LLLT Literature Watch for December 2010

39 papers for you to review in this edition including the effect of our THOR LED therapy on skeletal muscle recovery when compared with cold water therapy for athletes (well done Ernesto). Two oral mucositis studies, one was positive the other was negative, it just goes to show that correct irradiation parameters are important. This takes us to a total of 13 randomised controlled studies on oral mucositis. My friend Luis De Taboada has published his study on an Alzheimer’s rat model to good effect, There is an RCT on TB, another on muscle strength and two case studies with chronic, traumatic brain injury who had improved cognition following transcranial, LED therapy and much much more.

Comparison between cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) in short-term skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise in athletes-preliminary results.

Leal Junior EC, de Godoi V, Mancalossi JL, Rossi RP, De Marchi T, Parente M, Grosselli D, Generosi RA, Basso M, Frigo L, Tomazoni SS, Bjordal JM, Lopes-Martins RA

Center for Research and Innovation in Laser, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Rua Vergueiro, 235, 01504-001, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, ernesto.leal.junior@gmail.com.

In the last years, phototherapy has becoming a promising tool to improve skeletal muscle recovery after exercise, however, it was not compared with other modalities commonly used with this aim. In the present study we compared the short-term effects of cold water immersion therapy (CWIT) and light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) with placebo LEDT on biochemical markers related to skeletal muscle recovery after high-intensity exercise. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed with six male young futsal athletes. They were treated with CWIT (5 degrees C of temperature [SD +/-1 degrees ]), active LEDT (69 LEDs with wavelengths 660/850 nm, 10/30 mW of output power, 30 s of irradiation time per point, and 41.7 J of total energy irradiated per point, total of ten points irradiated) or an identical placebo LEDT 5 min after each of three Wingate cycle tests. Pre-exercise, post-exercise, and post-treatment measurements were taken of blood lactate levels, creatine kinase (CK) activity, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. There were no significant differences in the work performed during the three Wingate tests (p > 0.05). All biochemical parameters increased from baseline values (p < 0.05) after the three exercise tests, but only active LEDT decreased blood lactate levels (p = 0.0065) and CK activity (p = 0.0044) significantly after treatment. There were no significant differences in CRP values after treatments. We concluded that treating the leg muscles with LEDT 5 min after the Wingate cycle test seemed to inhibit the expected post-exercise increase in blood lactate levels and CK activity. This suggests that LEDT has better potential than 5 min of CWIT for improving short-term post-exercise recovery.

Lasers Med Sci 2010 Nov 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21088862

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A randomized controlled trial of visible-light therapy for the prevention of oral mucositis.

Elad S, Luboshitz-Shon N, Cohen T, Wainchwaig E, Shapira MY, Resnick IB, Radiano R, Lubart R, Or R

Department of Oral Medicine, Hebrew University – Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel.

The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a novel visible-light therapy (VLT) device for the prevention of oral mucositis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. A VLT-device suitable for intra-oral use was applied to 20 patients undergoing HSCT. The study design was placebo-controlled, randomized and double-blind. Oral mucositis was assessed using the OMAS and WHO scales. Oral pain and acceptance levels were scored by the patient using a 10-step scale. Patients were evaluated once a week until day 21 post-HSCT. Mucositis rate, severity and pain score were compared. At the third visit, 1week post-HSCT, mucositis rates were significantly lower in the treatment group (for both WHO and OMAS p=0.02). Mucositis was also less severe in the treatment group (for WHO p=0.01; for OMAS p=0.01). Furthermore, the patients in the treatment group reported lower pain levels (p=0.04). The treatment was well tolerated and highly accepted, with no reports of adverse events related to the device. These findings suggest that the VLT-device is safe and effective for the prevention of oral mucositis in patients undergoing HSCT.

Oral Oncol 2010 Dec 15

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21163686

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Transcranial Laser Therapy Attenuates Amyloid-beta Peptide Neuropathology in Amyloid-beta Protein Precursor Transgenic Mice.

Taboada LD, Yu J, El-Amouri S, Gattoni-Celli S, Richieri S, McCarthy T, Streeter J, Kindy MS

PhotoThera, Inc., Carlsbad, CA.

Transcranial laser therapy (TLT) was tested for efficacy in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using a near-infrared energy laser system. TLT is thought to stimulate ATP production, increase mitochondrial activity, and help maintain neuronal function. Studies were performed to determine the effect of TLT in an amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) transgenic mouse model. TLT was administered 3 times/week at various doses, starting at 3 months of age, and was compared to a control group (no laser treatment). Treatment was continued for a total of six months. Animals were examined for amyloid load, inflammatory markers, brain amyloid-beta (Abeta) levels, plasma Abeta levels, cerebrospinal fluid Abeta levels, soluble AbetaPP (sAbetaPP) levels, and behavioral changes. The numbers of Abeta plaques were significantly reduced in the brain with administration of TLT in a dose-dependent fashion. Administration of TLT was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in amyloid load. All TLT doses mitigated the behavioral effects seen with advanced amyloid deposition and reduce the expression of inflammatory markers in the AbetaPP transgenic mice. All TLT doses produced an increase in sAbetaPPalpha and a decrease in CTFbeta levels consistent with inhibition of the beta-secretase activity. In addition, TLT showed an increase in ATP levels, mitochondrial function, and c-fos suggesting an overall improvement in neurological function. These studies suggest that TLT is a potential candidate for treatment of AD.

J Alzheimers Dis 2010 Nov 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21116053

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Randomized, double-blind study on role of low level nitrogen laser therapy in treatment failure tubercular lymphadenopathy, sinuses and cold abscess.

Bajpai A, Jain NK, Avashia S, Gupta PK

Department of Medicine, MGM Medical College & MYHospital, Indore. bajpai_ashok@hotmail.com

BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of low level nitrogen laser therapy along with antitubercular treatment (ATT) in cases of treatment failure and drug resistant tubercular lymphadenopathy, sinuses and cold abscess. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized controlled trial of LLLT, 104 patients assigned to either the low level nitrogen laser therapy along with ATT (LLLT group) (n = 54) or ATT only (Chemotherapy group) (n = 50). Both groups were treated two times per week for five weeks. Those in the treatment group received pulse nitrogen laser with a pulse duration of seven nanosecond, wave length 337 nanometer and average power output of 5 mW whereas those in the control group were treated with sham laser. The primary outcome measure was bacteriological conversion and the secondary outcome measures were decrease in size of lesion and the clinical improvement. RESULTS: Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) smear, AFB culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) conversion rate at five weeks (after 10 sittings of laser) were 49.15%( Fishers P exact test-p = 0.015), 60%, 44.44% (Fishers P exact test-p = 0.048) in LLLT group as compared to 11.86%, 20%,17.77% in chemotherapy group. Average percentage reduction in the size of gland at 5 weeks was 70.67% (p value 0.01) as compared to 54.81 in chemotherapy group. Average time taken for closure of sinuses was 11.03 weeks in LLLT group as compared to 26 weeks in chemotherapy group. The follow up was conducted for two years. CONCLUSION: Low level nitrogen laser therapy can be used as an adjunctive therapy along with antitubercular drugs in cases not responding and drug resistant tubercular lymphadenopathy, sinuses and cold abscess.

Indian J Tuberc 2010 Apr 57(2) 80-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21114174

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Effects of low level laser therapy (808 nm) on physical strength training in humans.

Ferraresi C, de Brito Oliveira T, de Oliveira Zafalon L, de Menezes Reiff RB, Baldissera V, de Andrade Perez SE, Junior EM, Parizotto NA

Laboratory of Electrothermophototherapy, Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, cleber.ferraresi@gmail.com.

Recent studies have investigated whether low level laser therapy (LLLT) can optimize human muscle performance in physical exercise. This study tested the effect of LLLT on muscle performance in physical strength training in humans compared with strength training only. The study involved 36 men (20.8+/-2.2 years old), clinically healthy, with a beginner and/or moderate physical activity training pattern. The subjects were randomly distributed into three groups: TLG (training with LLLT), TG (training only) and CG (control). The training for TG and TLG subjects involved the leg-press exercise with a load equal to 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM) in the leg-press test over 12 consecutive weeks. The LLLT was applied to the quadriceps muscle of both lower limbs of the TLG subjects immediately after the end of each training session. Using an infrared laser device (808 nm) with six diodes of 60 mW each a total energy of 50.4 J of LLLT was administered over 140 s. Muscle strength was assessed using the 1RM leg-press test and the isokinetic dynamometer test. The muscle volume of the thigh of the dominant limb was assessed by thigh perimetry. The TLG subjects showed an increase of 55% in the 1RM leg-press test, which was significantly higher than the increases in the TG subjects (26%, P = 0.033) and in the CG subjects (0.27%, P < 0.001). The TLG was the only group to show an increase in muscle performance in the isokinetic dynamometry test compared with baseline. The increases in thigh perimeter in the TLG subjects and TG subjects were not significantly different (4.52% and 2.75%, respectively; P = 0.775). Strength training associated with LLLT can increase muscle performance compared with strength training only.

Lasers Med Sci 2010 Nov 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21086010

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Improved Cognitive Function After Transcranial, Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Traumatic Brain Injury: Two Case Reports.

Naeser MA, Saltmarche A, Krengel MH, Hamblin MR, Knight JA

1 VA Boston Healthcare System , Boston, Massachusetts.

Abstract Objective: Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases, where cognition improved following treatment with red and near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs), applied transcranially to forehead and scalp areas, are presented. Background: Significant benefits have been reported following application of transcranial, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to humans with acute stroke and mice with acute TBI. These are the first case reports documenting improved cognitive function in chronic, TBI patients treated with transcranial LED. Methods: Treatments were applied bilaterally and to midline sagittal areas using LED cluster heads [2.1” diameter, 61 diodes (9 x 633 nm, 52 x 870 nm); 12-15 mW per diode; total power: 500 mW; 22.2 mW/cm(2); 13.3 J/cm(2) at scalp (estimated 0.4 J/cm(2) to cortex)]. Results: Seven years after closed-head TBI from a motor vehicle accident, Patient 1 began transcranial LED treatments. Pre-LED, her ability for sustained attention (computer work) lasted 20 min. After eight weekly LED treatments, her sustained attention time increased to 3 h. The patient performs nightly home treatments (5 years); if she stops treating for more than 2 weeks, she regresses. Patient 2 had a history of closed-head trauma (sports/military, and recent fall), and magnetic resonance imaging showed frontoparietal atrophy. Pre-LED, she was on medical disability for 5 months. After 4 months of nightly LED treatments at home, medical disability discontinued; she returned to working full-time as an executive consultant with an international technology consulting firm. Neuropsychological testing after 9 months of transcranial LED indicated significant improvement (+1, +2SD) in executive function (inhibition, inhibition accuracy) and memory, as well as reduction in post-traumatic stress disorder. If she stops treating for more than 1 week, she regresses. At the time of this report, both patients are continuing treatment. Conclusions: Transcranial LED may improve cognition, reduce costs in TBI treatment, and be applied at home. Controlled studies are warranted.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Dec 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21182447

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Novel Treatment Immediately after Myelomeningocele Repair Applying Low-Level Laser Therapy in Newborns: A Pilot Study.

Pinto FC, Chavantes MC, Pinto NC, Alho EJ, Yoshimura EM, Matushita H, Krebs VL, Teixeira MJ

Division of Functional Neurosurgery of the Institute of Psychiatry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background/Aims: The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in neurosurgery is still hardly disseminated and there are situations in which the effects of this therapeutic tool would be extremely relevant in this medical field. The aim of the present study is to analyze the effect of LLLT on tissue repair after the corrective surgical incision in neonates with myelomeningocele, in an attempt to diminish the incidence of postoperative dehiscences following surgical repair performed immediately after birth. Materials and Methods: Prospective pilot study with 13 patients submitted to surgery at birth who received adjuvant treatment with LLLT (group A). A diode laser CW, lambda = 685 nm, p = 21 mW, was applied punctually along the surgical incision, with 0.19 J delivered per point, accounting for a total of 4-10 J delivered energy per patient, according to the surgical wound area and then compared with the results obtained in 23 patients who underwent surgery without laser therapy (group B). Results: This pilot study disclosed a significant decline in dehiscences of the surgical wounds in neonates who were submitted to LLLT (7.69 vs. 17.39%). Conclusion: This new adjuvant therapeutic modality with LLLT aided the healing of surgical wounds, preventing morbidities, as well as shortening the period of hospital stay, which implies a reduction of costs for patients and for the institution.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2010 Dec 15 46(4) 249-254

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21160232

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Low-level laser therapy in burning mouth syndrome patients: a pilot study.

Kato IT, Pellegrini VD, Prates RA, Ribeiro MS, Wetter NU, Sugaya NN

Centro de Lasers e Aplicacoes, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN-SP, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the treatment of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). In addition, the laser effect was compared on the different affected oral sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven subjects with a total of 25 sites (tongue, lower lip, upper lip, and palate) affected by a burning sensation were selected. The affected areas were irradiated once a week for three consecutive weeks with an infrared laser (lambda = 790 nm). The probe was kept in contact with the tissue, and the mucosal surface was scanned during the irradiation. The exposure time was calculated based on the fluence of 6 J/cm(2), the output power of 120 mW, and the area to be treated. Burning intensity was recorded through a visual analog scale before and after the treatment and at the 6-week follow-up. The percentage of the improvement in symptoms was also obtained. RESULTS: Burning intensity at the end of the laser therapy was statistically lower than at the beginning (p < 0.01). Patients reported an 80.4% reduction in the intensity of symptoms after laser treatment. There was no statistical difference between the end of the treatment and the 6-week follow-up, except for the tongue site. CONCLUSION: Under the investigated parameters, infrared LLLT proved to be a valuable alternative for BMS treatment, providing a significant and lasting reduction in symptoms.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Dec 28(6) 835-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21142725

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Effectiveness of Laser treatment at acupuncture sites compared to traditional acupuncture in the treatment of peripheral artery disease.

Cunha RG, Rodrigues KC, Salvador M, Zangaro RA

Research and Development Institute, IP&D, Univap, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, SP, Brazil.

Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of mortality, not only in Brazil, but around the world. The use of acupuncture as a complementary and alternative treatment for cardiovascular diseases has been suggested for animals as well as human beings. Possible advantages in using acupuncture are the low cost of treatment and low risks of collateral damage from a combination of acupuncture with other medical treatments. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of traditional acupuncture with needles and laser acupuncture on arterial pressure and peripheral circulation of inferior limbs in patients with circulatory deficiency. Ten acupuncture points were stimulated in 40 individuals, being that 20 were stimulated by Aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) laser with emission in the red spectral region (650 nm) using an energy density of 2,4 J/cm2, and 20 were stimulated by systemic acupuncture needles. The analysis of peripheral circulation was performed based on the measurement of arterial pressure of the ankle and arms, using sphygmomanometer and Doppler equipment. The variance of the revascularization index of the laser acupuncture group was 0,057, and 0.030 for the needles group with p= 0,006. These results show that only those treated with laser acupuncture exhibit a significant increase in systolic pressure of their lower limbs, with a consequent improvement of the Revascularization Index, suggesting that different stimuli on acupuncture points generate different variations of peripheral resistance of lower limbs. is column.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2010 1 1262-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21095914

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Biomedical engineering meets acupuncture–development of a miniaturized 48-channel skin impedance measurement system for needle and laser acupuncture.

Litscher G, Wang L

Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria. gerhard.litscher@medunigraz.at

BACKGROUND: Due to controversially discussed results in scientific literature concerning changes of electrical skin impedance before and during acupuncture a new measurement system has been developed. METHODS: The prototype measures and analyzes the electrical skin impedance computer-based and simultaneously in 48 channels within a 2.5×3.5 cm matrix. Preliminary measurements in one person were performed using metal needle and violet laser (405 nm) acupuncture at the acupoint Kongzui (LU6). The new system is an improvement on devices previously developed by other researchers for this purpose. RESULTS: Skin impedance in the immediate surroundings of the acupoint was lowered reproducibly following needle stimulation and also violet laser stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: A new instrumentation for skin impedance measurements is presented. The following hypotheses suggested by our results will have to be tested in further studies: Needle acupuncture causes significant, specific local changes of electrical skin impedance parameters. Optical stimulation (violet laser) at an acupoint causes direct electrical biosignal changes.

Biomed Eng Online 2010 9 78

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21092296

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Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) acts as cAMP-elevating agent in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

de Lima FM, Moreira LM, Villaverde AB, Albertini R, Castro-Faria-Neto HC, Aimbire F

Research and Development Institute – IP&D, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911 – Urbanova, Po Box 12244-00, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this work was to investigate if the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on acute lung inflammation (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is linked to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in alveolar macrophages (AM) from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice. LLLT has been reported to actuate positively for relieving the late and early symptoms of airway and lung inflammation. It is not known if the increased TNF mRNA expression and dysfunction of cAMP generation observed in ALI can be influenced by LLLT. For in vivo studies, Balb/c mice (n = 5 for group) received LPS inhalation or TNF intra nasal instillation and 3 h after LPS or TNF-alpha, leukocytes in BALF were analyzed. LLLT administered perpendicularly to a point in the middle of the dissected bronchi with a wavelength of 660 nm and a dose of 4.5 J/cm(2). The mice were irradiated 15 min after ALI induction. In vitro AM from mice were cultured for analyses of TNF mRNA expression and protein and adenosine3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels. One hour after LPS, the TNF and cAMP levels in AM were measured by ELISA. RT-PCR was used to measure TNF mRNA in AM. The LLLT was inefficient in potentiating the rolipram effect in presence of a TNF synthesis inhibitor. LLLT attenuated the neutrophil influx and TNF in BALF. In AM, the laser increased the cAMP and reduced the TNF-alpha mRNA. LLLT increases indirectly the cAMP in AM by a TNF-dependent mechanism.

Lasers Med Sci 2010 Dec 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21184127

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Effect of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood on plasma content of ceruloplasmin in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

Burduli NM, Gutnova SK

Department of Therapy, Advanced Training and Professional Re-Training Faculty, North Ossetian State Medical Academy, Federal Agency for Health Care and Social Development, Vladikavkaz, Russia. gutnova76@mail.ru.

Ceruloplasmin content in the blood plasma significantly increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis during exacerbation of the disease. Addition of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood to complex therapy of patients with chronic pancreatitis normalized ceruloplasmin content in the plasma.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2010 Jun 149(6) 697-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21165421

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High-power diode laser use on Fordyce granule excision: a case report.

Baeder FM, Pelino JE, de Almeida ER, Duarte DA, Santos MT

BACKGROUND: Fordyce granules are conventionally considered to be a developmental oral lesion with a higher incidence in men. OBJECTIVE: To report a clinical case of surgical lip Fordyce granule excision in a 19-year-old male. METHODS: Fordyce granules were excised using a high-power diode laser (gallium arsenide [GaAs], Diode Vision(R), MDL, 10 Dental Laser Unit, GmbH, Lower Saxony, Germany) with wavelength emission at 980 +/- 10 nm, in a continuous wave mode, pulse width of 0.5 mus, fiber optic delivery system of 400 mum in diameter, at 2.5 W. Subsequently, low-intensity laser therapy was applied (gallium-aluminum-arsenide [GaAlAs], at 670 nm, 50 mW, at 4 J/cm(2); Dentoflex(R), Sao Paulo, Brazil] in order to stimulate a faster wound tissue-healing process and less postoperative pain and inflammation. CONCLUSION: The excellent esthetic result demonstrated the effectiveness of both high- and low-intensity laser therapy on the excision of Fordyce granules.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2010 Dec 9(4) 321-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21122053

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The effectiveness of low laser therapy in subacromial impingement syndrome: a randomized placebo controlled double-blind prospective study.

Dogan SK, Ay S, Evcik D

Department of Physical Rehabilitation and Medicine, Ufuk University, Ankara, Turkey. sebnemkoldas@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVES: Conflicting results were reported about the effectiveness of Low level laser therapy on musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of 850-nm gallium arsenide aluminum (Ga-As-Al) laser therapy on pain, range of motion and disability in subacromial impingement syndrome. METHODS: A total of 52 patients (33 females and 19 males with a mean age of 53.59 +/- 11.34 years) with subacromial impingement syndrome were included. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. Group I (n = 30, laser group) received laser therapy (5 joule/cm(2) at each point over maximum 5-6 painful points for 1 minute). Group II (n = 22, placebo laser group) received placebo laser therapy. Initially cold pack (10 minutes) was applied to all of the patients. Also patients were given an exercise program including range of motion, stretching and progressive resistive exercises. The therapy program was applied 5 times a week for 14 sessions. Pain severity was assessed by using visual analogue scale. Range of motion was measured by goniometer. Disability was evaluated by using Shoulder Pain and Disability Index. RESULTS: In group I, statistically significant improvements in pain severity, range of motion except internal and external rotation and SPADI scores were observed compared to baseline scores after the therapy (p < 0.05). In Group II, all parameters except range of motion of external rotation were improved (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were recorded between the groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The Low level laser therapy seems to have no superiority over placebo laser therapy in reducing pain severity, range of motion and functional disability.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2010 65(10) 1019-22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21120304

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Management of myofascial pain: low-level laser therapy versus occlusal splints.

Oz S, Gokcen-Rohlig B, Saruhanoglu A, Tuncer EB

Department of Maxillofacial Prosthodontics, University of Istanbul Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey.

The present study was designed to compare the effects of low-level laser with occlusal splints in patients with signs and symptoms of myofascial pain (MP) dysfunction syndrome. A total of 40 (34 women and 6 men, with a mean age of 32.84 [SD, 10.70] years) were selected after the diagnosis of MP according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorder. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: study group (n = 20) and control group (n = 20). Low-level laser was applied to patients in the study group 2 times per week, for a total of 10 sessions. Patients in the control group were instructed to wear occlusal splints 24 h/d for 3 months. The functional examination was based on Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorder and pressure pain threshold values were obtained with the aid of an algometer in both groups. Patients’ self-report of pain was evaluated with visual analog scale. Comparisons were made within and between the groups before and after treatment. Vertical movements showed statistically significant improvements after the treatments in both groups (P < 0.01), but when the groups were compared with each other, there were no significant difference between the groups. In both groups, tenderness to palpation of the muscles decreased significantly. Pressure pain threshold evaluations and visual analog scale scores revealed similar results, too. This particular type of low-level laser therapy (820 nm, 3 J/cm2, 300-mW output power) is as effective as occlusal splint in pain release and mandibular movement improvement in MP.

J Craniofac Surg 2010 Nov 21(6) 1722-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21119408

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Comparative Effects of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound and Low-Level Laser Therapy on Injured Skeletal Muscle.

Renno AC, Toma RL, Feitosa SM, Fernandes K, Bossini PS, de Oliveira P, Parizotto N, Ribeiro DA

1 Department of Biosciences, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) , Santos, SP, Brazil .

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (US) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on injured skeletal muscle after cryolesion by means of histopathological analysis and immunohistochemistry for cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2). Thirty-five male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups: intact control group with uninjured and untreated animals; injured control group with muscle injury and no treatment; LLLT-treated group with muscle injury treated with 830-nm laser; and US-treated group with muscle injury treated with US. Treatments started 24 h postsurgery and were performed during six sessions. LLLT-treated animals presented minor degenerative changes of muscle tissue. Exposure to US reduced tissue injuries induced by cryolesion, but less effectively than LLLT. A large number of COX-2 positive cells were found in untreated injured rats, whereas COX-2 immunoexpression was lower in both LLLT- and US-treated groups. This study revealed that both LLLT and US therapies have positive effects on muscle metabolism after an injury in rats, but LLLT seems to produce a better response.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Dec 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21166589

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Low-level laser in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: clinical, electrophysiological, and ultrasonographical evaluation.

Tascioglu F, Degirmenci NA, Ozkan S, Mehmetoglu O

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Osmangazi University, Meselik Campus, 26480, Eskisehir, Turkey, fundat@ogu.edu.tr.

The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Sixty patients with CTS were included in this placebo-controlled and double-blind study and randomly assigned to three treatment groups: active laser with a dosage of 1.2 J/per painful point, active laser with a dosage of 0.6 J/per painful point, and placebo groups. A total of 5 points across the median nerve trace were irradiated with Gal-Al-As diode laser. All groups were treated 5 times per week for 3 weeks. Clinical assessments included pain intensity, grip strength, symptom severity score (SSS), functional status score (FSS), nerve conduction studies, and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve as measured by ultrasonography. Compared to baseline, post-treatment VAS scores (group 1, P < 0.001; group 2, P < 0.001; group 3, P < 0.01), grip strength (P < 0.05), SSS scores (group 1, P < 0.001; group 2, P < 0.001; group 3, P < 0.01), and FSS scores (P < 0.05) improved significantly in all groups. Only sensorial nerve velocity measurements on the palmar region showed a significant improvement in both active laser groups (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in any of the outcome measures among the groups. With the chosen laser type and dose regimen, the results suggested that LLLT was no more effective than placebo in CTS.

Rheumatol Int 2010 Dec 1

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21120497

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[Comparative analysys of immunocorrective effect of ultraviolet irradiation of autoblood and plasmapheresis in patients with recurrent polypous rhinosinusitis.]

Shagova VS, Mashkova TA

Voronezhskaia gosudarstvennaia meditsinskaia akademiia im. N.N. Burdenko.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immune status of patients with chronically recurring polypous rhinosinusitis (CRPS) for the identification of the key markers of immune disorders. Assessment of the efficiency of traditional therapy during the postoperative period demonstrated that it was very low in terms of beneficial effect on the major components of the immune system, T and B lymphocytes. Determination of the frequency of immune disorders during irradiation of autoblood with ultraviolet light and plasmapheresis in the postoperative period and evaluation of “true” effects of these treatments revealed their significant quantitative immunostimulating action. Integral evaluation (rank-sum analysis) demonstrated similar therapeutic efficiency of the two methods.

Vestn Otorinolaringol 2010 (5) 15-19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21191344

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Resonance frequency analysis of orthodontic miniscrews subjected to light-emitting diode photobiomodulation therapy.

Uysal T, Ekizer A, Akcay H, Etoz O, Guray E

Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.

The aim of this prospective experimental study was to evaluate the effect of light-emitting diode (LED) photobiomodulation therapy (LPT) on the stability of immediately loaded miniscrews under different force levels, as assessed by resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Sixty titanium orthodontic miniscrews with a length of 8 mm and a diameter of 1.4 mm were implanted into cortical bone by closed flap technique in each proximal tibia of 15 New Zealand white adult male rabbits (n = 30). The animals were randomly divided into irradiated and control groups under different force levels (0, 150, and 300 cN). OsseoPulse(R) LED device (Biolux Research Ltd.) 618 nm wavelength and 20 mW/cm(2) output power irradiation (20 minutes/day) was applied to the miniscrews for 10 days. The RFA records were performed at miniscrew insertion session (T1) and 21 days after surgery (T2). Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for statistical evaluation at P < 0.005 level. It was found that initial primer stability of all miniscrews was similar in all groups at the start of the experimental procedure. Statistically significant differences were found for changes in implant stability quotient (ISQ) values between LED-photobiomodulated group and the control (0 cN, P = 0.001; 150 cN, P < 0.001; and 300 cN, P < 0.001). Significant increase was found in ISQ values of LPT applied miniscrews under 0 cN (+11.63 ISQ), 150 cN (+10.50 ISQ), and 300 cN (+7.00 ISQ) force during observation period. By the increase of force levels, it was determined that ISQ values decreased in non-irradiated control miniscrews. Within the limits of this in vivo study, the present RFA findings suggest that LPT might have a favourable effect on healing and attachment of titanium orthodontic miniscrews.

Eur J Orthod 2010 Dec 27

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21187526

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Violet laser acupuncture-part 1: effects on brain circulation.

Litscher G, Huang T, Wang L, Zhang W

Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Violet laser acupuncture using a wavelength of 405 nm has been investigated in only a few scientific studies. The aim of this study was to provide selective evidence of a specific effect of violet laser acupuncture on mean cerebral blood flow velocity using a Doppler ultrasound technique. A transcranial Doppler sonography construction was developed especially for this study to monitor blood flow profiles in the basilar and middle cerebral arteries simultaneously and continuously. The acupuncture point Dazhui on the upper back was tested in a controlled study with 10 healthy volunteers (24.9 +/- 3.3 years, mean age +/- SD; 5 females, 5 males). In addition to an on/off-effect, violet laser stimulation increased the blood flow velocity in the basilar artery significantly (p < 0.001) compared with the reference interval before laser acupuncture. In the middle cerebral artery, only minimal, nonsignificant changes in blood flow velocity were seen. Metal needle acupuncture at the same point intensified the effects; however, blood flow profiles did not change significantly during and after stimulation with a deactivated violet laser.

J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2010 Dec 3(4) 255-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21185540

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Effect of Photobiomodulation on Vinblastine-Poisoned Murine HERS Cells.

Hodgson BD, Pyszka B, Henry MM, Buchmann E, Whelan HT

1 Marquette University , Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of near-infrared (NIR) photobiomodulation on the proliferation and glutathione levels in murine Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells after poisoning with vinblastine. Background: Photobiomodulation has been shown to improve wound healing in a number of animal models. There have been no studies on the effect of photobiomodulation on cancer-related chemotherapy injury to the cells that initiate tooth root growth. Materials and Methods: Control groups consisted of murine HERS cells without vinblastine (VB-) and cells with vinblastine at 10, 20, and 30 ng/mL (VB10, VB20, and VB30). Experimental groups consisted of these same groups with light therapy (VB-L, VB10L, VB20L, and VB30L). The cells were exposed to vinblastine for 1 h. Photobiomodulation consisted of a 75-cm(2) gallium-aluminum-arsenide light-emitting diode (LED) array at an energy density of 12.8 J/cm(2), delivered with 50 mW/cm(2) power over 256 s. Results: Vinblastine alone significantly decreased HERS cell proliferation and glutathione levels at all concentrations (VB10 [-55%, p < 1.0 x 10(-8)]; VB20 [-72%, p < 1.0 x 10(-9)]; VB30 [-80%, p < 1.0 x 10(-10)]; and VB10 [-36%, p < 0.0001]; VB20 [-49%, p < 1.0 x 10(-6)]; VB30 [-53%, p < 1.0 x 10(-7)] respectively). Photobiomodulation significantly increased cell proliferation at all levels of vinblastine exposure (VB10L [+50%, p < 0.0001]; VB20L [+45%, p < 0.05]; VB30 [+39%, p < 0.05]) but not of the control (+22%, p = 0.063). The photobiomodulation significantly increased glutathione production in all concentrations of vinblastine except 20 ng/mL (VB10L [+39%, p = 0.007]; VB20L [+19%, p = 0.087]; VB30 [+14%, p = 0.025]) and the control (+12%, p = 0.13). Conclusions: Photobiomodulation demonstrated an improvement in proliferation and glutathione levels in vinblastine-poisoned murine HERS cells.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Dec 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21182449

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Dentine caries inhibition through CO(2) laser (10.6mum) irradiation and fluoride application, in vitro.

Esteves-Oliveira M, Zezell DM, Ana PA, Yekta SS, Lampert F, Eduardo CP

Department of Operative Dentistry, Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry (ZPP), RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether dentine irradiation with a pulsed CO(2) laser (10.6mum) emitting pulses of 10ms is capable of reducing dentine calcium and phosphorus losses in an artificial caries model. DESIGN: The 90 dentine slabs obtained from bovine teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n=15): negative control group (GC); positive control group, treated with fluoride 1.23% (GF); and laser groups irradiated with 8J/cm(2) (L8); irradiated as in L8+fluoride 1.23% (L8F); irradiated with 11J/cm(2) (L11); irradiated as in L11+fluoride 1.23% (L11F). After laser irradiation the samples were submitted to a pH-cycling model for 9 days. The calcium and phosphorous contents in the de- and remineralization solutions were measured by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer – ICP-OES. Additionally intrapulpal temperature measurements were performed. The obtained data were analysed by means of ANOVA and Tukey’s test (alpha=0.05). RESULTS: In the demineralization solutions the groups L11F and GF presented significantly lower means of calcium and phosphorous losses than the control group; and in L11F means were significantly lower than in the fluoride group. Both irradiation parameters tested caused intrapulpal temperature increase below 2 degrees C. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that under the conditions of this study, CO(2) laser irradiation (10.6mum) with 11J/cm(2) (540mJ and 10Hz) of fluoride treated dentine surfaces decreases the loss of calcium and phosphorous in the demineralization process and does not cause excessive temperature increase inside the pulp chamber.

Arch Oral Biol 2010 Dec 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21176828

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Oral Mucositis Prevention by Low-Level Laser Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Phase III Randomized Study.

Gouvea de Lima A, Villar RC, de Castro G Jr, Antequera R, Gil E, Rosalmeida MC, Federico MH, Snitcovsky IM

Departamento de Radiologia, Disciplina de Oncologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

PURPOSE: Oral mucositis is a major complication of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Low-level laser (LLL) therapy is a promising preventive therapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LLL therapy to decrease severe oral mucositis and its effect on RT interruptions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In the present randomized, double-blind, Phase III study, patients received either gallium-aluminum-arsenide LLL therapy 2.5 J/cm(2) or placebo laser, before each radiation fraction. Eligible patients had to have been diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or metastases to the neck with an unknown primary site. They were treated with adjuvant or definitive CRT, consisting of conventional RT 60-70 Gy (range, 1.8-2.0 Gy/d, 5 times/wk) and concurrent cisplatin. The primary endpoints were the oral mucositis severity in Weeks 2, 4, and 6 and the number of RT interruptions because of mucositis. The secondary endpoints included patient-reported pain scores. To detect a decrease in the incidence of Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis from 80% to 50%, we planned to enroll 74 patients. RESULTS: A total of 75 patients were included, and 37 patients received preventive LLL therapy. The mean delivered radiation dose was greater in the patients treated with LLL (69.4 vs. 67.9 Gy, p = .03). During CRT, the number of patients diagnosed with Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis treated with LLL vs. placebo was 4 vs. 5 (Week 2, p = 1.0), 4 vs. 12 (Week 4, p = .08), and 8 vs. 9 (Week 6, p = 1.0), respectively. More of the patients treated with placebo had RT interruptions because of mucositis (6 vs. 0, p = .02). No difference was detected between the treatment arms in the incidence of severe pain. CONCLUSIONS: LLL therapy was not effective in reducing severe oral mucositis, although a marginal benefit could not be excluded. It reduced RT interruptions in these head-and-neck cancer patients, which might translate into improved CRT efficacy.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010 Dec 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21163585

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[Treatment of epicondylitis – a current review].

Schleicher I, Szalay G, Kordelle J

Klinik fur Unfallchirurgie, Universitatsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH in Giessen. iris.schleicher@ortho.med.unigiessen.de

Lateral epicondylitis or tennis elbow is a common injury, which affects not only people who play tennis but occurs with many different activities. It reflects overuse of the extensor muscles of the forearm. There are some other pathologies which have to be separated from epicondylitis. The choice of different treatments is hard to overlook and there are only a few good clinical trials which support one treatment option by means of evidence based medicine. During the acute phase topical NSAIR, steroid injections, ultrasound and acupuncture are helpful. There is no consensus about the effectiveness of physiotherapy, orthoses, laser, electrotherapy or botulinumtoxininjections. During the chronic phase none of the different treatment modalities is effective according to criterias of evidence based medicine. By now, it has not been proven whether patients profit during that time of physiotherapy, orthoses, extracorporeal shock wave therapy or an operation. Whether orthobiological treatment options may play a role in the future is presently uncertain.

Sportverletz Sportschaden 2010 Dec 24(4) 218-24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21157658

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Laser-induced alveolar bone changes during orthodontic movement: a histological study on rodents.

Habib FA, Gama SK, Ramalho LM, Cangussu MC, Santos Neto FP, Lacerda JA, Araujo TM, Pinheiro AL

Centro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial Prof. Jose Edimo Soares Martins, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess by light microscopy changes in alveolar bone during orthodontic movement in rats. BACKGROUND: Orthodontic movement causes both removal and deposition of bone tissue. The use of laser phototherapy (LPT) is considered an enhancement factor for bone repair. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 15) and subdivided according to animal death (7,13, and 19 days). Half of the animals in each group were treated with LPT during orthodontic movement. After animal death, specimens were processed and underwent histological and semi-quantitative analyses (HE and Sirius red). RESULTS: LPT-irradiated specimens showed significantly higher numbers of osteoclasts when compared with controls at both 7 (p = 0.015) and 19 (p = 0.007) days, as well as significant increases in the number of osteoblasts (p = 0.015) between days 7 and 13. The amount of collagen matrix was significantly reduced between days 7 and 13 at both pressure and tension sites in controls (p = 0.015) but not in LPT-treated animals. LPT-treated subjects showed significantly greater deposition of collagen matrix at the pressure site at both the thirteenth (p = 0.007) and nineteenth days (p = 0.001). At the tension site, a significant increase in the amount of collagen matrix was observed in non-irradiated specimens (p = 0.048) between days 7 and 19. CONCLUSIONS: LPT caused significant histological changes in the alveolar bone during induced tooth movement, including alterations in the number of both osteoclasts and osteoblasts and in collagen deposition in both pressure and tension areas.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Dec 28(6) 823-30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21142724

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Effects of two low-intensity laser therapy protocols on experimental tooth movement.

Marquezan M, Bolognese AM, Araujo MT

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. marianamarquezan@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this in vivo study was to determine the effect of two low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) protocols on macroscopic and microscopic parameters of experimental tooth movement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To induce experimental tooth movement in rats, 40 cN of orthodontic force was applied to the left first molars. Next, a gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) diode laser with a wavelength of 830 nm and power output of 100 mW was applied with fluence of 6000 J/cm(2) on the area around the moved tooth. Two different application protocols were used in the experimental groups: one with daily irradiation and another with irradiation during early stages. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed at days 2 and 7 of tooth movement. The amount of tooth movement was measured with a caliper, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and picrosirius staining were used to enable identification of osteoclasts and immature collagen, respectively. RESULTS: The amount of tooth movement did not differ between the irradiated and nonirradiated groups on days 2 and 7 of the experiment. On day 2, no difference was observed in the number of osteoclasts or the percentage of immature collagen. On day 7, there was an increase in the number of osteoclasts after daily applications of LILT, while two applications produced no significant difference from control. The amount of immature collagen on the tension side significantly increased in the nonirradiated group and when LILT was applied for only 2 d, whereas it was shown to be inhibited by daily LILT applications (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The tested LILT protocols were unable to accelerate tooth movement. Even though the number of osteoclasts increased when LILT was applied daily, the repair at the tension zone was inhibited.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Dec 28(6) 757-62

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21142720

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Placebos and controls in phototherapy.

Lanzafame RJ

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Dec 28(6) 717-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21142717

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Low-intensity laser irradiation stimulates wound healing in diabetic wounded fibroblast cells (WS1).

Houreld N, Abrahamse H

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, South Africa.

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes suffer from slow-to-heal wounds, which often necessitate amputation. Low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) has been shown to reduce the healing time in such patients. This study aimed to determine the effect of different wavelengths of LILI on cellular migration, viability, and proliferation in a wounded diabetic cell model. METHODS: Diabetic wounded and unwounded human skin fibroblast cells (WS1) were irradiated at 632.8, 830, or 1,064 nm with 5 J/cm(2). Cellular morphology and migration were determined microscopically, while cellular viability was determined by ATP luminescence, and proliferation was determined by basic fibroblast growth factor expression and alkaline phosphatase activity. RESULTS: Diabetic wounded cells irradiated at 1,064 nm showed a lesser degree of migration, viability, and proliferation compared to cells irradiated at 632.8 or 830 nm. Cells irradiated at 632.8 nm showed a higher degree of haptotaxis and migration as well as ATP luminescence compared to cells irradiated at 830 nm. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that LILI of diabetic wounded cells in the visible range (632.8 nm) was more beneficial to wound healing than irradiating the same cells to wavelengths in the infrared range. Cells irradiated at a longer wavelength of 1,064 nm performed worse.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2010 Dec 12(12) 971-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21128844

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Photounbinding of calmodulin from a family of CaM binding peptides.

Neumuller KG, Elsayad K, Reisecker JM, Waxham MN, Heinze KG

Department of Optical Engineering, Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria.

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that fluorescently labeled antibodies can be dissociated from their antigen by illumination with laser light. The mechanism responsible for the photounbinding effect, however, remains elusive. Here, we give important insights into the mechanism of photounbinding and show that the effect is not restricted to antibody/antigen binding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present studies of the photounbinding of labeled calmodulin (CaM) from a set of CaM-binding peptides with different affinities to CaM after one- and two-photon excitation. We found that the photounbinding effect becomes stronger with increasing binding affinity. Our observation that photounbinding can be influenced by using free radical scavengers, that it does not occur with either unlabeled protein or non-fluorescent quencher dyes, and that it becomes evident shortly after or with photobleaching suggest that photounbinding and photobleaching are closely linked. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The experimental results exclude surface effects, or heating by laser irradiation as potential causes of photounbinding. Our data suggest that free radicals formed through photobleaching may cause a conformational change of the CaM which lowers their binding affinity with the peptide or its respective binding partner.

PLoS One 2010 5(11) e14050

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21124984

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[Proliferation of normal and tumor cells at the presence of serum from patients with breast cancer after phototherapy with visible and near infrared light].

Simultaneous low-intensity visible (VIS) and near infrared (nIR) irradiation from laser and non-laser sources was used for treatment of complications developing in cancer patients after surgical tumor resection, chemo- and radiation therapy. However, the question remains about the impact of this physiotherapeutic method on proliferative activity of the patients’ tumor cells and cells involved in wound healing, fibroblasts (FB) and keratinocytes (KC). In this paper, we studied the effect blood serum obtained from the patients with breast cancer after the course of irradiation with visible and NI light (480–3400 nm, 95 % polarization, 40 mW/cm2, 12 J/cm2) in postoperative period on the proliferative activity of primary cultures of human FB and KC, and of several human tumor cell lines (BT-474, HBL-100, Hs578T and A431). Seven-day course of phototherapy increase proliferation of FB (as compared to the initial level) and KC (as compared to postoperative level) by 22 and 28 %, respectively. The tumor cells BT-474, Hs578T and A431 showed statistically significant decrease in proliferative activity compared with the preoperative (initial) level by 31.5, 8.97 and 6.47%, respectively, whereas the cells BT-474, HBL-100, Hs578T and A431 also reduced their proliferative activity by 32,16, 8.65 and 6.26%, respectively, as compared with postperative level. The results obtained demonstrate the safety of the phototherapy with the visible and NI light for BC patients in the postoperative period.

Tsitologiia 2010 52(9) 785-92

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21105368

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Noninvasive cutaneous blood flow assessment as a response predictor for visible light therapy on segmental vitiligo: A prospective pilot study.

Yu WT, Yu HS, Wu CS, Lee CH, Cheng YC, Lin WT, Chen GS, Lan CC

Department of Dermatology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Health Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Department of Public Health, College of Health Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Department of Dermatology, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Center of Excellence for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Background: Visible light is a treatment option for segmental vitiligo (SV), and visible light-induced repigmentation is associated normalization of sympathetic dysfunction. Currently, it is difficult to predict individual patient’s response to visible light therapy. Objectives: To test whether cutaneous blood flow can serve as a response predictor for visible light on treating SV. Patients and methods: Fourteen patients with SV were recruited in this prospective pilot study. Laser Doppler flowmeter was used to evaluate the cutaneous blood flow over SV lesion and contralateral normal skin. The pre-treatment blood flow evaluation consisting of two stages was performed. Subsequently, the patients received regular visible light treatment for 3 months, and a comparison of the pre-treatment blood flow patterns between the visible light responding and the non-responding groups was carried out at the end of the study period. Results: The SV lesions showed different blood flow profiles as compared to their contralateral normal skin. At the end of 3 month study period, seven (50%) patients showed clinical repigmentation of more than 25%. Additional analyses revealed that the visible light responding group showed a more consistent occurrence of increased blood flow after stage 2 of the pre-treatment evaluation while the non-responding counterpart showed no significant changes. Conclusions: Normalization of sympathetic dysfunction may be accountable for visible light’s efficacy on treating SV. Evaluation of cutaneous blood flow with or without prior visible light irradiation on cold-stressed SV lesions may serve as a treatment response predictor.

Br J Dermatol 2010 Nov 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21087230

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In vitro effect of low intensity laser on the cytotoxicity produced by substances released by bleaching gel.

Dantas CM, Vivan CL, Ferreira LS, Freitas PM, Marques MM

School of Dentistry, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

This in vitro study aimed to analyze the effect of different parameters of phototherapy with low intensity laser on the viability of human dental pulp fibroblasts under the effect of substances released by bleaching gel. Cells were seeded into 96 wells plates (1 x 10(3) cells/well) and placed in contact with culture medium conditioned by a 35 % hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel for 40 minutes, simulating the clinical condition of the in-office bleaching treatment. Cells cultured in ideal growth conditions served as positive control group (PC), and the cells grown in conditioned medium and non-irradiated served as negative control group (NC). Cells grown in conditioned medium were submitted to a single irradiation with a diode laser (40 mW, 0.04 cm(2)) emitting at visible red (660 nm; RL) or near infrared (780 nm; NIR) using punctual technique, in contact mode and energy densities of 4, 6 or 10 J/cm(2). The cell viability was analyzed through the MTT reduction assay immediately and 24 hours after the irradiation. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). The cell viability increased significantly in 24 hours within each group. The PC presented cell viability significantly higher than NC in both experimental times. Only the NIR/10 J/cm(2) group presented cell viability similar to that of PC in 24 hours. The phototherapy with low intensity laser in defined parameters is able to compensate the cytotoxic effects of substances released by 35 % hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel.

Braz Oral Res 2010 Dec 24(4) 460-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21180969

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Low-level laser therapy associated to N-acetylcysteine lowers macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) mRNA expression and generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in alveolar macrophages.

de Lima FM, Villaverde AB, Albertini R, de Oliveira AP, Faria Neto HC, Aimbire F

Institute of Research and Development, IP&D, UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to investigate the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) effect on alveolar macrophages (AM) activated by oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BACKGROUND DATA: LLLT has been reported to actuate positively relieving the late and early symptoms of airway and lung inflammation. It is not known if the increased MIP-2 mRNA expression and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation observed in acute lung inflammation (ALI) can be influenced by LLLT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat AM cell line (AMJ2-C11) was cultured with LPS or H(2)O(2) and laser irradiated. MIP-2 mRNA and ROS production in the AM were evaluated by Real Time-PCR and the 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) respectively. The NF-kappaB protein in the AM was measured by the enzyme linked immunoassay method. To investigate the antioxidant effect of laser, the AM were prebathed with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and then irradiated with laser. LLLT was also studied in the presence of an inhibitor of NF-kappaB (BMS 205820). In addition, the effect of LLLT on NF-kappaB protein was investigated. RESULTS: LLLT attenuated the MIP-2 mRNA expression and intracellular ROS generation after LPS or H(2)O(2). When the AM were pretreated with NAC, the laser effect was potentiated. BMS 205820 suppresses the effect of LLLT on MIP-2 mRNA expression and ROS generation, stimulated by LPS or H(2)O(2). On NF-kappaB transcription factor, both the LLLT and NAC reduced this protein in the AM exposed to LPS or H(2)O(2). The synergistic effect between LLLT and NAC on the reduction the NF-kappaB was also evidenced. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that there is a synergistic action of LLLT with NAC on MIP-2 mRNA expression from LPS- or H(2)O(2)-stimulated AM, and that both ROS intracellular generation and NF-kB signaling seem to be involved.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Dec 28(6) 763-71

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21142721

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LLLT Promotes Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 (VEGFR1) Expression in Endothelial and Non-Endothelial Cells of Mice Gastrocnemius Exposed to Snake Venom.

Dourado DM, Favero S, Matias R, Carvalho PD, da Cruz-Hofling MA

Departmento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Agrarias e da Saude, Universidade Anhanguera – UNIDERP, CEP 79037-280, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

Crotalinae snake venoms cause severe local myonecrosis and microvasculature failure at the bite site. We evaluated whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) could accelerate angiogenesis and myoregeneration in male Swiss mice injected with Bothrops moojeni venom through immunohistochemistry of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1). Envenomed gastrocnemius was either unirradiated (V) or irradiated with HeNe (VHN, 632.8nm) or GaAs (VGA, 904nm, 10000 Hz). Animals sacrificed at 3 and 12h were irradiated once (4 J/cm(2) ), at 24h (twice), and at 3, 7, 21d (4, 8, 22 times, respectively). At 3d, LLLT increased angiogenesis (80%:HeNe vs. 40%:GaAs), decreased neutrophils and increased proliferation of regenerating cells. However, after 21d, myoregeneration, observed mainly in the VHN-group, appeared delayed compared to the V-group. Since LLLT improved revascularization, the suggestive delay in myoregeneration could be a dose-response effect caused by multiple irradiations. The immunodetection of VEGFR-1 in neutrophils, macrophages, satellite cells, fibroblasts, Schwann cells and skeletal and smooth muscle fibers (not seen in saline-controls) at only the acute stages of envenoming suggests a mediator role for VEGFR-1 in local alterations. This is the first time that VEGFR-1 expression, and its modulation by photostimulation, has been demonstrated in endothelial and non-endothelial cells of snake envenomed skeletal muscle.

Photochem Photobiol 2010 Dec 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21166811

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The effect of diode laser irradiation on dentin as a preventive measure against dental erosion: an in vitro study.

de-Melo MA, Passos VF, Alves JJ, Barros EB, Santiago SL, Rodrigues LK

Faculty of Pharmacy, Dentistry and Nursing, Federal University of Ceara, Cap. Francisco Pedro S/N – Rodolfo Teofilo, 60430-170, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, maryannesmelo@yahoo.com.

Increasing rates of non-carious cervical lesions due to dental erosion, exposure of dentinal tubules, and hypersensitivity to environmental stimuli have led to the development of new prevention strategies. This study evaluated the effects of a low-intensity diode laser (lambda = 808 nm) on the dentinal chemical composition and prevention of demineralization. In addition, the study monitored temperature changes during the course of irradiation. Forty dentin specimens were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 10): G1 – No treatment (control), G2 – irradiated with 15 J/cm(2), G3 – irradiated with 30 J/cm(2), and G4 – irradiated with 60 J/cm(2). Each specimen was partially covered with nail varnish, treated according to the group irradiation levels, and exposed to an erosive challenge (1.0 M hydrochloric acid) for 5 min. Afterwards, dentin loss was profilometrically analyzed and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Intrapulpal temperatures were measured during the dentin irradiation. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05) were performed to assess differences. For all irradiated groups, intrapulpal temperature changes were less than 3 degrees C. The G2 group showed statistically significant differences when compared to the other groups, representing the lowest temperature increase. A quantitative element analysis via EDX did not significantly differ (p < 0.05) for Ca, P, F, O, or C between the four groups when measured after irradiation/erosion. The mean wear rates (+/- SD, mum) were 35.66 +/- 7.28; 40.70 +/- 5.03; 38.17 +/- 10.81 and 25.25 +/- 6.87 for G1-G4, respectively. The G4 group statistically differed from all other groups representing the lowest wear rate. These results suggest that dentin irradiation, using a diode laser with levels set at 60 J/cm(2), may induce inhibitory effects on root dentin demineralization without causing any harmful thermal effects. However, the exact mechanism of the action of the laser remains unclear.

Lasers Med Sci 2010 Nov 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21103901

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Basic study of charring detection at the laser catheter-tip using back scattering light measurement during therapeutic laser irradiation in blood.

Takahashi M, Ito A, Kajihara T, Matsuo H, Arai T

School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, KEIO University (Japan).

The purpose of this study is to investigate transient process of the charring at the laser catheter-tip in blood during therapeutic laser irradiation by the back scattering light measurement to detect precursor state of the charring. We took account of using photodynamic therapy for arrhythmia in blood through the laser catheter. We observed the influence of the red laser irradiation (lambda=663 nm) upon the shape of red blood cells (RBCs). The RBCs aggregation, round formation, and hemolysis were took place sequentially before charring. With a model blood sandwiched between glass plates simulated as a catheter-tip boundary, we measured diffuse-reflected-light power and transmitted-light power simultaneously and continuously by a microscopic optics during the laser irradiation. We found that measured light power changes were originated with RBCs shape change induced by temperature rise due to the laser irradiation. A gentle peak following a slow descending was observed in the diffuse-reflected-light power history. This history might indicate the precursor state of the charring, in which the hemolysis might be considered to advance rapidly. We think that the measurement of diffuse-reflected-light power history might be able to detect precursor state of charring at the catheter-tip in blood.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2010 1 2759-61

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21096215

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Bactericidal effects of 2.94 microm and 1.67 microm laser.

Kukidome N, Amagai T, Osuka K, Kato J, Hirai Y, Kato T, Aida S

Division of General Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital, Chiba, Japan. kukidome@tdc.ac.jp

The bactericidal effects of lasers with wavelengths of 1.67 and 2.94 microm on cariogenic Streptococcus mutans were investigated. Temperature during irradiation was also measured to determine the mechanism underlying the bactericidal effects of the lasers. An aliquot of 2 microl cell suspension of S. mutans JC-2 strain was placed on anhydrous quartz or dentin plate, covering an area of approximately 5.0 mm in diameter to a depth of approximately 0.1 mm. Cell suspension was then irradiated at a power of 0.8 W (3.1 J/cm(2)) at a rate of 40 pps for 30 sec. After irradiation, the plate was put into a bottle containing PBS and vigorously voltated. Solution was serially diluted and inoculated on MS agar. After incubation anaerobically for 72 hr, colony forming units on the agar were counted. The experimental group, the number of bacteria decreased significantly compared to the control group under all conditions. No significant differences were observed in effect of wavelength or plate on bactericidal activity. In conclusion, laser irradiation at a wavelength of 1.67 microm for 30 sec showed a bactericidal effect on S. mutans, suggesting that this wavelength is more useful than 2.94 microm due to greater tissue penetration.

Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 2010 51(4) 185-92

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21139371

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Inaccuracies in laser therapy meta-analysis for neck pain?

Bjordal JM, Lopes-Martins R, Johnson MI, Chow R

Bergen University College, Norway.

J Physiother 2010 56(4) 282

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21091418

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[Low intensity laser therapy effects on cell proliferation and differentiation: review of the literature].

Henriques AC, Cazal C, Castro JF

UFRN, Natal, RN, BR. aguidacgh@gmail.com

Low energy laser has been used as an adjuvant therapy or as a therapeutic tool in many different areas of Dentistry. It is recognized by its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, and also as a tissue repair inductor. Low intensity laser property in stimulate cell proliferation during wound healing and its biomodulation mechanisms are discussed in this paper. These properties have already been established for cultured benign cells, but there is a controversy when extended to the spectrum of the malignant neoplastic process, normally generating great discussions. The objective of this work was to perform a literature review about the low intensity laser capacity in induce cell proliferation. The discussion is specially concerned about its effects on malignant cells.

Rev Col Bras Cir 2010 Aug 37(4) 295-302

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21085848

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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1 Response to LLLT Literature Watch for December 2010

  1. Elisabeth Beavan says:

    From the 2010 NYC course. Happy New Year. I have 2 questions please.
    1. Do you know of anyone using Laser with ALS?
    2. Marc told me to use the Laser on deeper tissues eg at the shoulder, instead of the LED for facilitation of healing. this confused me a bit. Could you tell me where would I look in your literature to understand the relationship between the target depth relative to the treatment?

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