary rat astrocytes were used to measure Abeta-induced production of superoxide anions using fluorescence microscopy of dihydroethidium (DHE), assembly of NADPH oxidase subunits by the colocalization between the cytosolic p47(phox) subunit and the membrane gp91(phox) subunit using fluorescent confocal microscopy, phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) cPLA(2) and expressions of pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) using Western blot Analysis. Our data showed that laser light at 632.8 nm suppressed Abeta-induced superoxide production, colocalization between NADPH oxidase gp91(phox) and p47(phox) subunits, phosphorylation of cPLA(2,) and the expressions of IL-1beta and iNOS in primary astrocytes. We demonstrated for the first time that 632.8 nm laser was capable of suppressing cellular pathways of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses critical in the pathogenesis in AD. This study should prove to provide the groundwork for further investigations for the potential use of laser therapy as a treatment for AD.

Neuroscience 2010 Sep 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20884337

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Effects of laser photherapy on bone defects grafted with mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration: A Raman spectroscopic study.

Pinheiro AL, Aciole GT, Cangussu MC, Pacheco MT, Silveira L Jr

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, Salvador, BA 40110-150, Brazil; Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, Nucleo do Parque Tecnologico de Sao Jose dos Campos, Rodovia Presidente Dutra, km. 138, Distrito de Eugenio de Melo, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12245-230, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Optica e Fotonica, Sao Carlos, SP 13560-970, Brazil. albp@ufba.br.

We have used Raman analysis to assess bone healing on different models. Benefits on the isolated or combined use of mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, guided bone regeneration and laser on bone repair have been reported, but not their combination. We studied peaks of hydroxyapatite and CH groups on defects grafted with MTA, treated or not with laser, BMPs, and GBR. Ninety rats were divided in 10 groups each, subdivided into three subgroups. Laser (lambda850 nm) was applied at every other day for 2 weeks. Raman readings were taken at the surface of the defect. Statistical analysis (CHA) showed significant differences between all groups (p = 0.001) and between Group II and all other (p < 0.001), but not with Group X (p = 0.09). At day 21 differences were seen between all groups (p = 0.031) and between Groups VIII and X when compared with Groups VI (p = 0.03), V (p < 0.001), IV (p < 0.001), and IX (p = 0.04). At the end of the experimental period no significant differences were seen. On regards CH, significant differences were seen at the 15(th) day (p = 0.002) and between Group II and all other groups (p < 0.0001) but not with control. Advanced maturation on irradiated bone is because of increased secretion of calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA) that is indicative of greater calcification and resistance of the bone. We conclude that the association of the MTA with laser phototherapy (LPT) and/or not with GBR resulted in a better bone repair. The use of the MTA associated to IR LPT resulted in a more advanced and quality bone repair. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2010 Dec 15 95(4) 1041-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20872755

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

[Laser acupuncture for chronic back pain. A double-blind clinical study]

Ruth M, Weber M, Zenz M

Zentrum fur Fruhrehabilitation und akutgeriatrische Medizin, Klinikum Ingolstadt GmbH, Krumenauer Str. 25, 85049 Ingolstadt. ruth.mail@t-online.de

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the clinical picture of chronic back pain under everyday conditions using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design. A further aim was to analyze to what extent placebo effects also influence the outcome of acupuncture under these conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included male and female patients with chronic back pain (lasting longer than 6 months) aged between 30 and 77 years with a pain score of at least 5 on a visual analog scale. The main criterion was achieving alleviation of pain by at least 50% 3 months after the start of treatment. The assessment tools used were the Von Korff questionnaire supplemented by the FFbH, FABQ, and SF-12. In addition, the participants were questioned about whether they perceived anything during the treatment and how certain they were that they had received treatment with active or inactive lasers. RESULTS: A total of 111 patients were included in the study and were treated according to the randomization list in two groups each consisting of 51 subjects. The study was completed as scheduled by 102 participants. Analysis of the primary outcome measure, improvement of the pain score by more than 50% over baseline, revealed improvements in both treatment groups between the time points used for measurement. The placebo group exhibited better levels than the group that received laser treatment. No efficacy advantage of laser acupuncture over placebo treatment could be determined. CONCLUSION: It was possible to completely blind the acupuncture forms with the study design employed. Perhaps the consistent exclusion of nonspecific treatment effects contributed to this result. It cannot be ruled out that the effects of acupuncture are based on a strong placebo effect.

Schmerz 2010 Sep 24(5) 485-93

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20872127

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Transcontinental and translational high-tech acupuncture research using computer-based heart rate and “Fire of Life” heart rate variability analysis.

Litscher G

Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, Austria. gerhard.litscher@medunigraz.at

A variable heartbeat was considered a sign of good health by ancient Asian physicians. Today, new computer-based methods (e.g., “Fire of Life” analysis) allow quantification of heart rate and heart rate variability during acupuncture. The objective of this article is to compare different acupuncture methods to evaluate the influence of acupuncture on heart rhythm in short-term and long-term measurements. There were four main sections in this study: (A) a randomized controlled study using needle acupuncture and acupressure at Yintang (Ex1); (B) an innovative blue (violet) laser acupuncture randomized controlled study in Asian volunteers; (C) a comparative study using moxibustion methods; and (D) teleacupuncture. A total of 72 patients (mean age +/- SD: 27.9 +/- 8.6 years) were monitored over periods of 20 minutes to 24 hours in Asia and Austria. Acupuncture was performed with metal needles (in sections A, C and D) or blue laser (in section B) on Yintang, Neiguan, Guanyuan or a special acupuncture regimen for stress disorders (in sections A, B, C and D, respectively). Significant decreases in heart rate after verum intervention at Yintang, Neiguan and Guanyuan were found. Improvements in state of health following teleacupuncture were also noted. Computer-based heart rate and heart rate variability analysis was demonstrated to be effective in evaluating the status of health during acupuncture.

J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2010 Sep 3(3) 156-64

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20869016

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) at different wavelengths and doses on oxidative stress and fibrogenesis parameters in an animal model of wound healing.

Silveira PC, Silva LA, Freitas TP, Latini A, Pinho RA

Exercise Biochemistry and Physiology Laboratory, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina, Criciuma, SC, Brazil, silveira_paulo2004@yahoo.com.br.

Gallium-arsenide (GaAs) and helium-neon (HeNe) lasers are the most commonly used low-energy lasers in physiotherapy for promoting wound healing and pain modulation. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) at different wavelengths and doses on oxidative stress and fibrogenesis parameters in an animal model of wound healing. The animals were randomly divided into five groups (n = 6): Controls (skin injured animals without local or systemic treatment), skin injury treated with HeNe 1 J/cm(2) (two seg); skin injury treated with HeNe 3 J/cm(2) (six seg); skin injury treated with GaAs 1 J/cm(2) (three seg); skin injury treated with GaAs 3 J/cm(2) (nine seg). A single circular wound measuring 8 mm in diameter was surgically created on the back of the animal. The rats were irradiated at 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after skin injury. The parameters, namely hydroxyproline content, activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and lipid (TBARS) and protein oxidation (carbonyl groups) measurements were assessed. In addition, wound size regression was also analyzed. The results showed an improvement in the wound healing reflected by the reduction in wound size and increased collagen synthesis. Moreover, a significant reduction in TBARS levels, carbonyl content, and SOD and CAT activities were observed after laser irradiation, particularly with the treatments HeNe laser 1 and 3 J/cm(2) dose and GaAs 3 J/cm(2) dose. The data strongly indicate that LPLI therapy is efficient in accelerating the skin wound healing process after wounding, probably by reducing the inflammatory phase and inducing collagen synthesis.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Jan 26(1) 125-131

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20865435

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Influence of carbon dioxide laser irradiation on the healing process of extraction sockets.

Fukuoka H, Daigo Y, Enoki N, Taniguchi K, Sato H

Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Division of Fixed Prosthodontics, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, Japan.

Abstract Objective. To clarify the healing-promoting effects of carbon dioxide laser irradiation in high and low reactive-level laser therapies (HLLT and LLLT, respectively) on extraction sockets after tooth extraction. Material and methods. Forty-two 5-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into laser irradiation and non-irradiation (control) groups and compared. The laser-irradiation group underwent HLLT immediately after tooth extraction and then LLLT 1 day post-extraction. Tissue was excised 6 h and 3, 7, or 21 days after extraction and histopathologically investigated. The alveolar crest height was measured osteomorphometrically 21 days post-extraction, and granulation tissue in the extraction socket surface layer was immunohistologically investigated using anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin (anti-alpha-SMA) antibody 3 and 7 days post-extraction. Results. Many osteoclasts appeared and active bone resorption was noted in the irradiation group 3 days after extraction compared to the controls. On Day 7, new bone formation started around the extraction socket in the control group, but from the superficial to over the middle layer of the socket in the irradiation group. On Day 21, a concavity existed in the alveolar crest region in the controls, whereas this region was flat, with no concavity, in the irradiation group. On osteomorphometry, the alveolar crest height was significantly higher in the irradiation (0.7791 +/- 0.0122) than the control (0.6516 +/- 0.0181) group (P < 0.05). On immunostaining, many alpha-SMA-positive cells were noted in the control group, but very few in the irradiation group. Conclusion. Laser-irradiated extraction wound healing showed characteristics different from those of the normal healing process, suggesting a favorable healing-promoting effect.

Acta Odontol Scand 2010 Sep 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20863148

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Low-level laser therapy with a pulsed infrared laser accelerates second-degree burn healing in rat: a clinical and microbiologic study.

Ezzati A, Bayat M, Khoshvaghti A

Medical School, Shahid Beheshti University, M.C., Tehran, Iran.

OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to investigate the influence of pulsed-wave low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing of a deep second-degree burn model in rat. BACKGROUND DATA: Review of literature indicates that LLLT has a biostimulatory effect on wound healing; however, no clear recommendation can yet be made. METHODS: Two deep second-degree burns were made in the skin of 67 rats. Rats were divided into four groups. In the first group (control), the proximal burn were received LLLT with shot down laser; in the second and third groups, proximal burns were treated with a 3,000-Hz pulsed infrared diode laser with 2.3 and 11.7 J/cm(2) energy densities, respectively. In the fourth group, the proximal burns were treated topically with 0.2% nitrofurazone. The distal burn of all groups was considered the control burn. The response to treatment was assessed both microbiologically and macroscopically. RESULTS: The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus decreased significantly in group 3 in comparison with group 1 on day 28 (chi(2) test, p = 0.05). Analysis of variance showed that LLLT with 11.7 J/cm (2) significantly increased the wound-closure rate at 2 weeks (0.915 +/- 0.310) and 3 weeks (0.677 +/- 0.397) after burning compared with placebo burns (1.413 +/- 0.319; 1.116 +/- 0.436, respectively) ANOVA-LSD test, p = 0.045 and p = 0.046 respectively. Independent sample t tests showed that LLLT with 11.7 J/cm (2) significantly increased the wound-closure rate at 4 weeks after burning (0.211 +/- 0.146) compared with the control burns (0.707 +/- 0.480) p = 0.039. CONCLUSIONS: Pulsed LLLT with 11.7 J/cm(2)/890 nm of a deep second-degree burn model in rat significantly increased the rate of wound closure compared with control burns.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Oct 28(5) 603-11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20860542

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

The effectiveness of laser acupuncture in women with menopausal symptoms.

Beyazit Y, Kekilli M, Beyazit F, Purnak T

Menopause 2010 Sep-Oct 17(5) 1087; author reply 1087-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20853527

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Ultra-low-level laser therapy.

Baratto L, Calza L, Capra R, Gallamini M, Giardino L, Giuliani A, Lorenzini L, Traverso S

La Colletta Bioengineering Center, Arenzano, GE, Italy.

A growing number of laboratory and clinical studies over the past 10 years have shown that low-level laser stimulation (633 or 670 nm) at extremely low power densities (about 0.15 mW/cm(2)), when administered through a particular emission mode, is capable of eliciting significant biological effects. Studies on cell cultures and animal models as well as clinical trials give support to a novel therapeutic modality, which may be referred to as ultra low level laser therapy (ULLLT). In cultured neural cells, pulsed irradiation (670 nm, 0.45 mJ/cm(2)) has shown to stimulate NGF-induced neurite elongation and to protect cells against oxidative stress. In rats, anti-edema and anti-hyperalgesia effects following ULLL irradiation were found. Clinical studies have reported beneficial effects (also revealed through sonography) in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The present paper reviews the existing experimental evidence available on ULLLT. Furthermore, the puzzling issue of the biophysical mechanisms that lie at the basis of the method is explored and some hypotheses are proposed. Besides presenting the state-of-the-art about this novel photobiostimulation therapy, the present paper aims to open up an interdisciplinary discussion and stimulate new research on this subject.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Jan 26(1) 103-112

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20852910

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

Gene and noncoding RNA regulation underlying photoreceptor protection: microarray study of dietary antioxidant saffron and photobiomodulation in rat retina.

Natoli R, Zhu Y, Valter K, Bisti S, Eells J, Stone J

Division of Biomedical Sciences & Biochemistry, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Sydney, Australia. riccardo.natoli@anu.edu.au

PURPOSE: To identify the genes and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) involved in the neuroprotective actions of a dietary antioxidant (saffron) and of photobiomodulation (PBM). METHODS: We used a previously published assay of photoreceptor damage, in which albino Sprague Dawley rats raised in dim cyclic illumination (12 h 5 lux, 12 h darkness) were challenged by 24 h exposure to bright (1,000 lux) light. Experimental groups were protected against light damage by pretreatment with dietary saffron (1 mg/kg/day for 21 days) or PBM (9 J/cm(2) at the eye, daily for 5 days). RNA from one eye of four animals in each of the six experimental groups (control, light damage [LD], saffron, PBM, saffronLD, and PBMLD) was hybridized to Affymetrix rat genome ST arrays. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of 14 selected genes was used to validate the microarray results. RESULTS: LD caused the regulation of 175 entities (genes and ncRNAs) beyond criterion levels (p<0.05 in comparison with controls, fold-change >2). PBM pretreatment reduced the expression of 126 of these 175 LD-regulated entities below criterion; saffron pretreatment reduced the expression of 53 entities (50 in common with PBM). In addition, PBM pretreatment regulated the expression of 67 entities not regulated by LD, while saffron pretreatment regulated 122 entities not regulated by LD (48 in common with PBM). PBM and saffron, given without LD, regulated genes and ncRNAs beyond criterion levels, but in lesser numbers than during their protective action. A high proportion of the entities regulated by LD (>90%) were known genes. By contrast, ncRNAs were prominent among the entities regulated by PBM and saffron in their neuroprotective roles (73% and 62%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Given alone, saffron and (more prominently) PBM both regulated significant numbers of genes and ncRNAs. Given before retinal exposure to damaging light, thus while exerting their neuroprotective action, they regulated much larger numbers of entities, among which ncRNAs were prominent. Further, the downregulation of known genes and of ncRNAs was prominent in the protective actions of both neuroprotectants. These comparisons provide an overview of gene expression induced by two neuroprotectants and provide a basis for the more focused study of their mechanisms.

Mol Vis 2010 16 1801-22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20844572

What is Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / cold laser therapy? How does it work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose Click here

Follow us on Twitter and Facebook

About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
This entry was posted in Research. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.