Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) Literature Watch March 2011

21 new papers for you to review this month. No blockbuster news, however there are some items of interest for the LLLT nerds: A clinical trial where laser beats SaliCept and alvogyl in the treatment of alveolar osteitis (a dry socket), an ex-vivo study on protein expression in the synovial membrane taken from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and the neuroprotective effects of LLLT in a light-induced photoreceptor degeneration study (in rats).

Comparison of Alvogyl, SaliCept Patch, and Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Management of Alveolar Osteitis.
Kaya, GS, Yapici, G, Savas Z, Gungormus M

Assistant Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ataturk University, Faculty of Dentistry, Erzurum, Turkey.

PURPOSE:: The aim of the present randomized prospective clinical trial was to compare the effects of alvogyl, the SaliCept patch, and low-level laser therapy in the management of alveolar osteitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS:: The study population included 104 patients who had been referred to our clinic with a complaint of alveolar osteitis. The patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: group 1, curettage and irrigation alone; group 2, curettage and irrigation followed by alvogyl applied directly to the socket; group 3, curettage and irrigation followed by a SaliCept patch applied directly to the socket; and group 4, curettage and irrigation followed by continuous-mode diode laser irradiation (808 nm, 100 mW, 60 seconds, 7.64 J/cm(2)). The treatment procedures were repeated after 3 days. The clinical signs and symptoms for each patient were recorded at diagnosis, at 3 days after the diagnosis, and at 7 days after the diagnosis. In addition, the pain intensity levels for each patient were recorded at diagnosis and daily for 7 days after the initial treatment. RESULTS:: No statistically significant differences in the management of alveolar osteitis were observed between groups 2 and 3. However, the management of alveolar osteitis was significantly better in group 4 than in the other 3 groups. CONCLUSION:: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that acemannan in the form of the SaliCept patch is an acceptable alternative to alvogyl as a dressing for the management of alveolar osteitis. However, low-level laser therapy treatment at 7.64 J/cm(2) (0.1 W x 60 seconds = 6 J) performed superiorly to both SaliCept and alvogyl in managing alveolar osteitis in our study population.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2011 Mar 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21398006

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Ex Vivo Soft-Laser Treatment Inhibits the Synovial Expression of Vimentin and {alpha}-Enolase, Potential Autoantigens in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Balint G, Barabas K, Zeitler Z, Bakos J, Kekesi KA, Pethes A, Nagy E, Lakatos T, Balint PV, Szekanecz Z

National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Frankel Leo Strasse 25-29, Budapest H-1023, Hungary.

Background Soft-laser therapy has been used to treat rheumatic diseases for decades. The major effects of laser treatment may be dependent not on thermal mechanisms but rather on cellular, photochemical mechanisms. However, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ex vivo effects of low-level laser treatment (with physical parameters similar to those applied previously) on protein expression in the synovial membrane in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Design Synovial tissues were laser irradiated, and protein expression was analyzed. METHODS:/b> Synovial membrane samples obtained from 5 people who had RA and were undergoing knee surgery were irradiated with a near-infrared diode laser at a dose of 25 J/cm(2) (a dose used in clinical practice). Untreated synovial membrane samples obtained from the same people served as controls. Synovial protein expression was assessed with 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: /b> The expression of 12 proteins after laser irradiation was different from that in untreated controls. Laser treatment resulted in the decreased expression of alpha-enolase in 2 samples and of vimentin and precursors of haptoglobin and complement component 3 in 4 samples. The expression of other proteins, including 70-kDa heat shock protein, 96-kDa heat shock protein, lumican, osteoglycin, and ferritin, increased after laser therapy. Limitations The relatively small sample size was a limitation of the study. CONCLUSIONS:/b> Laser irradiation (with physical parameters similar to those used previously) resulted in decreases in both alpha-enolase and vimentin expression in the synovial membrane in RA. Both proteins have been considered to be important autoantigens that are readily citrullinated and drive autoimmunity in RA. Other proteins that are expressed differently also may be implicated in the pathogenesis of RA. Our results raise the possibility that low-level laser treatment of joints affected with RA may be effective, at least in part, by suppressing the expression of autoantigens. Further studies are needed.

Phys Ther 2011 Mar 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21436364

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Low-level laser for treatment of tinnitus: a self-controlled clinical trial.

Okhovat A, Berjis N, Okhovat H, Malekpour A, Abtahi H

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran.

BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence and morbidity, tinnitus still remains an obscure symptom. We assessed the efficacy of low-level laser for treatment of tinnitus. METHODS: It was a self controlled clinical trial study on 61 outpatients with subjective tinnitus. The patients were irradiated with a 650-nm, 5-mW soft laser for twenty days and twenty minutes per day. The sensation of tinnitus was measured on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) before and two weeks after treatment and they were compared by means of Wilcoxon signed ranktest. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (62.3%) patients were men and twenty-three (37.7%) were women. Fourteen patients (31.8%) worked in noisy environment. The VAS mean difference before and after the treatment was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The best treatment effect was in the youngest group and there were significant differences between this group and the middle age and older groups (p = 0.018 and 0.001, respectively). The mean VAS score reduction was not statistically significant between male and female patients (p = 0.23). Also, the treatment outcome according to the noise level in patient’s workplaces was not significantly different in women (p = 0.693), but it was significant in men (p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Transmeatal low-level laser irradiation is effective for the treatment of tinnitus and some variables like age and job can affect the treatment outcome.

J Res Med Sci 2011 Jan 16(1) 33-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21448380

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Photobiomodulation Protects the Retina from Light-Induced Photoreceptor Degeneration.

Albarracin R, Eells J, Valter K

Research School of Biology.

Purpose. We tested the hypothesis that near-infrared (NIR) light treatment (photobiomodulation) would attenuate bright light damage in the albino rat retina. Methods. Young adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) albino rats were raised in dim (5lx) cyclic light then exposed to bright (1000lx) continuous light for 24h. Animals were treated with 670nm light (9J/cm(2)) using an LED array before, during or after light exposure. Retinas were examined for function, structural changes, cell loss, and markers of stress and inflammation at 1week and 1month after exposure to damaging white light. Results. Bright light caused photoreceptor-specific cell death in control retinas. Significant up-regulation of stress and neuroprotective factors, and the presence of activated microglia was also noted following light damage. Photobiomodulation profoundly attenuated histopathological alterations in all three treatment groups. NIR treatment also abolished microglial invasion of the retina and significantly reduced the presence of stress and neuroprotectant molecules. Bright light-induced reductions in photoreceptor function were significantly ameliorated by photobiomodulation in animals treated before and during light damage. Photoreceptor function was initially reduced in animals treated following bright light damage but recovered by one-month post exposure. Conclusions. NIR photobiomodulation is protective against bright light-induced retinal degeneration even when NIR treatment is applied after light exposure. This protective effect appears to involve a reduction of cell death and inflammation. Photobiomodulation has the potential to become an important treatment modality to prevent or treat light-induced stress in the retina. More generally, it could be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of retinal conditions involving inflammatory mechanisms.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011 Mar 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21421867

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Large-area irradiated low-level laser effect in a biodegradable nerve guide conduit on neural regeneration of peripheral nerve injury in rats.

Shen CC, Yang, YC, Liu, BS

Department of Neurosurgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC; Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

This study used a biodegradable composite containing genipin-cross-linked gelatin annexed with beta-tricalcium phosphate ceramic particles (genipin-gelatin-tricalcium phosphate, GGT), developed in a previous study, as a nerve guide conduit. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of a large-area irradiated aluminium-gallium-indium phosphide (AlGaInP) diode laser (660nm) on the neural regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve after bridging the GGT nerve guide conduit in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: group 1 comprised sham-irradiated controls and group 2 rats underwent low-level laser (LLL) therapy. A compact multi-cluster laser system with 20 AlGaInP laser diodes (output power, 50mW) was applied transcutaneously to the injured peripheral nerve immediately after closing the wound, which was repeated daily for 5min for 21 consecutive days. Eight weeks after implantation, walking track analysis showed a significantly higher sciatic function index (SFI) score (P<0.05) and better toe spreading development in the laser-treated group than in the sham-irradiated control group. For electrophysiological measurement, both the mean peak amplitude and nerve conduction velocity of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were higher in the laser-treated group than in the sham-irradiated group. The two groups were found to be significantly different during the experimental period (P<0.005). Histomorphometric assessments revealed that the qualitative observation and quantitative analysis of the regenerated nerve tissue in the laser-treated group were superior to those of the sham-irradiated group. Thus, the motor functional, electrophysiologic and histomorphometric assessments demonstrate that LLL therapy can accelerate neural repair of the corresponding transected peripheral nerve after bridging the GGT nerve guide conduit in rats.

Injury 2011 Mar 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21397226

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Tuberculosis (HIV-negative people).

Ziganshina LE, Eisenhut M

Kazan State Medical Academy, Kazan, Russia.

INTRODUCTION: About one third of the world’s population has latent tuberculosis. In 2004, more than 14 million people had active tuberculosis. About 1.7 million people died from the infection in 2006. More than 80% of new cases diagnosed in 2004 were in people in Africa, South-East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent tuberculosis in people without HIV infection at high risk of developing tuberculosis? What are the effects of interventions to prevent tuberculosis in people without HIV infection at high risk of developing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis? What are the effects of different drug regimens in people with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis without HIV infection? What are the effects of different drug regimens in people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis without HIV infection? What are the effects of low-level laser therapy in people with tuberculosis without HIV infection? Which interventions improve adherence to treatment in people with tuberculosis without HIV infection? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). RESULTS: We found 32 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adding pyrazinamide in chemotherapy regimens lasting up to 6 months, adding rifampicin to isoniazid regimens, benefits of different regimens, chemotherapy for <6 months, daily chemotherapy, direct observation treatment, intermittent chemotherapy for 6 months or longer, isoniazid, low-level laser therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis, regimens containing quinolones, rifampicin plus isoniazid, substituting rifampicin with ethambutol in the continuous phase, and support mechanisms for directly observed treatment.

Clin Evid (Online) 2011 2011

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21396138

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Efficacy of a multiple diode laser system for body contouring.

Elm CM, Wallander ID, Endrizzi B, Zelickson BD

Zel Skin & Laser Specialists, 4100 West 50th Street, Edina, Minnesota 55424.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to induce cellular reactions in nonphotosynthetic cells however skepticism remains regarding efficacy at the clinical level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of LLLT independent of liposuction. Additionally, a weight loss supplement (Curva, Santa Barbra Medical Innovations, Santa Barbra, CA) was evaluated. This clinical trial evaluates the effectiveness of the Erchonia EML Laser (Zerona System, Santa Barbra Medical Innovations) for non-invasive fat reduction and body contouring in a split-body clinical evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five subjects were enrolled and completed the study. Subjects had a body mass index (BMI) of less than or equal to 29 kg/m(2) and satisfied the set inclusion criteria. Participants were randomly assigned to receive low-level laser treatments on one side of the body three times per week for 2 weeks. One group took the weight loss supplement and was also treated with the laser. Subject satisfaction questionnaires, physician blinded photo evaluation, circumference measurements and ultrasound measurements were utilized to evaluate efficacy. RESULTS: Circumference measurements revealed no statistically significant reduction at either 7 days or 1 month post-treatment. One month following treatment the greatest circumference reduction overall was 0.5 +/- 0.3 inches. Ultrasound measurements also did not reveal statistically significant reduction in fat layer thickness (P > 0.5). Evaluation by three blinded dermatologists resulted in average correct photo identification of 51.1%. Results reflect little clinical difference between post-treatment and baseline images. Three subjects recording a “dissatisfied” rating on satisfaction questionnaires and all subjects reported the effects of the treatment were less than expected. Subjects who took the weight loss supplement had no greater circumference reduction or identifiable clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This small study demonstrates to the authors that there needs to be more evidence to show clinical circumferential reduction before LLLT can be recommended as an effective therapeutic option.

Lasers Surg Med 2011 Feb 43(2) 114-21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21384392

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[The application of supravascular laser irradiation of blood for the treatment of cochleovestibular disorders.]

Lapchenko AS, Kucherov AG, Levina IV, Ivanets IV, Krasiuk AA, Kadymova MI

NOTs patologii verkhnikh dykhatel’nykh putei, ukha i neotlozhnoi otorinolaringologii RGMU, Moskva.

A total of 165 patients presenting with neurosensory impairement of hearing and Meniere’s disease were treated by supravascular (extracorporeal) laser irradiation of blood. The study undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment confirmed its beneficial effect in patients with acute hearing disorders. It was equally effective as regards elimination of labyrinthine hydropsis in patients presenting with Meniere’s disease. The method proved less efficacious for the management of long-standing hearing impairement and chronic loss of hearing, but it can be used to prevent the development of these conditions.

Vestn Otorinolaringol 2011 (1) 39-40

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21378736

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Influence of Low Intensity Laser Irradiation on Isolated Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Over 72 Hours and Their Differentiation Potential into Smooth Muscle Cells Using Retinoic Acid.

de Villiers JA, Houreld NN, Abrahamse H

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein, 2028, South Africa.

INTRODUCTION: Human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs), with their impressive differentiation potential, may be used in autologous cell therapy or grafting to replace damaged tissues. Low intensity laser irradiation (LILI) has been shown to influence the behaviour of various cells, including stem cells. AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the effect of LILI on hADSCs 24, 48 or 72 h post-irradiation and their differentiation potential into smooth muscle cells (SMCs). METHODOLOGY: hADSCs were exposed to a 636 nm diode laser at a fluence of 5 J/cm(2). hADSCs were differentiated into SMCs using retinoic acid (RA). Morphology was assessed by inverted light and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Proliferation and viability of hADSCs was assessed by optical density (OD), Trypan blue staining and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) luminescence. Expression of stem cell markers, beta1-integrin and Thy-1, and SMC markers, smooth muscle alpha actin (SM-alphaa), desmin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC) and smoothelin, was assessed by immunofluorescent staining and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Morphologically, hADSCs did not show any differences and there was an increase in viability and proliferation post-irradiation. Immunofluorescent staining showed expression of beta1-integrin and Thy-1 72 h post-irradiation. RT-PCR results showed a down regulation of Thy-1 48 h post-irradiation. Differentiated SMCs were confirmed by morphology and expression of SMC markers. CONCLUSION: LILI at a wavelength of 636 nm and a fluence of 5 J/cm(2) does not induce differentiation of isolated hADSCs over a 72 h period, and increases cellular viability and proliferation. hADSCs can be differentiated into SMCs within 14 days using RA.

Stem Cell Rev 2011 Mar 5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21373882

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Are ultrasound, laser and exercise superior to each other in the treatment of subacromial impingement syndrome? A randomized clinical trial.

Calis HT, Berberoglu N, Calis M

Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Clinic, Kayseri, Turkey – mcalis@erciyes.edu.tr.

BACKGROUND: Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is the most common reason for shoulder pain. Ultrasound and laser are the physical therapy modalities, in conservative treatment of SIS. AIM: The aim of this study was to define and compare the efficacy of ultrasound, laser and exercise in the treatment of SIS. DESIGN: This was a randomized controlled trial with-pre and post-treatment evaluations SETTING: Out-patients referred to physical medicine and rehabilitation unit. POPULATION: This study was performed on 52 patients with SIS. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups METHODS: The patients were treated five days a week for three weeks with hotpack+ultrasound+exercise (the first group); hotpack+laser+exercise (the second group), or hotpack+exercise (the third group). The pre and post treatment ranges of motion were measured in the patients. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the severity of pain. Constant scoring was used to evaluate the shoulder functions and the results were compared after the treatment. RESULTS: When the post-treatment results of the groups were compared with the pretreatment results, there was a statistically significant improvement in each of the three groups, in the pain, the range of motion and the functional improvement at the shoulder (P<0.05). However, the inter-group comparison did not reveal any statistically significant difference in the parameters indicating improvement (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrated that ultrasound and laser treatments were not superior to each other in the treatment of SIS. Clinical Rehabilitation Impact. Exercise treatment forms the base for the conservative treatment.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2011 Mar 2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21364511

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Comparative study of the bactericidal effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid with blue and red light on Propionibacterium acnes.

Choi MS, Yun SJ, Beom HJ, Park HR, Lee JB

Department of Dermatology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju Department of Dermatologic Beauty, Cheongam University, Suncheon Department of Chemistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.

Propionibacterium acnes naturally produces endogenous porphyrins that are composed of coproporphyrin III (CPIII) and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Red light alone and photodynamic therapy (PDT) improve acne vulgaris clinically, but there remains a paucity of quantitative data that directly examine the bactericidal effects that result from PDT on P. acnes itself in vitro. The purpose of this study was to measure the difference of bactericidal effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-PDT with red and blue light on P. acnes. P. acnes were cultured under anaerobic conditions and divided into two groups (ALA-treated group and control group), and were then illuminated with blue (415 nm) and red (635 nm) lights using a light-emitting diode (LED). The cultured P. acnes were killed with both blue and red LED light illumination. The efficacy increased with larger doses of light and a greater number of consecutive illuminations. We demonstrated that red light phototherapy was less effective for the eradication of P. acnes than blue light phototherapy without the addition of ALA. However, pretreatment with ALA could enhance markedly the efficacy of red light phototherapy.

J Dermatol 2010 Nov 3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21352326

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Effect of low level laser on sutured wound healing in rats.

Melo VA, Anjos DC, Albuquerque Junior R, Melo DB, Carvalho FU

Department of Experimental Surgical, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, SE, Brazil.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) e904 nm on healing of surgical wounds in rats. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups, underwent incision along the lines Alba covering skin, subcutaneous and muscle abdominal, sutured continuously for nylon 5-0. Eight and fifteen days after the surgery process, the repairing area was removed and histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to assess cellularity inflammatory, Masson’s Trichrome and Picrossirus to quantify the collagen fibers and immunohistochemical technique for counting newly formed vessels. The data were compared statistically using analysis of variance ANOVA, with a “post-hoc Tukey test, p <0.05. RESULTS: Low-level laser therapy reduced the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and influenced the dynamic of the immunoinflammatory response by inducing switching of the leukocyte infiltration pattern (neutrophilic to lymphoplasmacytic infiltration). Also stimulate the deposition and enhance the organization of collagen fibers, featuring a delicate collagen type III. Furthermore, it appeared to a significant increase in the average number of newly formed vessels (p = 0.00 and p = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSION: Low-level laser therapy resulted in modulate of the inflammatory response, enhanced deposition of collagen fibers and increase in the average number of newly formed vessels.

Acta Cir Bras 2011 Apr 26(2) 129-34

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21445476

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Laser acupuncture and auriculotherapy in postural instability-a preliminary report.

Bergamaschi M, Ferrari G, Gallamini M, Scoppa F

First Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

The risk of falling is rather high among elderly people. Indexes obtained through the Romberg stabilometric test on a force platform have been suggested to be correlated with the risk of falling. This work aimed to test the effectiveness of auriculopuncture and ultralow-power laserpuncture versus placebo (sham stimulation) in improving postural control in an elderly population. Balance performance was measured on a force platform before and after both forms of stimulation. Main balance parameters pointed to an average short-term improvement of about 15% 1 hour after treatment and 5-10% after an interval of 3 days. However, a few participants showed a better than 30% improvement with the same parameters. Although the sample size does not allow reliable statistical analysis, the modifications are remarkable and some differences are observed between the two kinds of stimulation. Further testing with larger sized groups and including one further group using both stimulations is suggested. Although postural instability has to be defined as multi-factorial, it is often associated with balance dysfunctions that cannot be related to vestibular or central impairments but rather to proprioceptive deficits. A significant role may be ascribed to (even subliminal) nociceptive interferences with proprioceptive inputs and to a reduced capacity for updating cortical motor control models in the case of progressively declining locomotor capabilities. The explanation tentatively put forward to account for the results observed in the present preliminary study is that laser acupuncture and auriculopuncture stimulations reduce nociceptive interference and thus improve postural control.

J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2011 Mar 4(1) 69-74

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21440882

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Violet laser acupuncture-part 2: effects on peripheral microcirculation.

Wang L, Huang T, Zhang W, Litscher G

Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Laser Doppler flowmetry for microcirculation monitoring was performed in 10 healthy volunteers (mean age +/- SD: 24.9 +/- 3.3 years; 5 females, 5 males) prior to, during, and after stimulation using a noninvasive violet (405 nm) laser needle at the Dazhui (GV14) acupoint. The results of this controlled study (control point at the shoulder) showed significant (p < 0.05) increases in Flux (product of concentration and velocity of erythrocytes) at a distance of 3 cm from the acupoint. At the same time, no changes were found at the control point. Furthermore, 5 minutes after stimulation the microcirculation still flowed at a higher level than baseline values at the beginning of the investigation. In a single individual it was demonstrated that needle acupuncture enhanced this effect and placebo (deactivated laser) did not have a significant effect. The results suggest that violet laser acupuncture at the acupoint Dazhui can increase vascular effects on microcirculation.

J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2011 Mar 4(1) 24-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21440877

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Inhibition of carrageenan-induced expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA by low level laser therapy in a rat paw edema model.

Silva MP, Bortone F, Silva MP, Araujo TR, Costa MS, Silva Junior JA

Universidade Nove de Julho, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

BACKGROND: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used clinically in order to treat inflammation, where tissue and plasma prekallikrein have crucial importance. Plasma prekallikrein (PPK) is synthesized by the hepatocytes and secreted into the bloodstream, where it participates in the surface-dependent activation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinin generation and inflammation. Tissue prekallikrein is associated with important disease states (including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegeneration) and has been utilized or proposed as clinically important biomarker or therapeutic target of interest. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if LLLT modulates tissue and plasma prekallikreins mRNA expression in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. METHODS: Experimental groups were assigned as followed: A1 (Control-saline), A2 (Carrageenan-only), A3 (laser 660nm only) and A4 (Carrageenan + laser 660nm). Edema was measured by a plethysmometer. Subplantar tissue was collected for the quantification of prekallikreins mRNA by Real time-Polymerase Chain Reaction. RESULTS: A significantly decrease in the edema was observed after laser irradiation. Expression of prekallikreins increased after carrageenan injection. Tissue and plasma prekallikrein mRNA expression significantly decreased after LLLT’s 660nm wavelength. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that expression of tissue and plasma prekallikreins is modulated by LLLT, which can be used in clinical practice due to its anti-inflammatory effects.

Rev Bras Fisioter 2011 Mar 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21437517

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Current state of acne treatment: Highlighting lasers, photodynamic therapy, and chemical peels.

Kim RH, Armstrong AW

University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, California. aprilarmstrong@post.harvard.edu.

Acne vulgaris continues to be a challenge to dermatologists and primary care physicians alike. The available treatments reflect the complex and multifactorial contributors to acne pathogenesis, with topical retinoids as first-line therapy for mild acne, topical retinoids in combination with anti-microbials for moderate acne, and isotretinoin for severe nodular acne. Unfortunately, these conventional therapies may not be effective against refractory acne, can lead to antibiotic resistance, and is associated with adverse effects. With the rise of new technologies and in-office procedures, light and laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, chemical peels, and comedo extraction are growing in popularity as adjunctive treatments and may offer alternatives to those who desire better efficacy, quicker onset of action, improved safety profile, reduced risk of antibiotic resistance, and non-systemic administration. Whereas adjunctive therapies are generally well-tolerated, the number of randomized controlled trials are few and limited by small sample sizes. Furthermore, results demonstrating efficacy of certain light therapies are mixed and studies involving photodynamic therapy and chemical peels have yet to standardize and optimize application, formulation, and exposure times. Nevertheless, adjunctive therapies, particularly blue light and photodynamic therapy, show promise as these treatments also target factors of acne pathogenesis and may potentially complement current conventional therapy.

Dermatol Online J 2011 17(3) 2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21426868

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Laser Acupuncture Therapy for Primary Monosymptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis.

Karaman MI, Koca O, Kucuk EV, Ozturk M, Gunes M, Kaya C

Department of Urology, Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

PURPOSE: Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is the nighttime bed-wetting that occurs among children without lower urinary tract symptoms or bladder dysfunction, and affects a considerable part of the population. In our study the effect of laser acupuncture therapy on patients with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, single-blind study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 91 children with a mean age of 8.6 years who presented to our outpatient clinic with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and had not received any medical therapy were included in the study. The children were randomized into 2 groups. In group 1 laser acupuncture was performed 3 times a week for 4 weeks, whereas the same program via a nonlaser light to the same points was performed on the children in group 2 (placebo group). The number of weekly bed-wetting episodes before therapy was recorded, and the children were reevaluated 15, 30, 90 and 180 days after treatment. RESULTS: The mean number of bed-wetting episodes was 1.7 per week 6 months after laser therapy. In the placebo group the mean number of weekly bed-wetting episodes was 3.1. Laser acupuncture therapy was significantly more beneficial compared to placebo in terms of complete dryness, partial improvement and a decrease in the mean number of weekly bed-wetting episodes. CONCLUSIONS: Laser acupuncture therapy, a noninvasive, painless, short-term therapy with a low cost, can be considered as an alternative therapy for patients with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

J Urol 2011 Mar 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21420121

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Effect of Laser Acupuncture for Monosymptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis on Bladder Reservoir Function and Nocturnal Urine Output.

Radvanska E, Kamperis K, Kleif A, Kovacs L, Rittig S

Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark; Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

PURPOSE: The alternative treatments for enuresis have been reported with high efficacy but in noncontrolled studies. Therefore, using a prospective, single-blind, randomized, placebo controlled design we evaluated the effect of laser acupuncture on bladder reservoir function and enuresis frequency in cases of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis with reduced maximal voided volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, with at least 3 enuretic nights per week and less than 70% of normal age related maximal voided volume without first morning void (Koff’s formula), no constipation, urinary tract abnormalities, or daytime incontinence were randomized into group 1-active laser acupuncture, group 2-placebo treatment with red light and skin contact and group 3-placebo treatment with red light without skin contact. After a 2-week run-in period (when patients made home recordings of nocturnal urinary production and during 2 weekends frequency-volume charts), the patients started a 5-week treatment. During the last 2 weeks of treatment patients performed the same recordings as during the run-in period. RESULTS: We found no significant effect of active laser acupuncture on maximal voided volume (first morning void excluded), maximal morning voided volume, voiding frequency, enuresis frequency before and after treatment or nocturnal urine production among the patient groups. However, we found that laser acupuncture resulted in a significant increase in average daytime voided volume. We found no effect of skin contact during placebo laser acupuncture. CONCLUSIONS: Laser acupuncture is a safe but inefficient treatment for monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis with reduced maximal voided volume. However, we found subtle effects on bladder reservoir function.

J Urol 2011 Mar 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21420107

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Comparing different physical factors on serum TNF-alpha levels, chondrocyte apoptosis, caspase-3 and caspase-8 expression in osteoarthritis of the knee in rabbits.

Guo H, Luo Q, Zhang, J, Lin H, Xia L, He C

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

OBJECTIVE: To study the therapeutic effects that different physical factors may have on rabbits with osteoarthritis of the knee. METHODS: A total of 64 rabbits were randomised and organised into eight groups, eight of which were each assigned a different physical factor, in which the rabbits received one type of physical therapy: millimetre waves for 20min, pulsed electromagnetic fields, millimetre waves for 40min, ultrasound, low-level laser therapy or ultrashort wave diathermy. The two remaining groups, the normal group and the model group, served as controls. The efficacy of the different treatments were determined by observing the configuration and structure of the cartilaginous tissue by haematoxylin and Eosin staining, measuring the serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels by enzyme immunoassay, evaluating the expression levels of caspases-3 and -8 by immunohistochemistry, and calculating the ratio of chondrocytes apoptosis by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling. The values obtained for each assessment of the eight groups were analysed by a One-way ANOVA. RESULTS: By applying upmentioned physical treatments, the organisational configuration and structure of cartilage cells from the knees of rabbits with osteoarthritis increased. These treatments also decreased serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, reduced the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8 and reduced chondrocyte apoptosis, resulting in an overall delay in osteoarthritis development. CONCLUSION: The application of pulsed electromagnetic fields, millimetre waves for 40min, ultrasound, or low-level laser therapy had significant effects in improving osteoarthritis; in particular, treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields or ultrasound yielded the greatest therapeutic effect.

Joint Bone Spine 2011 Mar 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21397547

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Conflicting findings on effectiveness of low level laser therapy for tendinopathy.

Steffens D, Maher CG

Centre for Evidence-Based Physiotherapy, The George Institute for Global Health, PO Box M201, Missenden Road, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia. dsteffens@georgeinstitute.org.au.

Br J Sports Med 2011 Apr 45(5) 459

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21393263

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Effects of low-level laser therapy (685 nm) at different doses in osteogenic cell cultures.

Schwartz-Filho HO, Reimer AC, Marcantonio C, Marcantonio E Jr, Marcantonio RA

Division of Periodontology, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry, UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Araraquara, SP, Brazil, betoschwartz@hotmail.com.

The present in vitro study evaluated parameters of osteogenesis under the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) at different doses. Osteogenic cells originated from rat calvaria were cultivated in polystyrene plates and exposed to a laser irradiation using an indium-gallium-aluminum phosphide therapeutic laser (InGaAIP), at wavelength of 685 nm, power of 35 mW, 600-mum-diameter optical fiber, and continuous wave. In the attempt of observing the existence of a dose response and its effects, laser irradiation was performed at 25, 77, and 130 J/cm(2) (7, 22, and 37 s, respectively). The following parameters were assessed: growth curve (4, 7, and 11 days), cell viability (24 h), and nodular formation of mineralized matrix (14 days). The results did not show significant differences related to the growth curve (4, 7, and 11 days) and cell viability (24 h). Within 14 days, osteogenic cultures showed nodular areas with well-defined calcified matrix. The total area stained with Alizarin Red did not show any differences between doses of 25 and 130 J/cm(2). However, the percentage of stained area was significantly higher in the 25 J/cm(2) group when compared to the group of 77 J/cm(2) (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). It was possible to conclude that the 685-nm laser irradiation (at 25, 77, and 130 J/cm(2)) did not influence cell growth and proliferation, although the extracellular mineralization process may have its pattern altered by the LLLT on osteogenic cell cultures.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Mar 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21387157

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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