THOR LLLT research, training & conference news Oct 2013

35 papers for you this month: a trial on oral complications in patients with H&N cancer, a meta-analysis of LLLT for oral mucositis, an LLLT neck pain systematic review, a review of laser in orthodontics, a clinical trial on hair growth with LED and laser, and finally another attempt to big up “class IV laser” by misleading readers about parameters. See my rant here.

Effect of low level laser therapy in the reduction of oral complications in patients with cancer of the head and neck submitted to radiotherapy.

Oton-Leite AF, Elias LS, Morais MO, Pinezi JC, Leles CR, Silva MA, Mendonca EF

Department of Oral Medicine (Oral Pathology), Dental School, Federal University of Goias.

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low level laser therapy on reducing the occurrence and severity of oral complications in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Sixty head and neck cancer outpatients from a cancer hospital receiving radiotherapy were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. The laser group was irradiated with an InGaAlP laser and the control received sham laser. The assessment of complications (oral mucositis, pain) was carried out one week after starting radiotherapy, and at the fifteenth and thirtieth sessions of radiotherapy. All patients from both groups showed some degree of oral mucositis. Better outcomes were observed in the laser group when compared with the control in the follow-up sessions, indicating lower degrees of oral mucositis, pain and higher salivary flow (p < .05). These findings support the use of laser therapy as an adjuvant treatment for the control of oral complications.

Spec Care Dentist 2013 Nov 33(6) 294-300

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24164228

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Laser therapy in the control of oral mucositis: a meta-analysis.

Figueiredo AL, Lins L, Cattony AC, Falcao AF

Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica, Salvador, BA, Brasil.

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of Laser Therapy in the prevention of oral mucositis (OM) in patients undergoing oncotherapy. METHODS: To this systematic review and meta-analysis a search was performed in MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane using the keywords “laser therapy” and “Oral mucostitis.” The case-control studies included were submitted to odds ratio (OR) analysis, which the cut-off point for statistic calculation was OM grade > 3. We carried out a meta-analysis by BioEstat 5.0, using the Random Effect DerSimonian-Laird statistical analysis. RESULTS: Twelve (studies were included in this systematic review, and the meta-analysis of seven of them showed that LT in patients undergoing oncotherapy is approximately nine times more effective in the prevention of OM grade > 3 than in patients without laser treatment (OR: 9,5281, confidence interval 95% 1,447-52,0354, p=0,0093. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrated significant prophylatic effect of OM grade > 3 in patients undergoing LT. Further studies, with larger sample sizes, are needed for better evaluation of the prophylatic effect of OM grade > 3 by LT.

Rev Assoc Med Bras 2013 September – October 59(5) 467-474

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24119379

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Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) for Neck Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression.

Gross AR, Dziengo S, Boers O, Goldsmith CH, Graham N, Lilge L, Burnie S, White R

McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

PURPOSE: This systematic review update evaluated low level laser therapy (LLLT) for adults with neck pain. METHODS: Computerized searches (root up to Feb 2012) included pain, function/disability, quality of life (QoL) and global perceived effect (GPE). GRADE, effect-sizes, heterogeneity and meta-regression were assessed. RESULTS: Of 17 trials, 10 demonstrated high risk of bias. For chronic neck pain, there was moderate quality evidence (2 trials, 109 participants) supporting LLLT over placebo to improve pain/disability/QoL/GPE up to intermediate-term (IT). For acute radiculopathy, cervical osteoarthritis or acute neck pain, low quality evidence suggested LLLT improves ST pain/function/QoL over a placebo. For chronic myofascial neck pain (5 trials, 188 participants), evidence was conflicting; a meta-regression of heterogeneous trials suggests super-pulsed LLLT increases the chance of a successful pain outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We found diverse evidence using LLLT for neck pain. LLLT may be beneficial for chronic neck pain/function/QoL. Larger long-term dosage trials are needed.

Open Orthop J 2013 7 396-419

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24155802

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Use of laser in orthodontics: applications and perspectives.

Fornaini C, Merigo E, Vescovi P, Lagori G, Rocca J

Oral Medicine and Laser-Assisted Surgery Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Parma, Viale Antonio Gramsci, 14, 43126 Parma, Italy ; Faculty of Odontology, University Hospital “St. Roch”, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 5, rue Pierre Devoluy, 06006 Nice, France.

Laser technology got in these years a more and more important role in modern dentistry and, recently, also in orthodontics was proposed the utilization of laser devices. The aim of this work is to describe the utilization of this technology both in soft and hard oral tissues to improve orthodontic treatment. Several cases, with different wavelengths (532, 810, 980, 1064, 2940 and 10600 nm) and in different times of the treatment (before, during and after) are presented. All the cases reported showed, according to the literature, that the use of the laser related to orthodontic treatment offers several advantages when compared with conventional methods. In the soft tissues surgery it allows to reduce or eliminate the use of anesthetic injection, to avoid use of sutures and to bond bracket in dry enamel; associated with orthophosphoric acid, it gives a stronger adhesion of the brackets to the enamel and, in the case of porcelain brackets, it detaches them without damages; at low power (LLLT) it permits to control the pain of the first period after bonding and, by increasing the speed of teeth movement in the bone, reduces the time of the treatment.

Laser Ther 2013 22(2) 115-24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24155556

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The growth of human scalp hair mediated by visible red light laser and LED sources in males.

Lanzafame RJ, Blanche RR, Bodian AB, Chiacchierini RP, Fernandez-Obregon A, Kazmirek ER

Raymond J. Lanzafame, MD PLLC, Rochester, New York.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to promote hair growth. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on males with androgenic alopecia. METHODS: Forty-four males (18-48 yo, Fitzpatrick I-IV, Hamilton-Norwood IIa-V) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a “TOPHAT655” unit containing 21, 5 mW lasers (655 +/- 5 nm), and 30 LEDS (655 +/- 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day x 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67.3 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. RESULTS: Forty-one patients completed the study (22 active, 19 placebo). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 162.7 +/- 95.9 (N = 22) in placebo and 142.0 +/- 73.0 (N = 22) and active groups respectively (P = 0.426). Post Treatment hair counts were 162.4 +/- 62.5 (N = 19) and 228.7 +/- 102.8 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.0161). A 39% percent hair increase was demonstrated (28.4 +/- 46.2 placebo, N = 19; 67.2 +/- 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.001) Deleting one placebo group subject with a very high baseline count and a very large decrease, resulted in baseline hair counts of 151.1 +/- 81.0 (N = 21) and 142.0 +/- 73.0 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.680). Post treatment hair counts were 158.2 +/- 61.5 (N = 18) and 228.7 +/- 102.8 (N = 22) (P = 0.011), resulting in a 35% percent increase in hair growth (32.3 +/- 44.2, placebo, N = 18; 67.2 +/- 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: LLLT of the scalp at 655 nm significantly improved hair counts in males with androgenetic alopecia.

Lasers Surg Med 2013 Oct 45(8) 487-95

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24078483

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Effect of Class IV Laser Therapy on Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis: A Clinical and Experimental Study.

Ottaviani G, Gobbo M, Sturnega M, Martinelli V, Mano M, Zanconati F, Bussani R, Perinetti G, Long CS, Di Lenarda R, Giacca M, Biasotto M, Zaccchigna S

Division of Oral Pathology, Dental Science Department, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Oral mucositis (OM) is a serious and acute side effect in patients with cancer who receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, often leading to the suspension of therapy and a need for opioid analgesic and enteral/parenteral nutrition, with an effect on patient survival. Among the various interventions proposed in OM management, laser therapy is becoming a recommended treatment option but has limitations due to its heterogeneous laser parameters. Here, we report on our successful clinical experience on the use of class IV laser therapy to treat OM induced by different chemotherapy regimens. To shed light on the mechanisms of action of laser therapy in improving OM resolution, we have developed an animal model of chemotherapy-induced OM, in which we compare the efficacy of the standard low-power laser therapy protocol with an innovative protocol, defined as high-power laser therapy. We show that high-power laser therapy is more effective than low-power laser therapy in improving OM lesion healing, reducing the inflammatory burden, and preserving tissue integrity. In addition, high-power laser therapy has been particularly effective in promoting the formation of new arterioles within the granulation tissue. Our results provide important insights into the mechanism of action of biostimulating laser therapy on OM in vivo and pave a way for clinical experimentation with the use of high-power laser therapy.

Am J Pathol 2013 Oct 3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24096076

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Burning mouth syndrome: a review of recent literature.

Charleston L 4th

UCNS Certified Headache Medicine, ABPN Certified Adult Neurology, Belmont, MI, USA. cec14@me.com

Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex chronic disorder of orofacial sensation that is challenging in both diagnosis and treatment. The diagnosis of BMS is primarily one of exclusion, and recently classification of the disorder has been challenged. Although the exact pathophysiology of primary BMS is unknown, there has been a growing body of work to provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disorder over the past few years. Pharmacological treatments recently reported to have some success in BMS include anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, histamine receptor antagonist, and dopamine agonists. In addition, other therapies and treatments are being considered. This paper reports many of the most recent data related to BMS and its classification, diagnosis, impact on quality of life, pathophysiology, co-morbidities, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2013 Jun 17(6) 336

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23645183

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Effect of Laser Irradiation at Different Wavelengths (940, 808, and 658 nm) on Pressure Ulcer Healing: Results from a Clinical Study.

Taradaj J, Halski T, Kucharzewski M, Urbanek T, Halska U, Kucio C

Department of Physiotherapy Basics, Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Mikolowska 72 Street, 40-065 Katowice, Poland ; Department of Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Medykow 18 Street, 40-752 Katowice, Poland.

THE AIM OF THE STUDY WAS TO ASSESS THE EFFICACY OF LASER THERAPY (AT DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS: 940, 808, and 658 nm) for treating pressure ulcers. The primary endpoint in this trial included both the percentage reduction of the ulcer surface area and the percentage of completely healed wounds after one month of therapy (ulcer healing rate). The secondary endpoint was the ulcer healing rate at the follow-up evaluation (3 months after the end of the study). In total, 72 patients with stage II and III pressure ulcers received laser therapy once daily, 5 times per week for 1 month using a (GaAlAs) diode laser with a maximum output power of 50 mW and continuous radiation emission. Three separate wavelengths were used for the laser treatment: 940 nm (group I), 808 nm (group II), and 658 nm (group III). An average dose of 4 J/cm(2) was applied. In group IV, a placebo was applied (laser device was turned off). The laser therapy at a wavelength of 658 nm appeared to be effective at healing pressure ulcers. The wavelengths of 808 and 940 nm did not have any effect in our study.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 2013 960240

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24159357

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Transcranial application of near-infrared low-level laser can modulate cortical excitability.

Konstantinovic LM, Jelic MB, Jeremic A, Stevanovic VB, Milanovic SD, Filipovic SR

Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia; Klinika za Rehabilitaciju “Dr Miroslav Zotovic”, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Near-infrared low-level laser (NIR-LLL) irradiation penetrates scalp and skull and can reach superficial layers of the cerebral cortex. It was shown to improve the outcome of acute stroke in both animal and human studies. In this study we evaluated whether transcranial laser stimulation (TLS) with NIR-LLL can modulate the excitability of the motor cortex (M1) as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: TLS was applied for 5 minutes over the representation of the right first dorsal interosseal muscle (FDI) in left primary motor cortex (M1), in 14 healthy subjects. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the FDI, elicited by single-pulse TMS, were measured at baseline and up to 30 minutes after the TLS. RESULTS: The average MEP size was significantly reduced during the first 20 minutes following the TLS. The pattern was present in 10 (71.5%) of the participants. The MEP size reduction correlated negatively with the motor threshold at rest. CONCLUSIONS: TLS with NIR-LLL induced transitory reduction of the excitability of the stimulated cortex. These findings give further insights into the mechanisms of TLS effects in the human cerebral cortex, paving the way for potential applications of TLS in treatment of stroke and in other clinical settings. Lasers Surg. Med. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2013 Oct 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24136303

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The adjunct therapeutic effect of lasers with medication in the management of orofacial pain: double blind randomized controlled trial.

Amanat D, Ebrahimi H, Lavaee F, Alipour A

1 Oral & Maxillofacial Department, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences , Shiraz, Iran .

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of laser therapy in conjunction with a pharmaceutical approach to alleviate myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Background data: A few clinical studies have evaluated the analgesic effect of laser therapy on orofacial pain, most of which reported controversial results. Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS), trigeminal neuralgia, and atypical facial pain are the most common facial pain. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of GaAs laser (peak power 10 W; pulse frequency 3000 Hz; average power 0.012 W; wavelength 980 nm; irradiation duration 300 sec; and dose 12.73 J/cm(2)) on the management of common orofacial pain. The laser group (n=30) received 10 sessions of treatment with GaAs laser. The control group (n=30) was treated identically with sham laser. All patients received the appropriate pharmaceutical treatment as well. Visual analog scale (VAS) was recorded for all patients at baseline, and immediately, 2, and 4 months after the final treatment session. The qualitative variables among the groups were compared using the chi(2) test. Results: Both groups demonstrated a significant reduction in pain with the progression of time (p<0.05). The difference between the two groups was not significant (p>0.05). Whereas laser therapy in the present study failed to show any significance over the control group, the role of covariates such as radiation parameters (wave length, dose) should not be overlooked. Conclusions: We found no significant level of efficacy for the GaAs laser in the management of common orofacial pain. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the efficacy of other types of lasers with different parameters in the management of orofacial pains.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Oct 31(10) 474-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24102165

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Phototherapy and nerve injury: focus on muscle response.

Rochkind S, Geuna S, Shainberg A

Faculty of Life Science, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; Division of Peripheral Nerve Reconstruction, Department of Neurosurgery, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address: rochkind@zahav.net.il.

Preservation of biochemical processes in muscles is a major challenge in patients with severe peripheral nerve injury. In this chapter, we address the effects of laser irradiation and biochemical transformation in muscle, using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. The authors attempt to explain the possible mechanism of laser phototherapy applied on skeletal muscle on the basis of literature review and new results. A detailed knowledge of the evolution of endplates acetylcholine receptors and creatine kinase activity following laser irradiation can help to understand the therapeutic effect of laser phototherapy on muscle. This study showed that the laser phototherapy increases biochemical activity in intact muscle and thus could have direct therapeutic applications on muscle, especially during progressive atrophy resulting from peripheral nerve injury.

Int Rev Neurobiol 2013 109 99-109

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24093608

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Lateral epicondylitis: a review of pathology and management.

Ahmad Z, Siddiqui N, Malik SS, Abdus-Samee M, Tytherleigh-Strong G, Rushton N

Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UR, UK. zafar.ahmad@doctors.org.uk

Lateral epicondylitis, or ‘tennis elbow’, is a common condition that usually affects patients between 35 and 55 years of age. It is generally self-limiting, but in some patients it may continue to cause persistent symptoms, which can be refractory to treatment. This review discusses the mechanism of disease, symptoms and signs, investigations, current management protocols and potential new treatments.

Bone Joint J 2013 Sep 95-B(9) 1158-64

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23997125

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Effect of pinpoint plantar long-wavelength infrared light irradiation on subcutaneous temperature and stress markers.

Ryotokuji K, Ishimaru K, Kihara K, Namiki Y, Hozumi N

Faculty of Health Sciences, Ryotokuji University, Urayasu, Japan.

Background and aims: The current investigation was aimed at the development of a novel non-invasive treatment system, “pinpoint plantar long-wavelength infrared light irradiation (PP-LILI)”, which may be able to relieve mental stress and reduce stress-related hormones. Materials (Subjects) and methods: We compared the subcutaneous temperature, blood pressure, the degree of secretion of stress hormones before and after pinpoint irradiations (wavelength: 8-11 mum; output: 30mW). The study enrolled 15 subjects (Japanese healthy adults; 8 males, 7 females; average age 47.8 +/- 14.6 years). Two parts of the planter region were irradiated for 15 min respectively. The stress markers such as ACTH, salivary amylase and cortisol were measured. As well, core body temperature and blood pressure were analyzed before and after the irradiation. Results: A series of experiments revealed increased body temperature, decreased levels of blood pressure and stress markers described above after the irradiation. Conclusions: These results clearly suggest that the PP-LILI system will be quite useful for relieving stress and improvement of homeostatic functions in the body.

Laser Ther 2013 22(2) 93-102

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24155554

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[The role of laser therapy in the combined rehabilitation of the patients presenting with abdominal adhesions].

Naminov VL, Kochergin OIa

This article presents a brief description of the applications low-level laser therapy as an instrument for the treatment and early rehabilitation of the patients presenting with abdominal adhesions at the stage of their hospital stay. The data obtained give reason to recommend laser therapy as a method for the treatment and earlier rehabilitation of the patients with abdominal adhesions.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2013 Jul-Aug (4) 15-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24137929

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Updating on understanding and managing chronic wound.

Park NJ, Allen L, Driver VR

Tahoma Research, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

The art of healing wounds is quite complex. It requires the patient’s local condition in conjunction with their systemic condition to provide the most ideal wound environment. As wound care is expanding with advances in technology, we are facing a variety of different wound care products based on an assortment of bioengineered skin substances, growth factors, oxygen therapies, low frequency ultrasound and even low energy light. While these emerging evidence-based treatments prove to be promising in improving clinical outcomes and quality of life, it challenges providers to provide cost-effective treatment plans. The goal of this paper is to introduce a discussion regarding practical clinical application of various forms of advanced wound technologies in order to optimize the art of wound healing.

Dermatol Ther 2013 May-Jun 26(3) 236-56

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23742284

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Photobiomodulation inside the brain: a novel method of applying near-infrared light intracranially and its impact on dopaminergic cell survival in MPTP-treated mice.

Moro C, Massri NE, Torres N, Ratel D, De Jaeger X, Chabrol C, Perraut F, Bourgerette A, Berger M, Purushothuman S, Johnstone D, Stone J, Mitrofanis J, Benabid AL

CEA-Leti, Grenoble, France; and.

Object Previous experimental studies have documented the neuroprotection of damaged or diseased cells after applying, from outside the brain, near-infrared light (NIr) to the brain by using external light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser devices. In the present study, the authors describe an effective and reliable surgical method of applying to the brain, from inside the brain, NIr to the brain. They developed a novel internal surgical device that delivers the NIr to brain regions very close to target damaged or diseased cells. They suggest that this device will be useful in applying NIr within the large human brain, particularly if the target cells have a very deep location. Methods An optical fiber linked to an LED or laser device was surgically implanted into the lateral ventricle of BALB/c mice or Sprague-Dawley rats. The authors explored the feasibility of the internal device, measured the NIr signal through living tissue, looked for evidence of toxicity at doses higher than those required for neuroprotection, and confirmed the neuroprotective effect of NIr on dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in an acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson disease in mice. Results The device was stable in freely moving animals, and the NIr filled the cranial cavity. Measurements showed that the NIr intensity declined as distance from the source increased across the brain (65% per mm) but was detectable up to 10 mm away. At neuroprotective (0.16 mW) and much higher (67 mW) intensities, the NIr caused no observable behavioral deficits, nor was there evidence of tissue necrosis at the fiber tip, where radiation was most intense. Finally, the intracranially delivered NIr protected SNc cells against MPTP insult; there were consistently more dopaminergic cells in MPTP-treated mice irradiated with NIr than in those that were not irradiated. Conclusions In summary, the authors showed that NIr can be applied intracranially, does not have toxic side effects, and is neuroprotective.

J Neurosurg 2013 Oct 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24160475

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on allergic asthma in rats.

Wang XY, Ma WJ, Liu CS, Li YX

Department of Paediatric, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300211, China.

Asthma is a complex chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that involves the activation of many inflammatory and other types of cells. We investigated the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on allergic asthma in rats and compared its effect with that of the glucocorticoid budesonide. Asthma was induced by challenge and repeated exposure to ovalbumin. Asthmatic rats were then treated with LLLT or budesonide suspension. LLLT at 8 J/cm2 once daily for 21 days could relieve pathological damage and airway inflammation in asthmatic rats. LLLT could decrease the total numbers of cells and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. LLLT could reduce levels of IL-4 and increase IFN-gamma levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum, meanwhile reduce serum IgE levels. Flow cytometry assay showed that LLLT can regulate the Th1/Th2 imbalance of asthmatic rats. LLLT had a similar effect to that of budesonide. These findings suggest that the mechanism of LLLT treatment of asthma is by adjustment of Th1/Th2 imbalance. Thus, LLLT could take over some of the effects of budesonide for the treatment of asthma, thereby reducing some of the side effects of budesonide.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Oct 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24158722

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Laser acupuncture improves memory impairment in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease.

Sutalangka C, Wattanathorn J, Muchimapura S, Thukham-Mee W, Wannanon P, Tong-Un T

Department of Physiology (Neuroscience Program), Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; Integrative Complementary Alternative Medicine Research and Development Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

The burden of Alzheimer’s disease is continually rising globally, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Unfortunately, the efficacy of the therapeutic strategy is still very limited. Because the effect of acupuncture at HT7 can improve learning and memory, the beneficial effect of laser acupuncture, a noninvasive form of acupuncture, at HT7 on memory improvement in patients with Alzheimer’s disease has been a focus of research. To elucidate this issue, we used AF64A, a cholinotoxin, to induce memory impairment in male Wistar rats, which weighed 180-220 g. Then, the animals were treated with laser acupuncture either at HT7 or at a sham acupoint once daily for 10 minutes for a period of 14 days. Spatial memory assessments were performed at 1, 7, and 14 days after AF64A administration and at the end of the experiment, and the changes in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the hippocampus were recorded. The results showed that laser acupuncture significantly suppressed AChE activity in the hippocampus. Although laser acupuncture enhanced SOD and CAT activities, no reduction in MDA level in this area was observed. Therefore, laser acupuncture at HT7 is a potential strategy to attenuate memory impairment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, further research, especially on the toxicity of laser acupuncture following repetitive exposure, is essential.

J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2013 Oct 6(5) 247-51

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24139462

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Analgesic Effect Of Light-Emitting Diode (Led) Therapy At Wavelengths Of 635 And 945 Nm On Bothrops Moojeni Venom-Induced Hyperalgesia.

Nadur-Andrade N, Zamuner SR, Toniolo EF, de Lima CJ, Cogo JC, Dale CS

Universidade Nove de Julho, Rua Vergueiro, 234, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Envenoming induced by Bothrops snakes is characterized by drastic local tissue damage involving hemorrhage, myonecrosis and proeminent inflammatory and hyperalgesic response. The most effective treatment is antivenom therapy, which is ineffective in neutralizing the local response. Herein it was evaluated the effectiveness of light-emitting diode (LED) at wavelengths of 635 and 945 nm in reducing inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops moojeni venom (BmV) in mice, produced by an sub-plantar injection of BmV (1 mug). Mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia were assessed by von Frey filaments at 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after venom injection. The site of BmV injection (1.2 cm2 ) was irradiated by LEDs at 30 min and 3 hours after venom inoculation. Both 635 nm (110 mW, fluence of 3.76 J/cm2 and 41 sec of irradiation time) and 945 nm (120 mW, fluence of 3.8 J/cm2 and 38 sec of irradiation time) LED inhibited mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia of mice alone or in combination with antivenom treatment, even when the symptoms were already present. The effect of phototherapy in reducing local pain induced by BmV should be considered as a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of local symptoms induced after bothropic snake bites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Photochem Photobiol 2013 Oct 17

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Low-level laser therapy (810 nm) protects primary cortical neurons against excitotoxicity in vitro.

Huang YY, Nagata K, Tedford CE, Hamblin MR

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 40 Blossom Street, Boston MA 02114, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, USA; Department of Pathology, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Excitotoxicity describes a pathogenic process whereby death of neurons releases large amounts of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which then proceeds to activate a set of glutamatergic receptors on neighboring neurons (glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and kainate), opening ion channels leading to an influx of calcium ions producing mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Excitotoxicity contributes to brain damage after stroke, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases, and is also involved in spinal cord injury. We tested whether low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) at 810 nm could protect primary murine cultured cortical neurons against excitotoxicity in vitro produced by addition of glutamate, NMDA or kainate. Although the prevention of cell death was modest but significant, LLLT (3 J/cm2 delivered at 25 mW/cm2 over 2 min) gave highly significant benefits in increasing ATP, raising mitochondrial membrane potential, reducing intracellular calcium concentrations, reducing oxidative stress and reducing nitric oxide. The action of LLLT in abrogating excitotoxicity may play a role in explaining its beneficial effects in diverse central nervous system pathologies. ((c) 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

J Biophotonics 2013 Oct 15

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Effects of low level light irradiation on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells derived from rat bone marrow.

Li WT, Chen CW, Huang PY

Low level light irradiation (LLLI) was found to exert positive effects on various cells in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LLLI on the migration of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rbMSCs). Light irradiation was applied at the energy density of 4 J/cm(2) using red (630 nm) and near infrared (NIR, 850 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs). Wound healing assay showed both red and NIR light irradiation increased cell mobility. Red and NIR light enhanced transmembrane migration of rbMSCs up to 292.9% and 263.6% accordingly. This agreed with enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 enhanced by irradiation. F-actin accumulation and distribution correlated to increased migration in light-irradiated MSCs. Reactive oxygen species production as well as the expression of pFAK and pNF-small ka, CyrillicB were elevated after red and NIR LLLI. The study demonstrated that red and NIR LLLI increased rbMSCs migration and identified the phosphorylation of FAK and NF-small ka, CyrillicB as critical steps for the elevated cell migration upon LLLI.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2013 Jul 2013 4121-4

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Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy (808 nm) in Skeletal Muscle After Resistance Exercise Training in Rats.

Patrocinio T, Sardim AC, Assis L, Fernandes KR, Rodrigues N, Renno AC

1 Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos , Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 808 nm laser applied after a resistance training protocol, on biochemical markers and the morphology of skeletal muscle in rats. Background data: Strenuous physical activity results in fatigue and decreased muscle strength, impaired motor control, and muscle pain. Many biochemical and biophysical interventions have been studied in an attempt to accelerate the recovery process of muscle fatigue. Among these, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be effective in increasing skeletal muscle performance in in vivo studies and in clinical trials. However, little is known about the effects of LLLT on muscle performance after resistance training. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CG), trained group (TG), and trained and laser-irradiated group (TGL). The resistance training program was performed three times per week for 5 weeks, and consisted of a climbing exercise, with weights attached to the tail of the animal. Furthermore, laser irradiation was performed in the middle region of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of both legs, after the exercise protocol. Results: Analysis demonstrated that TGL demonstrated significantly reduced resting lactate level and decreased muscle glycogen depletion than the animals that were exercised only, and significantly increased the cross-section area of TA muscle fibers compared with thoseo in the other groups. Conclusions: These results suggest that LLLT could be an effective therapeutic approach in increasing muscle performance during a resistance exercise protocol.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Oct 31(10) 492-8

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The time course of action of two neuroprotectants, dietary saffron and photobiomodulation, assessed in the rat retina.

Marco FD, Romeo S, Nandasena C, Purushothuman S, Adams C, Bisti S, Stone J

Department of Biotechnology and Applied Clinical Science, University of L’Aquila Italy.

BACKGROUND: Dietary saffron and photobiomodulation (low-level infrared radiation, PBM) are emerging as therapeutically promising protectants for neurodegenerative conditions, such as the retinal dystrophies. In animal models, saffron and PBM, given in limited daily doses, protect retina and brain from toxin- or light-induced stress. This study addresses the rate at which saffron and PBM, given in daily doses, induce neuroprotection, using a light damage model of photoreceptor degeneration in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. RESULTS: Rats were raised in dim cyclic (12 h 5 lux, 12 h dark) illumination, treated with saffron or PBM for 2-10 d, and then exposed to bright damaging light (1,000 lux for 24 h). After 1 week survival, the retina was assessed for photoreceptor death (using the TUNEL reaction), for surviving photoreceptor damage (thickness of the outer nuclear layer) and for the expression of a stress-related protein GFAP, using immunohistochemistry. Preconditioning the retina with saffron or PBM reduced photoreceptor death, preserved the population of surviving photoreceptors and reduced the upregulation of GFAP in Muller cells. At the daily dose of saffron used (1 mg/kg), protection was detectable at 2 d, increasing to 10 d. At the daily dose of PBM used (5 J/cm(2) at 670 nm) protection was detectable at 5 d, increasing to 7-10 d. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide time parameters for exploration of the mechanisms and durability of the protection provided by saffron and PBM.

Am J Neurodegener Dis 2013 2(3) 208-20

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Treatment with 670 nm light up regulates cytochrome C oxidase expression and reduces inflammation in an age-related macular degeneration model.

Begum R, Powner MB, Hudson N, Hogg C, Jeffery G

Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Inflammation is an umbrella feature of ageing. It is present in the aged retina and many retinal diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In ageing and in AMD mitochondrial function declines. In normal ageing this can be manipulated by brief exposure to 670 nm light on the retina, which increases mitochondrial membrane potential and reduces inflammation. Here we ask if 670 nm exposure has the same ability in an aged mouse model of AMD, the complement factor H knockout (CFH(-/-)) where inflammation is a key feature. Further, we ask whether this occurs when 670 nm is delivered briefly in environmental lighting rather than directly focussed on the retina. Mice were exposed to 670 nm for 6 minutes twice a day for 14 days in the form of supplemented environmental light. Exposed animals had significant increase in cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is a mitochondrial enzyme regulating oxidative phosphorylation.There was a significant reduction in complement component C3, an inflammatory marker in the outer retina. Vimetin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, which reflect retinal stress in Muller glia, were also significantly down regulated. There were also significant changes in outer retinal macrophage morphology. However, amyloid beta (Abeta) load, which also increases with age in the outer retina and is pro-inflammatory, did not change. Hence, 670 nm is effective in reducing inflammation probably via COX activation in mice with a genotype similar to that in 50% of AMD patients even when brief exposures are delivered via environmental lighting. Further, inflammation can be reduced independent of Abeta. The efficacy revealed here supports current early stage clinical trials of 670 nm in AMD patients.

PLoS One 2013 8(2) e57828

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23469078

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Biomechanical and biochemical protective effect of low-level laser therapy for Achilles tendinitis.

Marcos RL, Arnold G, Magnenet V, Rahouadj R, Magdalou J, Lopes-Martins RA

University of Nove de Julho, Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, Sao Paulo 01504-001, Brazil; University of Sao Paulo (USP), Laboratory of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICB), Sao Paulo 05508-900, Brazil; Universite de Lorraine (UL), Ingenierie Moleculaire, Physiopathologie Articulaire (IMoPA), UMR 7365 CNRS, Biopole, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France.

For three decades, low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for treatment of tendinitis as well as other musculoskeletal diseases. Nevertheless, the biological mechanisms involved remain not completely understood. In this work, the effects of LLLT and of the widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac, have been compared in the case of collagenase-induced Achilles tendinitis. Wistar rats were treated with diclofenac or laser therapy. The tensile behavior of tendons was characterized through successive loading-unloading sequences. The method considered 11 characteristic parameters to describe the mechanical behavior. It was shown that during the acute inflammatory process of the tendon, the mechanical properties were significantly correlated to the high levels of MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression presented in a previous paper (Marcos, R.L., et al., 2012). The treatment by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac sodium produces a low protective effect and can affect the short-term biochemical and biomechanical properties. On the contrary, it is shown that LLLT exhibits the best results in terms of MMPs reduction and mechanical properties recovery. Thus, LLLT looks to be a promising and consistent treatment for tendinopathies.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2013 Sep 9 29C 272-285

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The post-thaw irradiation of avian spermatozoa with He-Ne laser differently affects chicken, pheasant and turkey sperm quality.

Iaffaldano N, Paventi G, Pizzuto R, Passarella S, Cerolini S, Zaniboni L, Marzoni M, Castillo A, Rosato MP

Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences, University of Molise, via De Sanctis, 86100 Campobasso, Italy. Electronic address: nicolaia@unimol.it.

The effects of post-thaw Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation on mobility and functional integrity of frozen/thawed chicken, pheasant and turkey spermatozoa were investigated. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity was also determined as a measure of the effect of irradiation on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Semen samples from each species were collected, processed and frozen according to the pellet procedure. After thawing, each semen sample was divided into two subsamples: the first one was the control; the second one was irradiated with a single mode continuous He-Ne laser wave (wavelength 632.8nm; 6mW; 3.96J/cm2). Then the samples were assessed for sperm mobility (Accudenz(R) swim-down test), viability (SYBR-14/PI staining), osmotic-resistance (HOS test) and COX activity. The irradiation was effective P
Anim Reprod Sci 2013 Sep 26

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Light-emitting diode spectral sensitivity relationship with reproductive parameters and ovarian maturation in yellowtail damselfish, Chrysiptera parasema.

Shin HS, Kim NN, Choi YJ, Habibi HR, Kim JW, Choi CY

Division of Marine Environment & BioScience, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: shin@hhu.ac.kr.

The present study investigated the effects of exposure to different light spectra and intensities on ovarian maturation in yellowtail damselfish, Chrysiptera parasema over a 4-months period. We used a white fluorescent bulb and three different light-emitting diodes (LEDs: red, peak at 630nm; green, 530nm; blue, 450nm), at three different intensities each (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9W/m(2)). The effects of different illuminations were assessed by measuring the mRNA and protein expressions of vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor (ER), gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma estradiol-17beta (E2) hormone level. For green and blue lights, significantly higher levels of VTG and ER expressions, GSI, and plasma E2 were obtained, compared to the other light spectra. Histological analysis revealed the presence of vitellogenic oocytes in fish exposed to short wavelengths (green and blue) light. In addition, we observed significantly greater ovarian maturation in fish exposed to low and medium light intensities. The results indicate that exposure to green low intensity lighting accelerates gonadal maturation, and is likely to facilitate development of more energy-efficient aquaculture procedures.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2013 Oct 5 127 108-13

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Protective effect of laser phototherapy on acetylcholine receptors and creatine kinase activity in denervated muscle.

Rochkind S, Shainberg A

1 Faculty of Life Science, Bar-Ilan University , Ramat-Gan, Israel .

Abstract Objective: This study was designed to assess the status of skeletal muscles after laser treatment during long-term denervation processes, by investigating changes in the level of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) and creatine kinase (CK) activity in the denervated gastrocnemius muscle of the rat. Background data: Progressive muscle atrophy is common in patients with severe peripheral nerve injury. Denervated muscles can account for significant differences in the extent of AChR and CK activity during the denervation period. Material and methods: The study was conducted on 96 rats: 48 that received laser treatment and 48 untreated controls. The gastrocnemius muscle was denervated by removing a 10 mm segment of the sciatic nerve. Low power laser irradiation was delivered transcutaneously to the right gastrocnemius muscle (HeNe continuous wave [CW] laser, 632.8 nm, 35 mW, 30 min) for 14 consecutive days. Under general anesthesia, the rats were euthanized at seven time points: day 7 (n=10), day 14 (n=10), day 21 (n=10), day 30 (n=5), day 60 (n=4), day 120 (n=5), and day 210 (n=4), with and without laser treatment, respectively. AChR was quantified by the (125)I-alpha-bungarotoxin. CK activity was measured by a specific spectrophotometric method. Results: Laser treatment had a significant therapeutic effect on the denervated muscle during the first 21 days for AChR and the first 30 days for CK activity. Conclusions: In the early stages of muscle atrophy, laser phototherapy may preserve the denervated muscle by maintaining CK activity and the amount of AChR.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Oct 31(10) 499-504

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Low-level laser therapy decreases renal interstitial fibrosis.

de Oliveira FA, Sanders-Pinheiro H

1 Center of Reproductive Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora , Juize de Fora (UFJF), and Faculty of Medical Sciences and Health of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil .

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Oct 31(10) 507-8

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In Vitro Bactericidal Effects of 625, 525, and 425 nm Wavelength (Red, Green, and Blue) Light-Emitting Diode Irradiation.

Kim S, Kim J, Lim W, Jeon S, Kim O, Koh JT, Kim CS, Choi H, Kim O

1 Department of Oral Pathology, Medical Research Center for Biomineralization Disorders, School of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University , Bug-Gu, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of 625, 525, and 425 nm wavelengths, providing average power output and effects on three common pathogenic bacteria. Background data: Ultraviolet (UV) light kills bacteria, but the bactericidal effects of UV may not be unique, as 425 nm produces a similar effect. The bactericidal effects of light-emitting diode (LED) wavelengths such as 625 and 525 nm have not been described. Before conducting clinical trials, the appropriate wavelength with reasonable dose and exposure time should be established. Materials and methods: The bactericidal effects of 625, 525, and 425 nm wavelength LED irradiation were investigated in vitro for the anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis and two aerobes (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli DH5alpha). Average power output was 6 mW/cm(2) for 1 h. The bacteria were exposed to LED irradiation for 1, 2, 4, and 8 h (21.6, 43.2, 86.4, and 172.8 J/cm(2), respectively). LED irradiation was performed during growth on agar and in broth. Control bacteria were incubated without LED irradiation. Bacterial growth was expressed in colony-forming units (CFU) and at an optical density at 600 nm in agar and broth. Results: The bactericidal effect of LED phototherapy depended upon wavelength, power density, bacterial viable number, and bacteria species. The bactericidal effect of 425 and 525 nm irradiation varied depending upon the bacterial inoculation, compared with unirradiated samples and samples irradiated with red light. Especially, P. gingivalis and E. coli DH5alpha were killed by 425 nm, and S. aureus growth was inhibited by 525 nm. However, the wavelength of 625 nm was not bactericidal for P. gingivalis, E. coli DH5alpha, or S. aureus. Conclusions: Irradiation at 625 nm light was not bactericidal to S. aureus, E. coli, and P. gingivalis, whereas wavelengths of 425 and 525 nm had bactericidal effects. S. aureus was also killed at 525 nm.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Nov 31(11) 554-62

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24138193

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Laser dentistry establishing a strong connection with laser therapy.

Ohshiro T

Laser Ther 2013 22(2) 81-3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24155551

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830 nm light-emitting diode low level light therapy (LED-LLLT) enhances wound healing: a preliminary study.

Min PK, Goo BL

AllforSkin Dertmatology Clinic, Daegu.

Background and aims: The application of light-emitting diodes in a number of clinical fields is expanding rapidly since the development in the late 1990s of the NASA LED. Wound healing is one field where low level light therapy with LEDs (LED-LLLT) has attracted attention for both accelerating wound healing and controlling sequelae. The present study evaluated LED-LLLT in 5 wounds of various etiologies. Subjects and methods: There were 5 patients with ages ranging from 7 to 54 years, comprising 2 males and 3 females. The study followed 5 wounds, namely 2 acute excoriation wounds; 1 acute/subacute dog bite with infection; 1 subacute post-filler ulcerated wound with necrotic ischemic tissue and secondary infection; and 1 subacute case of edema and infection of the lips with herpes simplex involvement after an illegal cosmetic tattoo operation. All patients were in varying degrees of pain. All wounds were treated with multiple sessions (daily, every other day or twice weekly) using an LED-LLLT system (830 nm, CW, irradiance of 100 mW/cm(2) and fluence of 60 J/cm(2)) till improvement was achieved. Results: Full wound healing and control of infection and discomfort were achieved in all patients, with wound condition-mediated treatment periods ranging from 1 to 8 weeks. No recurrence of the herpes simplex case was seen in a 4-month follow-up. Conclusions: 830 nm LED-LLLT successfully brought about accelerated healing in wounds of different etiologies and at different stages, and successfully controlled secondary infection. LED-LLLT was easy and pain-free to apply, and was well-tolerated by all patients. The good results warrant the design of controlled studies with a larger patient population.

Laser Ther 2013 22(1) 43-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24155549

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on blood flow and oxygen- hemoglobin saturation of the foot skin in healthy subjects: a pilot study.

Heu F, Forster C, Namer B, Dragu A, Lang W

Institute of Physiology and Experimental Pathophysiology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen , Germany.

Background and aims: This study on healthy test subjects intends to show whether one-off Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has an instant effect on the perfusion or the oxygenation of the skin tissue. These possible instant effects may have an influence on the accelerated wound healing which is often observed after application of LLLT, in addition to the usual postulated effects of LLLT which occur with a time delay normally. Study design/materials and methods: The study was carried out double-blind and placebo-controlled in two batches of testing. The test subjects received one-off LLLT on a defined area of the arch of the foot. Simultaneously a placebo treatment was carried out on the corresponding contralateral area. In the first batch of tests, the blood flow was measured immediately before and after treatment using thermography and LDI. In the second batch of tests, the blood flow and the oxygen saturation were determined immediately before and after the treatment using an O2C device. Results: No evidence that the LLLT has a significant instant effect on the circulation or the oxygen saturation could be found. Conclusion: No immediate effect of an LLLT on the perfusion or oxygenation situation is to be expected with physiologically normal starting conditions. An additional investigation should be carried out in which either the radiation dose is varied or the starting conditions are pathological (e.g. chronic wounds) in order to rule out immediate effects on circulation or oxygen saturation as the cause of the improved wound healing which is often observed.

Laser Ther 2013 22(1) 21-30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24155546

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Low level laser therapy for sports injuries.

Morimoto Y, Saito A, Tokuhashi Y

Surugadai Nihon University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo , Japan.

Background and aims: Our hospital has used LLLT in the treatment of athletes since 1990. We had a good result about LLLT for sports injuries. However, few articles have attempted to evaluate the efficacy of LLLT for sports injuries. The aims of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of LLLT for sports injuries. Materials (Subjects) and Methods: Forty one patients underwent LLLT in our hospital. These patients included 22 men and 19 women with an average age of 38.9 years old. Patients were irradiated by diode laser at points of pain and/or acupuncture points. Patients underwent LLLT a maximum treatment of 10 times (mean 4.1 times). We evaluated the efficacy of LLLT using a Pain relief score (PRS). A score of 2 to 5 after treatment was regarded as very good, 6 to 8 as good, and 9 to 10 as poor. A PRS score of less than 5 was regarded as effective. Results: The rate of effectiveness (PRS of 5 or less) after LLLT was 65.9% (27/41 patients). Discussion: In this study, the resulting rate of effectiveness was 65.9% for all sports injuries. However, we have a high rate of effectiveness for Jumper’s knee, tennis elbow and Achilles tendinitis and cases that were irradiated laser by a physician. Conclusions: LLLT is an effective treatment for sports injuries, particularly jumper’s knee, tennis elbow and Achilles tendinitis.

Laser Ther 2013 22(1) 17-20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24155545

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A Novel 785-nm Laser Diode-Based System for Standardization of Cell Culture Irradiation.

Lins EC, Oliveira CF, Guimaraes OC, Costa CA, Kurachi C, Bagnato VS

1 Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas, Universidade Federal do ABC , Santo Andre, SP, Brasil .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a novel device that concatenates alignment of infrared lasers and parallel procedure of irradiation. The purpose of this is to seek standardization of in vitro cell irradiation, which allows analysis and credible comparisons between outcomes of different experiments. Background data: Experimental data obtained from infrared laser therapies have been strongly dependent upon the irradiation setup. Although further optical alignment is difficult to achieve, in contact irradiation it usually occurs. Moreover, these methods eventually use laser in a serial procedure, extending the time to irradiate experimental samples. Methods: A LASERTable (LT) device was designed to provide similar infrared laser irradiation in 12 wells of a 24 well test plate. It irradiated each well by expanding the laser beam until it covers the well bottom, as occurs with unexpanded irradiation. To evaluate the effectiveness of this device, the spatial distribution of radiation was measured, and the heating of plain culture medium was monitored during the LT operation. The irradiation of LT (up to 25 J/cm(2) – 20 mW/cm(2); 1.250 sec) was assessed on odontoblast-like cells adhered to the bottom of wells containing 1 mL of plain culture medium. Cell morphology and metabolism were also evaluated. Results: Irradiation with LT presented a Gaussian-like profile when the culture medium was not heated >1 degrees C. It was also observed that the LT made it 10 times faster to perform the experiment than did serial laser irradiation. In addition, the data of this study revealed that the odontoblast-like cells exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT) using the LT presented higher metabolism and normal morphology. Conclusions: The experimental LASERTable assessed in this study provided parameters for standardization of infrared cell irradiation, minimizing the time spent to irradiate all samples. Therefore, this device is a helpful tool that can be effectively used to evaluate experimental LLLT protocols.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Oct 31(10) 466-73

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24102164

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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