THOR LLLT research, training and conference news July 2013

30 papers for you this month starting with a systematic review and a clinical trial on the rate of orthodontic movement, for the first time (so far as I can tell), someone has done a study on telomere length: young fibroblasts treated with LLLT  had decreased shortening rate and LLLT delayed the aging of cells; there is an RCT on whiplash associated disorder, a trial of LED‘s on fatigue and quadriceps power during treadmill training, a combined LLLT and vibration study on cellulite, a paper I collaborated on for LED treatment of head and neck oedema (post cancer surgery of the larynx), 670nm LED down-regulation of nitrosative stress and protection against apoptosis within the CNS in a model of MS, and a study showing that LEDs also induces analgesia in mice.

Influence of Low-Level Laser Therapy on the Rate of Orthodontic Movement: A Literature Review.

Torri S, Weber JB

Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) , Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to review low-level laser therapy (LLLT) protocols that have been used to date, and to indicate which parameters appear to be most effective to guide future research. Background data: Studies assessing the influence of LLLT on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have produced controversial results as a result of methodological differences. Methods: The MEDLINE(R) database (1975-2012) and the Cochrane library (subject 8) were reviewed. Clinical studies and animal experiments written in English and focusing on the effects of LLLT on the rate of orthodontic movement were browsed. Article selection was conducted by one reviewer and checked by a second investigator. Results: A total of 109 articles were identified, of which 14 were selected for detailed analysis. Diode laser was used in all studies with different energies, frequencies, and doses. In animal studies, the most common and effective energy input was 54 J per session daily; in humans, it was 2 J per session on the first days of each month, with 72-96 h intervals. Orthodontic force also influenced orthodontic movement. A force of 10 g/force seems to be indicated for moving molars in rats, versus 150 g for canines in humans. Conclusions: Most authors report positive effects of the use of LLLT on speed increase of orthodontic tooth movement when compared with control or placebo groups. Diode laser, especially gallium aluminum arsenide, used continuously and in direct contact with the irradiated areas, was the most frequent protocol. Further studies are warranted to determine the best protocols with regard to energy, dose, and intervention schedule.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Jul 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23883115

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Evaluation of two protocols for low-level laser application in patients submitted to orthodontic treatment.

Marquezan M, Bolognese AM, Araujo MT

INTRODUCTION: Different low-level laser (LLL) irradiation protocols have been tested to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). Nevertheless, divergent results have been obtained. It was suggested that the stimulatory action of low level laser irradiation occurs during the proliferation and differentiation stages of bone cellular precursors, but not during later stages. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two protocols of LLL irradiation on experimental tooth movement: One with daily irradiations and another with irradiations during the early stages. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were divided into control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3) and irradiated groups (IrG1, IrG2, IrG3) according to the presence of: experimental tooth movement, laser irradiation, type of laser irradiation protocol and date of euthanasia (3th or 8th day of experiment). At the end of experimental periods, a quantitative evaluation of the amount of OTM was made and the reactions of the periodontium were analyzed by describing cellular and tissue reactions and by counting blood vessels. RESULTS: The amount of OTM revealed no significant differences between groups in the same experimental period (p < 0.05). Qualitative analysis revealed the strongest resorption activity in irradiated groups after seven days, especially when using the daily irradiation protocol. There was a higher number of blood vessels in irradiated animals than in animals without orthodontic devices and without laser irradiation (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Moreover, angiogenesis was verified in some of the irradiated groups. The irradiation protocols tested were not able to accelerate OTM and root resorption was observed while they were applied.

Dental Press J Orthod 2013 18(1) 33.e1-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23876967

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[Experimental study of effect of low power laser on telomere length of cells].

Huang L, Wu Z, Mo H

Department of Physiology, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China.

To investigate the effect of low power helium neon laser (He-Ne laser) on the telomere length of human fetal lung diploid fibroblast (2BS) cell, we used the laser (gamma = 632. 8 nm, P = 2 mW) to treat the young 2BS cells. Cell growth and proliferation was observed through MTT method after treating with low power laser. The relative telomere length of 2BS cells was detected by fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The results showed that the cells of the treated groups grew better than the untreated groups. The telomere DNA length of the old 2BS cells, treated by low power He-Ne laser when they were young, was longer than that of untreated group. The results of the present study indicated that the low power He-Ne laser might decrease shortening rate of telomere and delay the aging of cells. Therefore, this study provides the experimental basis for us to further investigate the effect of low power laser on cell aging at the gene level.

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2013 Jun 30(3) 592-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23865325

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High power laser therapy treatment compared to simple segmental physical rehabilitation in whiplash injuries (1 degrees and 2 degrees grade of the Quebec Task Force classification) involving muscles and ligaments.

Conforti M, Fachinetti GP

Direzione Generale INAIL, Milan, Italy.

INTRODUCTION: whiplash is a frequent post traumatic pathology caused by muscle, tendon and capsular elements over stretching. The authors conducted a short term prospective randomised study to test the effectiveness of a multi wave High Power Laser Therapy (HPLT) versus conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation (PT) included in Italian tariff nomenclature performance physiotherapy Study Design: prospective randomised study (Level II). MATERIAL AND METHODS: the authors identified 135 homogeneous patients with whiplash grade 1 – 2 of the Quebec Task Force classification (QTFC). INAIL, the Italian National Workers Insurance, based in Milan, was reliable source for identifying patients. All patients with whiplash injuries grade 1 or 2 QTFC, were eligible for the study, starting from April 28 2010 to September 30 2010. Patients referred to a Coordinator (C.M.) who applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups. Dates for initial treatment session were arranged, including cervical spine X-ray, and assessment. Each patient gave informed consent for participation and agreed to adopt only the study treatment for 6 weeks. Group A (84 patients) was treated with High Power Laser Therapy (HPLT), Group B (51 patients) received conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation (PT). During the treatment period, no other electro-medical therapy, analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs were allowed. All patients were assessed at baseline (T0) and at the end of the treatment period (T1) using a Visual Analogical Scale (VAS), (T2) the date of return to work was registered afterwards. RESULTS: there was a reduction in VAS pain scores at T1. Group A (VAS = 20) Group B (VAS = 34,8) (p =0.0048). Laser treatment allowed quick recovery and return to work (T2). Group A after 48 days against 66 days of Group B (p=0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: results suggest that High Power Laser Therapy – is an effective treatment in patients with whiplash injury, compared to conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation.

Muscles Ligaments Tendons J 2013 Apr 3(2) 106-11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23888293

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Thermography applied during exercises with or without infrared light-emitting diode irradiation: individual and comparative analysis.

Paolillo FR, Lins EC, Corazza AV, Kurachi C, Bagnato VS

1 Optics Group from Physics Institute of Sao Carlos (IFSC), University of Sao Paulo (USP) , Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the cutaneous temperature during an exercise on a treadmill with or without infrared light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation in postmenopausal women. Background data: Thermography is an imaging technique in which radiation emitted by a body in the middle and far infrared spectrum is detected and associated with the temperature of the body’s surface. Materials and methods: Eighteen postmenopausal women were randomly divided into two groups: (1) the LED group, which performed the exercises on a treadmill associated with phototherapy (n=9) and; (2) the exercise group, which performed the exercises on a treadmill without additional phototherapy (n=9). The irradiation parameters for each women’s thigh were: array of 2000 infrared LEDs (850 nm) with an area of 1,110 cm(2), 100 mW, 39 mW/cm(2), and 108 J/cm(2) for 45 min. The submaximal constant-speed exercise on the treadmill at intensities between 85% and 90% maximal heart rate (HRmax) with or without phototherapy were performed during 45 min, to perform the thermographic analysis. Thermography images were captured before the exercise (t=0), after 10, 35, and 45 min of exercising (t=10, t=35, and t=45) and at 5 min post-exercising (t=50). Results: The LED group showed an increased cutaneous thigh temperature during the exercise (from 33.5+/-0.8 degrees C to 34.6+/-0.9 degrees C, p=0.03), whereas the exercise group showed a reduced cutaneous temperature (from 33.5+/-0.6 to 32.7+/-0.7 degrees C, p=0.02). The difference between the groups was significant (p<0.05) at t=35, t=45, and t=50. Conclusions: These data indicate an improved microcirculation, and can explain one possible mechanism of action of phototherapy associated with physical exercises.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Jul 31(7) 349-55

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23819505

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Phototherapy during treadmill training improves quadriceps performance in postmenopausal women.

Paolillo FR, Corazza AV, Paolillo AR, Borghi-Silva A, Arena R, Kurachi C, Bagnato VS

ABSTRACT Objective: The present study evaluated the effects of infrared-light-emitting diode (LED) during treadmill training on functional performance. Methods: Thirty postmenopausal women aged 50 to 60 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups and successfully completed the full study. The three groups were: (i) the LED group, which performed treadmill training associated with phototherapy (n=10); (ii) the exercise group, which carried out treadmill training only (n=10) and; (iii) the sedentary group, which neither performed physical training nor underwent phototherapy (n=10). Training was performed over a period of 6 months, twice a week for 45 minutes per session at 85% to 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), which was obtained during progressive exercise testing. The irradiation parameters were 100 mW, 39 mW/cm2 and 108 J/cm2 for 45 minutes. Quadriceps performance during isokinetic exercise testing at 60 degrees /sec and 300 degrees /sec was measured. Result(s): Peak torque did not differ amongst the groups. However, the results showed significantly higher values of power and total work for the LED group (=21+/-6W and =634+/-156J, p<0.05) when compared to both the exercise group (=13+/-10W and =410+/-270J) and the sedentary group (=10+/-9W and =357+/-327J). Fatigue was also significantly lower in the LED group (=-7+/-4%, p<0.05) compared to both the exercise group (=3+/-8%) and the sedentary group (=-2+/-6%). Conclusion(s): Infrared-LED during treadmill training may improve quadriceps power and reduce peripheral fatigue in postmenopausal women.

Climacteric 2013 Jul 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23895414

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Low-level laser therapy and vibration therapy for the treatment of localized adiposity and fibrous cellulite.

Savoia A, Landi S, Vannini F, Baldi A

Promoitalia Group S.p.A, Pozzuoli, Naples Italy.

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, there has been an upsurge in the application of low-level laser therapy in various medical diseases. Additionally, vibration therapy is a new and effective measure to prevent muscular atrophy and osteoporosis, along with some general health-related beneficial effects of exercise on skeletal muscles such as improvement of endothelial function and an increased enzyme capacity of energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of a 635 nm and 0.040 W exit power per multiple diode laser in combination with vibration therapy for the application of non-invasive reduction of circumference in patients with localized adiposity and cellulite. METHODS: The study enrolled men and women (N = 33) aged 18-64 years with localized adiposity or fibrous cellulite. The evaluation parameters were: photographic evaluation, perimetric evaluation, blood tests, ecographic evaluation, histological evaluation, and subjective and objective tests. RESULTS: The results produced were statistically analyzed and resulted in a significant reduction of fat thickness when compared to the measurement prior to the treatment (P < 0.0001). Moreover, subjective and objective tests, as well as ecographic and histological evaluations, confirmed the reduction of fat thickness. CONCLUSION: In this study we have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the combination between low-level laser therapy and vibration therapy for the resolution of localized adiposity and fibrous cellulite.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2013 Jun 3(1) 41-52

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23888254

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The use of low level light therapy in the treatment of head and neck oedema

Natalie Lee, Jane Wigg, James D Carroll

Haddenham Healthcare and THOR Photomedicine Ltd.

Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in conjunction with other therapies such as intermittent pneumatic compression, manual / medical lymphatic drainage (MLD) and kinesiotaping for the treatment and management of limb lymphoedema. Evidence from practice and small scale studies demonstrates that LLLT can greatly influence outcomes and improve quality of life (QoL) in these groups of patients (Piller and Thelander, 1998). However, these studies have been conducted specifically on breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) of the arms. This article aims to provide evidence for the benefits if its wider use including its role in the holistic care of a patient with head and neck oedema and the benefits observed by inclusion of LLLT as initial treatment for those with this type of oedema.

Journal of Lymphoedema, 2013, Vol 8, No 1

http://www.lymphormation.org/journal/view-journal-contents.php?journalId=

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Laser acupuncture in treatment of childhood bronchial asthma.

Elseify MY, Mohammed NH, Alsharkawy AA, Elseoudy ME

Abstract Laser acupuncture is widely used as an alternative treatment for chronic illnesses. Objective: to evaluate the effect of biostimulation by low-level power laser on the traditional Chinese acupuncture points for Egyptian asthmatic children. Method: Thirty asthmatic boys and 20 asthmatic girls 7-18 years (10.6+/-2.8) were randomly selected from the outpatient chest clinic of Ain Shams University, Children hospitals, and National Research Center outpatient Clinic of Acupuncture, from April 2009 to March 2010. Patients’ symptoms, medications, asthma control questionnaire (ACQ), and spirometric values were recorded before and 1 month after completion of 10 laser acupuncture sessions. Each patient received 10 laser sessions (3 sessions/week) on traditional Chinese acupoints. Results: Started with 36 patients suffering daytime and nocturnal symptoms, ended with two patients suffering nocturnal symptoms (p < 0.001). Also, 48 patients reported better exercise tolerance (p < 0.001). Forced expiratory volume in the first second, forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow % increased from 81.8+/-25.2, 85.4+/-21.5, and 71.8+/-22.9 to 98.5+/-28.1, 104.3+/-26.2, and 84.3+/-24.1, respectively (p < 0.001). ACQ improved from 13.9+/-3.8 to 23.3+/-3.6 (p < 0.001), 92% of patients became well controlled. Inhaled steroids dose decreased from 200-450 to 0-200 mug/day and all patients stopped short acting B2 agonist (SABA) rescue (p < 0.01, 0.001). Conclusion: low-intensity laser acupuncture can be safe and effective treatment in asthmatic children.

J Complement Integr Med 2013 10(1) 1-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23843569

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Short-term therapeutic effects of 890-nanometer light therapy for chronic low back pain: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.

Hsieh RL, Lee WC

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, 95 Wen Chang Rd, Shih-Lin District, Taipei, 11101, Taiwan, M001052@ms.skh.org.tw.

We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of short-term 890-nm light therapy in patients with chronic low back pain in a rehabilitation clinic. Thirty-eight women and 22 men with chronic low back pain (mean age, 60.3 years; range, 32-80 years) received 40-min sessions of hot-pack therapy combined with active or placebo 890-nm light therapy (wavelength = 890 nm, radiant power output = 6.24 W, power density = 34.7 mW/cm2 for 40 min, total energy = 83.2 J/cm2) over the lower back three times weekly for 2 weeks. Participants were assessed before and after treatment by using a range of motion measurements, a visual analog scale evaluation of pain, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, the Biodex Stability System, the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, repeated chair-rising times, the Frenchay Activity Index, the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ), and the Osteoarthritis Quality of Life Questionnaire. The severity of disability based on the ODQ score was used as the primary clinical outcome measurement. Compared to the baseline measurements, participants in the treatment group reported significant reductions in fear-avoidance beliefs regarding physical activity (P = 0.040) and work (P = 0.007) and in the severity of disability (P = 0.021). Treatment with hot-pack therapy and 890-nm light therapy was associated with reductions in the severity of disability and fear avoidance beliefs in patients with chronic low back pain.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jul 3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23820974

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Effects of intranasal phototherapy on nasal microbial flora in patients with allergic rrhinitis.

Yildirim YS, Apuhan T, Kocoglu E

MD, FEBORL-HNS, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical Faculty, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey. dryavuzselim@yahoo.com.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of intranasal phototherapy on nasal microbial flora in patients with allergic rhinitis. This prospective, self-comparised, single blind study was performed on patients with a history of at least two years of moderate-to-severe perennial allergic rhinitis that was not controlled by anti-allergic drugs. Thirty-one perennial allergic rhinitis patients were enrolled in this study. Before starting the test population on their intranasal phototherapy, the same trained person took a nasal culture from each subject by applying a sterile cotton swab along each side of the nostril and middle meatus. Each intranasal cavity was irradiated three times a week for two weeks with increasing doses of irradiated. At the end of the intranasal phototherapy, nasal cultures were again obtained from the each nostril. The study found that after intranasal phototherapy, the scores for total nasal symptoms decreased significantly but bacterial proliferation was not significantly different before and after phototherapy. We have shown that intranasal phototherapy does not change the aerobic nasal microbial flora in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2013 Sep 12(3) 281-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23893813

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Photobiomodulation Induced by 670 nm Light Ameliorates MOG35-55 Induced EAE in Female C57BL/6 Mice: A Role for Remediation of Nitrosative Stress.

Muili KA, Gopalakrishnan S, Eells JT, Lyons JA

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America.

BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly studied animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive therapies currently approved for the treatment of MS slow disease progression, but do not prevent it. A growing body of evidence suggests additional mechanisms contribute to disease progression. We previously demonstrated the amelioration of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice by 670 nm light-induced photobiomodulation, mediated in part by immune modulation. Numerous other studies demonstrate that near-infrared/far red light is therapeutically active through modulation of nitrosoxidative stress. As nitric oxide has been reported to play diverse roles in EAE/MS, and recent studies suggest that axonal loss and progression of disability in MS is mediated by nitrosoxidative stress, we investigated the effect of 670 nm light treatment on nitrosative stress in MOG-induced EAE. METHODOLOGY: Cell culture experiments demonstrated that 670 nm light-mediated photobiomodulation attenuated antigen-specific nitric oxide production by heterogenous lymphocyte populations isolated from MOG immunized mice. Experiments in the EAE model demonstrated down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression in the spinal cords of mice with EAE over the course of disease, compared to sham treated animals. Animals receiving 670 nm light treatment also exhibited up-regulation of the Bcl-2 anti-apoptosis gene, an increased Bcl-2:Bax ratio, and reduced apoptosis within the spinal cord of animals over the course of disease. 670 nm light therapy failed to ameliorate MOG-induced EAE in mice deficient in iNOS, confirming a role for remediation of nitrosative stress in the amelioration of MOG-induced EAE by 670 nm mediated photobiomodulation. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that 670 nm light therapy protects against nitrosative stress and apoptosis within the central nervous system, contributing to the clinical effect of 670 nm light therapy previously noted in the EAE model.

PLoS One 2013 8(6) e67358

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23840675

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[Combined laser therapy of the reactivated form of cytomegalovirus infection of the urogenital tract in the women of reproductive age].

Perlamutrov IuN, Chernova NI, Ol’khovskaia KB, Moskvin SV

The prevalence of cytomegalovirus infection (CMVI) dictates the necessity of its in-depth investigation in the patients presenting with the signs of chronic inflammatory diseases of sexual organs. The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of combined laser therapy of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital tract accompanied by the reactivation of CMVI concomitant with other infections. The examination of 158 women presenting with cytomegalovirus infection revealed clinical and laboratory characteristics of the microbiocenosis. These data may be used to improve the effectiveness of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for such patients. The combined treatment of the patients with the reactivated form of CMVI using josamycin and doxycycline monohydrate in combination with panavir and low-intensity laser irradiation based at the “Matrix-Urolog” laser complex resulted in the favourable outcome of therapy in the majority of the patients.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2013 May-Jun (3) 45-51

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23819417

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Laser Photobiomodulation as a Potential Multi-Hallmark Therapy for Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Rodriguez-Santana E, Santana-Blank L

Fundalas, Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development , Caracas, Venezuela .

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Jun 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23808767

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Laser and radiosurgery in veterinary dentistry.

Bellows J

All Pets Dental, 17100 Royal Palm Boulevard, Weston, FL 33326, USA. Dentalvet@aol.com

Lasers and radiosurgery frequently used in human dentistry are rapidly entering veterinary dental use. The carbon dioxide, diode, and low-level therapy lasers have features including hemostasis control, access to difficult to reach areas, and decreased pain, that make them useful for oral surgery. Periodontal pocket surgery, gingivectomy, gingivoplasty, gingival hyperplasia, operculectomy, tongue surgery, oropharyngeal inflammation therapy, oral mass surgery, crown, and frenectomy laser surgeries are described, including images.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2013 May 43(3) 651-68

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23643025

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Laser Acupuncture: Two Acupoints (Baihui, Neiguan) and Two Modalities of Laser (658 nm, 405 nm) Induce Different Effects in Neurovegetative Parameters.

Litscher G, Wang L, Wang X, Gaischek I

Stronach Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria ; Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.

There are only few scientific publications dealing with the basic investigation of the effects of only one or two acupoints or comparing one single point with another single point, using different stimulation methods in the same persons. The aim of this needle-controlled, randomized crossover study was to investigate the neurovegetative parameters heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) using two different acupoints, Baihui (GV20) and Neiguan (PC6), in separate sessions. We investigated 11 healthy volunteers (3 m, 8 f) with a mean age +/- SD of 22.9 +/- 2.8 years. The two acupoints were stimulated for 10 minutes each with manual needle acupuncture, red laser acupuncture (658 nm), and violet laser acupuncture (405 nm), in randomized order. Needle and red laser stimulation of the Baihui acupoint decreased HR significantly. Only violet laser stimulation at the Neiguan acupoint induced a significant increase of total HRV. Further studies using other neurovegetative parameters and more volunteers are necessary to confirm the preliminary results.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 2013 432764

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23861705

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Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

Vatansever F, Hamblin MR

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; and Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Far infrared (FIR) radiation (lambda = 3-100 mum) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 mum) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

Photonics Lasers Med 2012 Nov 1 4 255-266

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23833705

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Light-emitting diode therapy induces analgesia in a mouse model of postoperative pain through activation of peripheral opioid receptors and the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway.

Cidral-Filho FJ, Mazzardo-Martins L, Martins DF, Santos AR

Laboratorio de Neurobiologia da Dor e Inflamacao, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) has been clinically used as an alternative to low-level laser therapy; nevertheless, the molecular basis for LEDT effects remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of LEDT in the mouse plantar incision (PI) model of postoperative pain, as well as to investigate some of the possible mechanisms involved in this effect, i.e., peripheral and central opioid receptors; migration of opioid-containing leukocytes to PI site and the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) pathway. To that end, mice were subjected to PI and treated with LEDT (950 nm, 80 mW/cm2, 1 through 13 J/cm2). Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed as withdrawal frequency percentage to 10 presentations of a 0.4-g von Frey filament. In addition, the animals were pretreated with systemic (i.p.), intra-plantar (i.pl.), or intrathecal injection (i.t) of naloxone (a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist; 1 mg/kg, i.p.; 5 mug/right paw or 5 mug/site, respectively) or a systemic injection of fucoidin (100 mug/mouse, i.p., an inhibitor of leukocyte rolling through binding to L- and P-selectins). Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that LEDT induced a dose-response analgesic effect in the model of PI in mice. At the dose of 9 J/cm2 LEDT presented the most significant results through (1) activation of peripheral opioid receptors which involve, at least partially, the recruitment of opioid-containing leukocytes to the PI site and; (2) activation of the L-arginine/NO pathway. These results extend previous literature data and suggest that LEDT might be useful in the treatment of postoperative pain.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jul 6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23832179

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What is the best treatment to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine release in acute skeletal muscle injury induced by trauma in rats: low-level laser therapy, diclofenac, or cryotherapy?

de Almeida P, Tomazoni SS, Frigo L, de Carvalho PD, Vanin AA, Santos LA, Albuquerque-Pontes GM, De Marchi T, Tairova O, Marcos RL, Lopes-Martins RA, Leal-Junior EC

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Currently, treatment of muscle injuries represents a challenge in clinical practice. In acute phase, the most employed therapies are cryotherapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In the last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has becoming a promising therapeutic agent; however, its effects are not fully known. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sodium diclofenac (topical application), cryotherapy, and LLLT on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels after a controlled model of muscle injury. For such, we performed a single trauma in tibialis anterior muscle of rats. After 1 h, animals were treated with sodium diclofenac (11.6 mg/g of solution), cryotherapy (20 min), or LLLT (904 nm; superpulsed; 700 Hz; 60 mW mean output power; 1.67 W/cm2; 1, 3, 6 or 9 J; 17, 50, 100 or 150 s). Assessment of interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 (IL-1beta and IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels was performed at 6 h after trauma employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. LLLT with 1 J dose significantly decreased (p < 0.05) IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels compared to non-treated injured group as well as diclofenac and cryotherapy groups. On the other hand, treatment with diclofenac and cryotherapy does not decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine levels compared to the non-treated injured group. Therefore, we can conclude that 904 nm LLLT with 1 J dose has better effects than topical application of diclofenac or cryotherapy in acute inflammatory phase after muscle trauma.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jun 30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23812849

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850nm light-emitting-diode phototherapy plus low-dose tacrolimus (FK-506) as combination therapy in the treatment of dermatophagoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

Kim CH, Cheong KA, Lee AY

Department of Dermatology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University Graduate School of Medicine, Goyang 410-773, South Korea.

BACKGROUND: Light emitting diode (LED) phototherapy is an effective alternative for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. Tacrolimus (FK-506) is a potent immunomodulating agent, which has been used to treat AD. Combination therapy is often used in the treatment of AD to improve therapeutic efficacy or to reduce the dose of each drug. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of monotherapy with either 850nm LED phototherapy or low-dose FK-506, and combination therapy in dermatophagoides farina (Df)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. METHODS: The Df-induced NC/Nga mice with a clinical score of 7 were used for treatment with LED (10 and 25J/cm2) alone, low-dose FK-506 (1mg/kg) or in combination. The synergistic effects of combined therapy were evaluated by dermatitis scores, skin histology, skin barrier function, and immunological parameters, such as IgE, NO, Th2-mediated cytokines and chemokines. RESULTS: Combination therapy with 850nm (25J/cm2) LED and low-dose FK-506 showed a significant reduction in the severity of skin lesions. Combined therapy decreased in the serum level of IgE, NO, and in the splenic level of Th2-mediated cytokines and chemokines. Combination therapy significantly also reduced the inflammatory cellular infiltrate into the skin lesions. Moreover, combination therapy led to recovery of skin barrier function in the skin lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The use of combination of LED phototherapy and low-dose immunosuppressant improved Df-induced AD-like skin lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model by dominantly reducing IgE, NO, suppressing Th2-mediated immune responses, and inhibiting inflammatory cells, as well as improving skin barrier function.

J Dermatol Sci 2013 Jun 12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23810774

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THE INFLUENCE OF LOW-LEVEL LASER ON OSSEOINTEGRATION AROUND MACHINED AND SANDBLASTED ACID-ETCHED IMPLANTS: A REMOVAL TORQUE AND HISTOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSES.

Teixeira ER, Torres MA, Meyer KR, Zani SR, Arai Shinkai RS, Grossi ML

a Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Professor, Prosthodontics, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul.

Abstract Evaluation of the influence of laser application on osseointegration around implants with different surface characteristics is limited. This study aims to evaluate the influence of low-level laser on the early stages of osseointegration.Ninety-six external hex implants (3.75mm X 5.0mm) were placed in 24 rabbits, being one machined and one sandblasted acid-etched per tibia, and later divided in laser group, which received a total dose of 24 J/cm2 of GaAlAs laser over 15 days; and control group. At 16 and 30 days after surgery, removal torque and histomorphometric analyses were performed. No statistical differences in removal torque or histomorphometric analyses were verified between laser and control groups regardless of implant surface (p>0.05). Time was the only variable presenting significant differences between measurements (p<0.05). Low-level laser had no significant short-term effect on bone-to-implant contact and removal torque values regardless of implant surface characteristics.

J Oral Implantol 2013 Jul 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23834724

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Systemic effects of LLLT on bone repair around PLLA-PGA screws in the rabbit tibia.

Coelho RC, Zerbinati LP, de Oliveira MG, Weber JB

School of Dentistry, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Av. Ipiranga, 6681 – Predio 6, Partenon, CEP 90619-900, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

To evaluate the systemic effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the early stages of bone repair after implantation of poly-L-lactic/polyglycolic acid (PLLA-PGA) screws 24 rabbits were randomly allocated to one of two groups, experiment or control. Each animal underwent implantation of one 5 x 1.5 mm PLLA-PGA screw in each tibia (right and left). The experiment group received infrared laser irradiation (830 nm, 4 J, 100 mW, 10.1 s) over the right paw immediately after implantation and every 48 h thereafter, for a maximum of seven sessions. The control group was not irradiated. Both groups were divided into three subgroups according to the observation period (5, 15, or 30 days), after which animals were euthanized. The results observed in the left paw of experimental animals were compared with the left paws of control animals. We also compared the right and left paws of experimental animals so as to compare local and potential systemic effects. Bone specimens were analyzed to assess the extent of peri-implant bone formation, quantitative analysis revealed greater bone formation in the left tibia of experimental animals as compared to controls on 5-day follow-up. Descriptive analysis revealed slightly larger and thicker trabeculae in the irradiated animals at 5 days post-procedure. There were no significant differences at any other point in time. As used in this study, LLLT had a positive systemic effect on the early stages of bone formation.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jul 6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23832178

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Low level laser therapy increases angiogenesis in a model of ischemic skin flap in rats mediated by VEGF, HIF-1alpha and MMP-2.

Cury V, Moretti AI, Assis L, Bossini P, de Souza Crusca J, Neto CB, Fangel R, de Souza HP, Hamblin MR, Parizotto NA

Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

It is known that low level laser therapy is able to improve skin flap viability by increasing angiogenesis. However, the mechanism for new blood vessel formation is not completely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of 660nm and 780nm lasers at fluences of 30 and 40J/cm(2) on three important mediators activated during angiogenesis. Sixty male Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into five groups with twelve animals each. Groups were distributed as follows: skin flap surgery non-irradiated group as a control; skin flap surgery irradiated with 660nm laser at a fluence of 30 or 40J/cm(2) and skin flap surgery irradiated with 780nm laser at a fluence of 30 or 40J/cm(2). The random skin flap was performed measuring 10x4cm, with a plastic sheet interposed between the flap and the donor site. Laser irradiation was performed on 24 points covering the flap and surrounding skin immediately after the surgery and for 7 consecutive days thereafter. Tissues were collected, and the number of vessels, angiogenesis markers (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor, HIF-1alpha) and a tissue remodeling marker (matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-2) were analyzed. LLLT increased an angiogenesis, HIF-1alpha and VEGF expression and decrease MMP-2 activity. These phenomena were dependent on the fluences, and wavelengths used. In this study we showed that LLLT may improve the healing of skin flaps by enhancing the amount of new vessels formed in the tissue. Both 660nm and 780nm lasers were able to modulate VEGF secretion, MMP-2 activity and HIF-1alpha expression in a dose dependent manner.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2013 Aug 5 125 164-70

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23831843

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Evaluation of corticosterone and IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha expression after 670-nm laser photobiomodulation in rats.

Lima AA, Spinola LG, Baccan G, Correia K, Oliva M, Vasconcelos JF, Soares MB, Reis SR, Medrado AP

Bahian School of Medicine and Public Health, Avenida Silveira Martins no. 3386, Cabula, Salvador, Bahia, 41150-100, Brazil.

The literature has shown that low-level laser therapy accelerates the repair of cutaneous wounds. However, there is a scarcity of scientific studies that characterise the possible systemic interference of laser photobiomodulation. The aim of this research was to quantitatively evaluate blood corticosterone levels and tissue cytokine expression in cutaneous wounds of rats treated with low-level laser therapy (semiconductor diode AsGaAl, continuous emission, 9 mW, 670 nm, 0.031 W/cm2, beam with an output area of 0.28 cm2) and normal controls. A total of 36 male Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into two groups of 18 rats each. A standardised circular 6-mm-diameter wound was made in the dorsal skin region of each rat, and they were euthanised at 1, 6 and 12 h after cutaneous surgery. The blood was collected, and portions of cutaneous tissue and subcutaneous muscle were removed and cryopreserved. Corticosterone levels in the blood were measured by a radioimmunoassay technique; histological sections were submitted to the ELISA technique for analysis of tissue cytokine expression levels. At 6 h after surgery, a significant increase in corticosterone and a significant reduction in the levels of IL-1beta and IL-6 in tissues of irradiated wounds were observed when compared to controls (p < 0.05). The levels of TNF-alpha and IL-10 expression were not significantly different between the groups at different time intervals. Thus, this study strongly suggests a systemic and local biomodulation of low-level laser therapy as indicated by the blood levels of corticosterone and the tissue expression of IL-1beta and IL-6, respectively.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jul 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23873594

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on oral keratinocytes exposed to bisphosphonate.

Lee JY, Kim IR, Park BS, Kim YD, Chung IK, Song JM, Shin SH

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, South Korea, id9753153@gmail.com.

Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a side effect of bisphosphonate therapy. However, its pathophysiology is not yet fully elucidated, and effective treatment of BRONJ remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of alendronate on oral keratinocytes and of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on alendronate-treated keratinocytes, specifically by evaluating their viability, apoptosis, and wound healing function after irradiation. Oral keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) were exposed to 25 muM alendronate. Then, laser irradiation was performed with a low-level Ga-Al-As laser (lambda = 808 +/- 3 nm, 80 mW, and 80 mA; NDLux, Seoul, Korea) using 1.2 J/cm2 energy dose. Viability was analyzed using MTT assay. Apoptosis was measured by Hoechst staining, caspase assay. Changes in secretion of IL-8, VEGF, and collagen type I were studied by ELISA and immunofluorescence microscopy. Scratch wound assays were also performed to measure cellular migration. Our results show that alendronate inhibits keratinocyte viability, expression of IL-8, VEGF, and collagen type I which are intimately related to healing events and cell migration while promoting apoptosis. Our results serve to demonstrate the utility of LLLT in partially overcoming the inhibitory effects of this bisphosphonate. From these results, the authors believe that the present study will provide an experimental basis for a fuller explanation of the clinical effects of LLLT as a BRONJ treatment modality.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jul 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23835780

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Evaluation of effect of low-level laser therapy on adolescents with temporomandibular disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Leal de Godoy CH, da Costa Silva PF, Sales de Araujo D, Motta LJ, Biasotto-Gonzalez DA, Politti F, Mesquita-Ferrari RA, Fernandes KP, Albertini R, Bussadori SK

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), R, Vergueiro, 235 – Liberdade, Sao Paulo/SP CEP 01504-001, Brazil. sandra.skb@gmail.com.

BACKGROUND: A number of problems involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated structures can lead to temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The aim of the proposed study is to assess the effect of low-level laser therapy on occlusal contacts, mandibular movements, electromyography activity in the muscles of mastication and pain in adolescents with TMD. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial will be carried out involving 85 male and female adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age. The research diagnostic criteria for TMD will be used to assess all individuals who agree to participate. All participants will be submitted to a clinical examination and electromyographic analysis of the masseter muscles and anterior bundle of the temporal muscles bilaterally, to determine TMD. Based on the clinical findings, the participants will be classified as having or not having TMD. Those with TMD will be divided into four groups, three of which will receive low-level laser therapy and one of which will receive a placebo treatment. The treatments will involve the TMJ region alone, the masseter and temporal muscles alone, or both these regions together. The data will be submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. The chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test will be used to determine associations among the categorical variables. The Student’s t test and analysis of variance will be used for the comparison of mean electromyographic signals. Pearson’s correlation coefficients will be calculated for the analysis of correlations among the continuous variables. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol for this study has been submitted to Clinical Trials – registration number (NCT01846000).

Trials 2013 14 229

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23876095

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Laser in dentistry: An innovative tool in modern dental practice.

Verma SK, Maheshwari S, Singh RK, Chaudhari PK

Department of Orthodontics and Dental Anatomy, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

The term LASER is an acronym for ‘Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation’. As its first application in dentistry by Miaman, in 1960, the laser has seen various hard and soft tissue applications. In the last two decades, there has been an explosion of research studies in laser application. In hard tissue application, the laser is used for caries prevention, bleaching, restorative removal and curing, cavity preparation, dentinal hypersensitivity, growth modulation and for diagnostic purposes, whereas soft tissue application includes wound healing, removal of hyperplastic tissue to uncovering of impacted or partially erupted tooth, photodynamic therapy for malignancies, photostimulation of herpetic lesion. Use of the laser proved to be an effective tool to increase efficiency, specificity, ease, and cost and comfort of the dental treatment.

Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2012 Jul 3(2) 124-32

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23833485

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Pressure ulcer treatment strategies: a systematic comparative effectiveness review.

Smith ME, Totten A, Hickam DH, Fu R, Wasson N, Rahman B, Motu’apuaka M, Saha S

BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers affect as many as 3 million Americans and are major sources of morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. PURPOSE: To summarize evidence comparing the effectiveness and safety of treatment strategies for adults with pressure ulcers. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database for English- or foreign-language studies; reference lists; gray literature; and individual product packets from manufacturers (January 1985 to October 2012). STUDY SELECTION: Randomized trials and comparative observational studies of treatments for pressure ulcers in adults and noncomparative intervention series (n > 50) for surgical interventions and evaluation of harms. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted and evaluated for accuracy of the extraction, quality of included studies, and strength of evidence. DATA SYNTHESIS: 174 studies met inclusion criteria and 92 evaluated complete wound healing. In comparison with standard care, placebo, or sham interventions, moderate-strength evidence showed that air-fluidized beds (5 studies [n = 908]; high consistency), protein-containing nutritional supplements (12 studies [n = 562]; high consistency), radiant heat dressings (4 studies [n = 160]; moderate consistency), and electrical stimulation (9 studies [n = 397]; moderate consistency) improved healing of pressure ulcers. Low-strength evidence showed that alternating-pressure surfaces, hydrocolloid dressings, platelet-derived growth factor, and light therapy improved healing of pressure ulcers. The evidence about harms was limited. LIMITATION: Applicability of results is limited by study quality, heterogeneity in methods and outcomes, and inadequate duration to assess complete wound healing. CONCLUSION: Moderate-strength evidence shows that healing of pressure ulcers in adults is improved with the use of air-fluidized beds, protein supplementation, radiant heat dressings, and electrical stimulation. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Ann Intern Med 2013 Jul 2 159(1) 39-50

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23817703

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A Comparison of Three Different Physiotherapy Modalities Used in the Physiotherapy of Burns.

Sari Z, Polat MG, Ozgul B, Aydogdu O, Camcioglu B, Acar AH, Yurdalan SU

From the * Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey; daggerWound and Burn Healing Center, Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

The present study compared the effectiveness of matrix rhythm therapy, ultrasound treatment (UT), laser treatment (LT) used in the physiotherapy of burns. The study was conducted at the Wound and Burn Healing Center, Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital (Turkey) from June 2009 to January 2012. The case series comprised 39 individuals with second- and third-degree upper-limb burns, whose burn traumas ended approximately 1 to 3 months previously. Participants were separated into three groups: matrix rhythm treatment (MRT), UT and LT; each group was also applied a treatment protocol including whirlpool and exercise. Pain, range of motion (ROM), muscular strength, skin elasticity, and sensory functions were evaluated before and after the treatment. Pressure sense and passive ROM were higher in the MRT group than in the LT group (P < .05). Pain was lower in the LT group than in the UT group, and passive ROM was higher in the UT group than the in LT group (P < .05). Active ROM was found to increase in all treatment groups, whereas passive ROM increased only in the MRT and UT groups; pressure sense increased only in the MRT group, and pain decreased only in the LT group (P < .05). MRT was found to be more effective in the restoration of sensory functions than LT, whereas LT was more effective in reducing pain than UT. No significant difference was observed in terms of skin elasticity according to the results of three treatment modalities. It is suggested that further research with more cases should be conducted to examine the long-term effect of treatment modalities.

J Burn Care Res 2013 Jun 28

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23816993

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Periodontal effects with self ligating appliances and laser biostimulation.

Caccianiga G, Cordasco G, Leonida A, Zorzella P, Squarzoni N, Carinci F, Crestale C

Department of Surgery and Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

BACKGROUND: Recently, various biostimulation’s effects of low energy laser irradiation have been reported. The present study was designed to examine the effects of low-energy laser irradiation on alveolar bone remodelling during orthodontic tooth movement and finally on formation of new keratinized gingiva. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 22 patients and 27 teeth in vestibular mucosal without keratinized gingiva were selected. Every patient was treated with self ligating appliances. In every orthodontic session the patient was treated with Diode laser biostimulation. At the moment of debonding, 27 teeth involved in the research were evaluated in terms of quality and quantity of attached gingiva. BOP and CAL loss were investigated. RESULTS: EVERY TOOTH CONSIDERED AT THE END OF ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT SHOWED AN ATTACHED GINGIVA AROUND THE CROWN: The average of keratinized gingiva at the end of the study was 3.10 mm and the mean increasing at each month was 0,49 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The combination between self ligating appliances and laser’s biostimulation could improve the differentiation of periodontal ligaments stem cells in fibroblasts, able to promote attached gingiva around the crown of the teeth erupted in oral vestibular mucosa.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2012 Dec 9(Suppl 2) S186-91

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23814581

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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