THOR Literature watch for February 2013 Low Level Laser Therapy / Cold Laser / Photobiomodulation PBM

20 new papers for you this month starting with a laser tissue penetration study (some wavelengths go deeper than others), Laser vs TENS for OA knee, laser acupuncture for TMJD, human sperm motility and laser vs LED for allergic rhinitis.

Penetration of Laser Light at 808 and 980 nm in Bovine Tissue Samples.

Hudson DE, Hudson DO, Wininger JM, Richardson BD

Respond Systems, Inc. , Branford, Connecticut.

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the penetration of 808 and 980 nm laser light through bovine tissue samples 18-95 mm thick. Background data: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is frequently used to treat musculoskeletal pathologies. Some of the therapeutic targets are several centimeters deep. Methods: Laser light at 808 and 980 nm (1 W/cm(2)) was projected through bovine tissue samples ranging in thickness from 18 to 95 mm. Power density measurements were taken for each wavelength at the various depths. Results: For 808 nm, 1 mW/cm(2) was achieved at 3.4 cm, but for 980 nm, 1 mW/cm(2) was achieved at only 2.2 cm depth of tissue. Conclusions: It was determined that 808 nm of light penetrates as much as 54% deeper than 980 nm light in bovine tissue.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Feb 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23441909

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Comparative evaluation of the direct analgesic efficacy of selected physiotherapeutic methods in subjects with knee joint degenerative disease – preliminary report.

Kedzierski T, Stanczak K, Gworys K, Gasztych J, Sibinski M, Kujawa J

Klinika Rehabilitacji Medycznej Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Lodzi.

Introduction: The goals of the study were to evaluate the efficacy of two physiotherapeutic procedures: low energy laser therapy and low frequency transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and to compare these modalities with regard to their therapeutic effects. Material and methods: Fifty (50) subjects were enrolled into the study and divided into two groups of 25 subjects. Group A received 10 MLS laser therapy sessions with a synchronised laser beam at doses of 12 J per treated site. Group B received ten sessions of low frequency TENS. The procedures were carried out every day for two weeks (5 times a week). All patients completed a personal data questionnaire and underwent an examination of knee joint motion range and circumference. Subjective pain intensity was assessed using the VAS pain scale and the modified Laitinen questionnaire. Results An analysis of the results of the treatment demonstrated statistically significant pain reduction in both groups. This improvement was significantly higher in the two-phase laser therapy group vs. the LF-TENS group. No statistically significant improvement was noted in either of the groups regarding the knee joint range of motion. Conclusions: Both therapies were associated with statistically significant direct pain intensity reduction. The study revealed higher analgesic efficacy of synchronised 2-phase laser therapy vs. LF-TENS.

Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2012 Nov-Dec 14(6) 537-44

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23382281

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Conventional systemic treatments associated with therapeutic sites of local lesions of secondary syphilis in the oral cavity in patients with AIDS.

Giovani EM, de Paula Neto ER, Vieira BC, de Andrade DM

Center for Studies and Consultations in Special Patients (CEAP) and Graduate Studies and Research/Dental, Universidade Paulista, Brazil.

Patients with HIV infection may develop common diseases with atypical clinical features. HIV infection can change the classic clinical course of syphilis and increase the incidence of malignant syphilis. Malignant syphilis is a rare subtype of secondary syphilis that presents special clinical and histological features and has been associated with several processes characterized by variable degrees of immunosuppression. It is necessary to consider the possibility of this entity in the differential diagnoses in HIV-infected patients with cutaneous lesions. The dental surgeon (or oral surgeon) is vital to the medical team for promoting the health and improving the quality of life of syphilis patients. A patient with HIV infection was referred to us for complaints of a white patch on the tongue, stinging and burning sensation on the tongue, loss of taste, and dryness of the mouth. On clinical examination, the patient was found to have a tabetic gait (the Prussian soldier gait) associated with Charcot arthropathy. We also identified bilateral lesions with ulceration and exposure of the tissue that were tender, characterized by discrete necrosis. The treatment that was initiated at that time involved cleaning the area with gauze to remove all the white patches, followed by rinsing with bicarbonate in water (one teaspoon of baking soda dissolved in half a glass of water) four times a day. Additionally, fluconazole (100 mg/day for 7 days) was prescribed. We diagnosed secondary malignant syphilis of approximately 5 days duration. As an adjunctive therapy, we performed low-intensity laser treatment using a GaAsAl (gallium-aluminum arsenide) laser at 790 nm. With this treatment there was progressive resolution of the lesions.

Indian J Dent Res 2012 Sep 23(5) 670-3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23422616

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Laser acupuncture in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction: a randomized controlled trial.

Ferreira LA, de Oliveira RG, Guimaraes JP, Carvalho AC, De Paula MV

Diagnostic and Guidance Center for Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Rua Jose Lourenco Kelmer, S/N, Campus Universitario, Sao Pedro, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, 36036-900, Brazil, l3a6f9@yahoo.com.br.

A prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial was conducted in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) to check the analgesic efficacy of infrared low-power GaAlAs diode laser applied to acupuncture points. Forty female subjects, ranging in age from 20 to 40 years, with diagnoses of chronic myofascial pain and arthralgia were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group (EG) who received the laser acupuncture as adjunct to reversible occlusal splint therapy and a control group (CG) who received a placebo laser associated with occlusal splint therapy. Both approaches were applied once a week for 3 months. Laser acupuncture was defined by the following parameters: 50-mW continuous radiation for 90 s to acupoints ST6, SI19, GB20, GB43, LI4, LR3, NT3, and EX-HN3; defining 4.5-J energy; 1250-W/cm(2) density point; and 112.5-J/cm(2) total density. The outcome measurements included a symptom evolution assessment carried out by checking spontaneous and palpation pain intensity, which was indicated on a visual analog scale (VAS). All evaluations were made by an assessor who was blind to the treatment. The symptom reduction was significant in both groups (EG: VAS = 0, n = 20; CG: VAS between 2 and 4, n = 18). The measurements showed significantly faster and lower pain intensity values in the EG (p
Lasers Med Sci 2013 Feb 5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23380907

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Effect of 830-nm diode laser irradiation on human sperm motility.

Salman Yazdi R, Bakhshi S, Jannat Alipoor F, Akhoond MR, Borhani S, Farrahi F, Lotfi Panah M, Sadighi Gilani MA

Department of Andrology at Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran, r_salman_yazdi@yahoo.com.

Sperm motility is known as an effective parameter in male fertility, and it depends on energy consumption. Low-level laser irradiation could increase energy supply to the cell by producing adenosine triphosphate. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the low-level laser irradiation affects the human sperm motility. Fresh human semen specimens of asthenospermic patients were divided into four equal portions and irradiated by 830-nm GaAlAs laser irradiation with varying doses as: 0 (control), 4, 6 and 10 J/cm(2). At the times of 0, 30, 45 and 60 min following irradiation, sperm motilities are assessed by means of computer-aided sperm analysis in all samples. Two additional tests [HOS and sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) tests] were also performed on the control and high irradiated groups as well. Sperm motility of the control groups significantly decreased after 30, 45 and 60 min of irradiation, while those of irradiated groups remained constant or slightly increased by passing of time. Significant increases have been observed in doses of 4 and 6 J/cm(2) at the times of 60 and 45 min, respectively. SCD test also revealed a non-significant difference. Our results showed that irradiating human sperms with low-level 830-nm diode laser can improve their progressive motility depending on both laser density and post-exposure time.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Feb 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23407899

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In vivo and in vitro analysis of low level light therapy: a useful therapeutic approach for sensitive skin.

Choi M, Kim JE, Cho KH, Lee JH

Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Sensitive skin is a relatively common dermatologic condition and no optimal treatments have been established so far. Low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT) has been used for its biostimulative effect in various clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether low-level laser/light therapy can improve sensitive skin clinically and to evaluate the effects of LLLT on skin in vitro. Twenty-eight patients complaining of sensitive skin were treated with low-level polarized light, and clinical results were evaluated using subjective and objective method. To investigate possible working mechanism of LLLT on skin, cultured human keratinocytes pretreated with nontoxic concentration of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were used. Cytokines released from irritated keratinocytes after LLLT were analyzed. All patients showed subjective and objective improvement after treatment. No adverse effects were reported. The average number of LLLT sessions required to achieve clinical improvement was 9.9, and cumulative dose of LLLT was 71.3 J/cm(2) on the average. Erythema index decreased significantly after LLLT treatment (p = 0.017). In vitro assay showed that LLLT significantly reduced the release of VEGF from SLS-pretreated keratinocytes (p = 0.021). Our results suggest that LLLT could be a useful and safe treatment modality for sensitive skin, and modification of inflammatory cytokines released from irritated keratinocytes may be considered as one of plausible mechanisms in sensitive skin treated with LLLT.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Feb 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23397274

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[The influence of intravenous laser therapy on prostaglandin E2 and F2-alpha dynamics and the state of microcirculation in the patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

Burduli NM, Tadtaeva DIa

The objective of the present work was to study the influence of low-frequency laser radiation on the levels of prostaglandins E2 and F2-alpha and characteristics of microcirculation in the patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A total of 112 patients at the age from 19 to 79 years presenting with GERD were examined. 78 of them were given the complete 10-day course of intravenous laser therapy based on a Matriks-VLOK (“Matriks”, Russia) therapeutic laser set emitting in the continuous mode at a wavelength of 0.405 mcm with the radiation power 1-11.5 mW at the output of the main lightguide. The characteristics of interest were determined before and after the treatment. It was shown that laser irradiation resulted in the elevation of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin levels and the improvement of parameters of microcirculation.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2012 Nov-Dec (6) 17-20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23373291

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Comparative study in the management of allergic rhinitis in children using LED phototherapy and laser acupuncture.

Moustafa Y, Kassab AN, El Sharnoubi J, Yehia H

Otorhinolaryngology Unit, Department of Medical Laser Applications, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Egypt.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of LED phototherapy and laser acupuncture treatment on allergic rhinitis in children. METHODS: 40 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis were divided randomly into two groups. Patient’s ages ranged from 7 to 18 years. One group was subjected to LED phototherapy and the other group was managed by laser acupuncture .The patients were followed-up for 1 year. RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in the severity score symptoms in both groups through and by the end of the follow up period. CONCLUSION: This led to the conclusion that both techniques are equally safe, reliable, non invasive and successful.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2013 Feb 7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23394792

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The Balance Between Normal and Tumor Tissues in Phototherapy of Tissues Harboring Cancer.

Liu TC, Zhang J, Li XE

Laboratory of Laser Sports Medicine, South China Normal University , Guangzhou, China.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Feb 7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23390955

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[Calculation of the dose of low-intensity laser radiation: the need or the harm?].

Moskvin SV

This study showed that it is highly undesirable to equip the devices for laser therapy with the dose-calculation function. In order to avoid mistakes, the operator should perform a strict sequence of actions as follows: to choose the needed wavelength and operating regime (the laser head block) of the LILR source, to set and measure the radiation power, the time and frequency of treatment, turn on the apparatus, control its operation and switch it off at the scheduled time. Meeting all these requirements eventually ensures obtaining a certain optimal dose density and guarantees that the entire procedure of laser irradiation is performed in a proper way. The equipment of the apparatus with the dose-calculation function is nothing more than a marketing ploy intended to earn extra money that apart from everything else creates additional problems for the customer.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2012 Nov-Dec (6) 54-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23373298

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[Treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with chronic prostatitis using vibromagnetic lazer].

Tereshin AT, Sosnovskii IB, Dmitrenko GD, Tret’iakov AA

The study was aimed to evaluation of the effectiveness of vibromagnitic lazer therapy (VMLT) of erectile dysfunction (ED) in patients with chronic prostatitis (CP). The study included 40 patients with CP, aged 22 to 45 years. CP duration ranged from 6 months to 9 years, ED–from 6 months to 7 years. All the patients underwent a survey on “Chart of sexological examination of man” with the calculation of sex constitution index, an transrectal ultrasonography of prostate gland (PG), uroflowmetry, clinical and functional assessment of components of the copulatory interval, and assessment of blood plasma concentrations of peptide and steroid hormones. All patients underwent a psychotherapeutic correction of sexual disadaptation, sex therapy using Masters-Johnson, Kaplan, and Lo Piccolo methods, and VMLT using “Matrix-Urologist” device. The control group included 20 healthy men aged 22 to 45 years. All studies were performed Before and 30 days after the end of the last VMLT session. As a result of the treatment, integral IIEF indicators were normalized in 60% of patients, the volume of the prostate–in 70%, hemodynamics in the phase of relaxation and erection–in 70%, venous blood flow in the PG–in 70%, dorsal artery hemodynamics in the phase of relaxation and erection–in 60%, and penile hemodynamics–in 60% of patients. Voiding bladder function was optimized in 75% of patients. The functional activity of the pituitary-adrenal-testicular system returned to normal level in 60% of patients. 1 year after treatment, sexual function was maintained at attained levels in 47.5% of patients. As a matter of findings, it was concluded that VMLT is high effective method of combined non-pharmacological correction of erectile dysfunction in CP patients with strong and medium sex constitution.

Urologiia 2012 Sep-Oct (5) 57-60, 62-3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23342618

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Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (660nm) alters gene expression during muscle healing in rats.

Rodrigues NC, Brunelli R, de Araujo HS, Parizotto NA, Renno AC

Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos – UFSCAR, Rodovia Washington Luis (SP-310), km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: nataliacrod@yahoo.com.br.

INTRODUCTION: The effects of LLLT were studied during muscle regeneration through gene expression. METHODS: It was evaluated 10 and 50J/cm(2) doses during 7, 14 and 21days post cryoinjury, through histopathological analysis and mRNA MyoD, Myogenin, Vegf and Cox-2 expression. RESULTS: Irradiated groups presented less inflammatory process than control group after 14 and 21days. Cox-2 levels were downregulated in all irradiated groups after 7, 14 and 21days. On day 7, both treated groups had a downregulation of Vegf levels, and an upregulation after 14 and 21days, mainly with 50J/cm(2). The MyoD levels were upregulated with high dose in all periods and with low dose after 21days. Myogenin expression was downregulated in both treated groups after 7days, and was upregulated with 10J/cm(2) after 21days. CONCLUSION: These responses suggest that LLLT can improve the skeletal muscle regeneration through the gene expression stimulation.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2013 Jan 20 120C 29-35

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23416710

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Effect of the laser and light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy on midpalatal suture bone formation after rapid maxilla expansion: a Raman spectroscopy analysis.

Rosa CB, Habib FA, de Araujo TM, Aragao JS, Gomes RS, Barbosa AF, Silveira L Jr, Pinheiro AL

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, Salvador, BA, 40110-150, Brazil, becherrosa@gmail.com.

The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of laser or light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy on the bone formation at the midpalatal suture after rapid maxilla expansion. Twenty young adult male rats were divided into four groups with 8 days of experimental time: group 1, no treatment; group 2, expansion; group 3, expansion and laser irradiation; and group 4, expansion and LED irradiation. In groups 3 and 4, light irradiation was in the first, third, and fifth experimental days. In all groups, the expansion was accomplished with a helicoid 0.020” stainless steel orthodontic spring. A diode laser (lambda780 nm, 70 mW, spot of 0.04 cm(2), t = 257 s, spatial average energy fluence (SAEF) of 18 J/cm(2)) or a LED (lambda850 nm, 150 mW +/- 10 mW, spot of 0.5 cm(2), t = 120 s, SAEF of 18 J/cm(2)) were used. The samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy carried out at midpalatal suture and at the cortical area close to the suture. Two Raman shifts were analyzed: approximately 960 (phosphate hydroxyapatite) and approximately 1,450 cm(-1) (lipids and protein). Data was submitted to statistical analysis. Significant statistical difference (p
Lasers Med Sci 2013 Feb 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23430219

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Neural regeneration in a novel nerve conduit across a large gap of the transected sciatic nerve in rats with low-level laser phototherapy.

Shen CC, Yang YC, Huang TB, Chan SC, Liu BS

Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; Department of Neurosurgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

This study proposes a biodegradable nerve conduit comprising 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) cross-linked gelatin annexed with beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) ceramic particles (EDC-gelatin-TCP, EGT). For this study, the EGT-implant site in rats was irradiated using 660-nm GaAlAsP laser diodes (50 mW) for trigger point therapy to investigate the use of low-level laser (LLL) stimulation in the regeneration of a 15-mm transected sciatic nerve. Animals were divided into three groups: a control group undergoing autologous nerve graft (autograft); a sham-irradiated group (EGT), and an experimental group undergoing laser stimulation (EGT/LS). Two trigger points on the surgical incision along the sciatic nerve were irradiated transcutaneously for 2 min daily for 10 consecutive days. Twelve weeks after implantation, walking track analysis showed a significantly higher sciatic functional index (SFI; p < 0.05) and improved toe spreading development in the autograft and EGT/LS groups, compared to the EGT group. In the electrophysiological measurement, the mean recovery index (peak amplitude and area) of the compound muscle action potential curves in the autograft and EGT/LS groups showed significantly improved functional recovery than in the EGT group (p < 0.05). Compared with the EGT group, the autograft and EGT/LS groups showed a reduction in muscular atrophy. Histomorphometric assessments showed that the EGT/LS group had undergone more rapid nerve regeneration than the EGT group. Therefore, motor function, electrophysiological reaction, muscular reinnervation, and histomorphometric assessments demonstrate that LLL therapy can accelerate the repair of a 15-mm transected peripheral nerve in rats after being bridged with the EGT nerve conduit. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Feb 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23427146

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The effects of 780-nm low-level laser therapy on muscle healing process after cryolesion.

Brunelli RM, Rodrigues NC, Ribeiro DA, Fernandes K, Magri A, Assis L, Parizotto NA, Cliquet A Jr, Renno AC, Abreu DC

Post Graduation Program of Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 780-nm low-level laser therapy at different periods of 7, 14 and 21 days after cryolesion, including the dose (10 or 50 J/cm(2)), to promote a better muscle repair evidenced by histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Fifty-four male rats were divided into three groups: injured control group (CG)-injured animals without any treatment; injured 780-nm laser-treated group, at 10 J/cm(2) (G10); and injured 780-nm laser-treated group, at 50 J/cm(2) (G50). Each group was divided into three subgroups (n = 6): 7, 14 and 21 days post-injury. Histopathological findings revealed better organised muscle fibres in the G10 and G50 during the periods of 7 and 14 days compared to the CG. The G10 and G50 during the 7 days showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of lesion area compared to the CG, without differences between groups treated for 14 and 21 days. The G10 showed an increase of the amount of vessels after 14 days compared to the G50, but not in relation to controls. With regard to the immunohistochemical analyses of the MyoD factor, the G10 and G50 during the 7 days showed higher concentrations of immunomarkers than controls. Myogenin immunomarkers were similarly observed at days 7 and 14 in all the three groups analysed, whereas immunomarkers were found in none of the groups after 21 days of laser therapy. The results showed that laser, regardless the applied dose, has positive effects on muscle repair.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Feb 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23407900

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Low-level light-emitting diode therapy increases mRNA expressions of IL-10 and type I and III collagens on Achilles tendinitis in rats.

Xavier M, de Souza RA, Pires VA, Santos AP, Aimbire F, Silva JA Jr, Albertini R, Villaverde AB

Laboratory of Research and Animal Experimentation, Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys, UFVJM, Rodovia MGT 367, Km 583, no. 5000, 39100-000, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil, muriloxavier@gmail.com.

The present study investigated the effects of low-level light-emitting diode (LED) therapy (880 +/- 10 nm) on interleukin (IL)-10 and type I and III collagen in an experimental model of Achilles tendinitis. Thirty male Wistar rats were separated into six groups (n = 5), three groups in the experimental period of 7 days, control group, tendinitis-induced group, and LED therapy group, and three groups in the experimental period of 14 days, tendinitis group, LED therapy group, and LED group with the therapy starting at the 7th day after tendinitis induction (LEDT delay). Tendinitis was induced in the right Achilles tendon using an intratendinous injection of 100 muL of collagenase. The LED parameters were: optical power of 22 mW, spot area size of 0.5 cm(2), and irradiation time of 170 s, corresponding to 7.5 J/cm(2) of energy density. The therapy was initiated 12 h after the tendinitis induction, with a 48-h interval between irradiations. The IL-10 and type I and III collagen mRNA expression were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction at the 7th and 14th days after tendinitis induction. The results showed that LED irradiation increased IL-10 (p < 0.001) in treated group on 7-day experimental period and increased type I and III collagen mRNA expression in both treated groups of 7- and 14-day experimental periods (p < 0.05), except by type I collagen mRNA expression in LEDT delay group. LED (880 nm) was effective in increasing mRNA expression of IL-10 and type I and III collagen. Therefore, LED therapy may have potentially therapeutic effects on Achilles tendon injuries.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Feb 13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23404386

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Blue Laser Irradiation Generates Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species in Various Types of Cells.

Kushibiki T, Hirasawa T, Okawa S, Ishihara M

Department of Medical Engineering, National Defence Medical College , Saitama, Japan .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after laser irradiation in various types of cells. Background data: ROS are considered to be the key secondary messengers produced by low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Although various mechanisms for the effects of LLLT have been proposed, and intracellular ROS were indicated as the one of the key factors, direct measurement of intracellular ROS of several types of cells after different wavelength lasers irradiation has not been reported. Materials and methods: Various types of cells were used in this study: mouse preadipocytes (3T3-L1), prechondrocytes (ATDC5), myoblasts (C2C12), mesenchymal stromal cells (KUSA-A1), lung cancer cells (LLC), insulinoma cells (MIN6), fibroblasts (NIH-3T3), human cervix adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa), macrophages differentiated from lymphocytes (THP-1) after treatment with phorbol ester, and rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3). Cells were irradiated with a blue laser (wavelength: 405 nm), a red laser (wavelength: 664 nm) or a near infrared laser (wavelength: 808 nm) at 100 mW/cm(2) for 60 or 120 sec. Intracellular ROS levels were measured by fluorometric assay using the intracellular ROS probe, CM-H(2)DCFDA in a flow cytometer. Results: After a blue laser irradiation, intracellular ROS levels were increased in all types of cells. In contrast, intracellular ROS generation was not observed after irradiation with a red laser or near-infrared laser. Conclusions: Potential sources of intracellular ROS were excited by blue laser irradiation, resulting in ROS production within cells. Although the low-level intracellular ROS should be generated after a red or a near-infrared laser irradiation, the only high level intracellular ROS were detected by the ROS probe used in this study. As ROS are considered to be key secondary messengers, the specific functional regulation of cells by laser irradiation will be studied in a future study.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Feb 7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23390956

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Evaluation of low-level laser therapy in rabbit oral mucosa after soft tissue graft application: A pilot study.

Kara C, Demir T, Ozbek E

Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ordu University , Ordu , Turkey.

The aim of the present study was to assess the histopathological effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on healing of the oral mucosa after soft tissue graft operations. The alterations at the end of healing in normal and LLLT-applied oral mucosa were studied in two healthy adult New Zealand white rabbits by taking specimens for light microscopic inspection. There was no adverse event reported in the study and no post-operative complications, such as swelling, bleeding, or edema, were observed in the rabbits. Complete wound healing was faster in the LLLT-applied rabbit. Compared to the normal rabbit oral mucosa, thickening of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis) was found in the epithelia of the rabbits. A significant increase in the epithelial thickness was found in the samples of rabbits, suggesting increased scar tissue following the wound repair. Additionally, many mitotic figures were present in the epithelia of the LLLT-applied rabbit, indicating epithelial cell hyperplasia. Long and irregular connective tissue protrusions projecting into the undersurface of the epithelium and mononuclear cell infiltrations were noted in the rabbits. The results suggest that LLLT used for soft tissue operations provides better and faster wound healing and that LLLT enhances epithelization.

J Cosmet Laser Ther 2013 Feb 5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23383715

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Changes in Gene Expression of Streptococcus mutans in Planktonic Environment Following CO(2) Laser Irradiation.

Sol A, Steinberg D, Featherstone JD, Feuerstein O

1 Institute of Dental Sciences, Hebrew University – Hadassah , Jerusalem, Israel .

Abstract Objective: The aim of this work was to study the effect of CO(2) laser light on gene expression of Streptococcus mutans in a planktonic environment irradiated by sublethal energies. Background data: The use of the CO(2) laser for oral clinical applications has great benefits over the traditional procedures, including a reduced bacterial environment. Materials and methods: In order to determine the sublethal irradiation dose, S. mutans in suspension was irradiated with a continuous wave CO(2) laser (wavelength 10.6 mum) for duration times of 0.5-1.5 min at fluences ranging from 65 to 536 J/cm(2), following bacterial growth and viability measurements. The effect of CO(2) laser irradiation at sublethal dose on gene expression was evaluated by DNA microarray. Temperature rise in the suspension caused by laser irradiation was measured using thermocouple electrodes. Results: Bacterial growth and viability began to decrease after exposure to laser irradiation using 284 J/cm(2). Following irradiation with sublethal fluences of 134 and 268 J/cm(2), changes in gene expression were found with seven downregulated genes being common to both fluences. The temperature rise in the bacterial sample after irradiation with 268 J/cm(2) was from room temperature to only 35 degrees C. Conclusions: CO(2) laser irradiation inhibited viability and growth of S. mutans in suspension in a dose-dependent manner. Irradiation of planktonic bacterial suspensions with sublethal fluences resulted in changes mostly of downregulation in gene expression in a fashion similar to S. mutans in biofilm, except that different genes were involved.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Feb 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23421627

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Photochemical activation of TRPA1 channels in neurons and animals.

Kokel D, Cheung CY, Mills R, Coutinho-Budd J, Huang L, Setola V, Sprague J, Jin S, Jin YN, Huang XP, Bruni G, Woolf CJ, Roth BL, Hamblin MR, Zylka MJ, Milan DJ, Peterson RT

1] Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Center and Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Optogenetics is a powerful research tool because it enables high-resolution optical control of neuronal activity. However, current optogenetic approaches are limited to transgenic systems expressing microbial opsins and other exogenous photoreceptors. Here, we identify optovin, a small molecule that enables repeated photoactivation of motor behaviors in wild-type zebrafish and mice. To our surprise, optovin’s behavioral effects are not visually mediated. Rather, photodetection is performed by sensory neurons expressing the cation channel TRPA1. TRPA1 is both necessary and sufficient for the optovin response. Optovin activates human TRPA1 via structure-dependent photochemical reactions with redox-sensitive cysteine residues. In animals with severed spinal cords, optovin treatment enables control of motor activity in the paralyzed extremities by localized illumination. These studies identify a light-based strategy for controlling endogenous TRPA1 receptors in vivo, with potential clinical and research applications in nontransgenic animals, including humans.

Nat Chem Biol 2013 Feb 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23396078

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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