Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / Cold Laser Literature watch for Nov 2011

21 new LLLT papers for your review this month including:

– How to report LLLT beam & dose parameters
– Bisphosphonate osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ)
– Rotator cuff tendinitis
– The effect of LED on a patient in a persistent vegetative state
– Two papers on herpes simplex
– A study on acneiform rash due to EGFRI
– LLLT for “coronally advanced flap adjunct” (a gingival surgical
procedure)
– Lymphedema Praecox

How to Report Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)/Photomedicine Dose and Beam Parameters in Clinical and Laboratory Studies.

Jenkins PA, Carroll JD

1 SpectraMedics Pty Ltd , Oakbank, SA, Australia ; SpectraVET Inc., Irradia LLC, and Irradia Education Inc., Lawndale, North Carolina; and Immunophotonics Inc., Columbia, Missouri. 2 THOR Photomedicine Ltd, Chesham, United Kingdom

Background: Dose and beam parameters are critical for successful laser, LED, and other light therapy treatments, however, in our experience, researchers frequently make critical errors and omissions when submitting papers for publication. Journals frequently publish studies with missing data, mathematical errors, and no reported verification of beam parameters. This makes reproducibility impossible, and further confounds an already complex subject. Objective: This article is intended to be a reference document for non-physicist researchers conducting low-level laser therapy (LLLT) laboratory studies and clinical trials to help them design and report the beam and dose aspects of their trials. Recommendations: It provides a checklist to help LLLT researchers understand and report all the necessary parameters for a repeatable scientific study. It includes the eight most important beam parameters to report, which are: wavelength, power, irradiation time, beam area at the skin or culture surface (this is not necessarily the same as the aperture size), pulse parameters, anatomical location, number of treatments, and interval between treatments. The three commonly used dose parameters are time, energy, and energy density. In addition, more thorough reporting would include coherence, application technique (contact, projection, scanning, pressure), beam profile, and spectral width, as these may also be considered important. Beam power often decreases as the device warms up and as the device ages; therefore, this should be checked routinely during an experiment/trial. Measurements of beam area and beam power require special instruments and trained technicians to operate them. Power measurements should be taken before, after, and at frequent intervals during research trials. Conclusion: Reviewers should insist that the minimum eight most important beam parameters are included and authors should take care to measure and record these accurately before during and after an experiment or clinical trial.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Nov 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22107486

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Early Surgical Laser-Assisted Management of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (BRONJ): A Retrospective Analysis of 101 Treated Sites with Long-Term Follow-Up.

Vescovi P, Manfredi M, Merigo E, Guidotti R, Meleti M, Pedrazzi G, Fornaini C, Bonanini M, Ferri T, Nammour S

1 Oral Medicine, Pathology and Laser-Assisted Surgery Unit, University of Parma , Parma, Italy .

Abstract Background data: The management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is still controversial. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare surgical and nonsurgical approaches to the treatment of BRONJ and the possible usefulness of Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers. Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight patients (33 males, 95 females; 52 with diagnosis of multiple myeloma, 53 with diagnosis of bone metastasis, and 23 with diagnosis of osteoporosis) affected by BRONJ were evaluated at the Unit of Oral Pathology and Medicine and Laser-Assisted Surgery of the University of Parma, Italy, between January 2004 and July 2009. Overall number of BRONJ sites was 151, and number of treated sites was 101. In order to assess the efficacy of different treatments, sites were subclassified as follows: Group 1 (G1): 12 sites treated with medical therapy; Group 2 (G2): 27 sites treated with medical therapy associated with low level laser therapy (LLLT); Group 3 (G3): 17 sites treated with a combination of medical and surgical therapy; Group 4 (G4): 45 sites treated with a combination of medical therapy, surgical (including laser-assisted) therapy, and LLLT. Outcome of treatment was assessed using the staging system proposed by Ruggiero et al. Transition from a higher stage to a lower one for at least 6 months was considered as clinical improvement and suggestive of a successful treatment. Results: Clinical improvement was achieved in 3 out of 12 (25%) BRONJ sites in G1. Sites if G2 with an improvement were 18 out of 27 (66%). Nine out 17 BRONJ sites (53%) in G3 had a transition to a lower stage after treatment. For sites in G4, a clinical improvement was recorded in 40 out of 45 cases (89%). Conclusions: In our experience, the percentage of success obtained with a combined approach based on medical therapy, surgical (including laser-assisted) therapy, and LLLT (G4) is significantly higher than the percentage of improvement obtained in G1, G2, and G3.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Nov 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22054203

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The Effect of 670-nm Low Laser Therapy on Herpes Simplex Type 1.

Munoz Sanchez PJ, Capote Femenias JL, Diaz Tejeda A, Tuner J

1 Leonardo Fernandez Sanchez Dental Clinic , Cienfuegos, Cuba .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this work was to study the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing and relapse intervals in patients with recurrent labial herpes simplex infections. Background data: Several pharmaceuticals are available to reduce symptoms and improbe healing of labial herpes, but only LLLT has been reported to significantly influence the length of the recurrence period. Material and methods: In an initial study, 232 patients with herpes simplex type 1 virus symptoms were consecutively selected for either LLLT or conventional therapy, including acyclovir cream or tablets. One of the dentists was responsible for the diagnosis, a second dentist for the treatment, and and a third for the evaluation, to allow for a semi-blinded procedure. Patients in the laser group received 670-nm laser irradiation, 40 mW, 1.6 J, 2.04 J/cm(2), 51 mW/cm(2) per blister in the prodromal stage and 4.8 J in the crust and secondarily infected stages, plus 1.2 J at the C2-C3 vertebrae. Patients were monitored daily during the first week to control healing, and monthly for 1 year to check on recurrence. In a consecutive study, 322 patients receiving LLLT were followed during 5 years to observe the period of ocurrences. Results: An obvious effect of LLLT was found for both initial healing and for the length of the recurrence periods. Conclusions: LLLTof herpes simples virus 1 (HSV-1) appears to be an effective treatment modality without any observed side effects.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Nov 2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22047597

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Effects of low-level laser therapy in combination with physiotherapy in the management of rotator cuff tendinitis.

Eslamian F, Shakouri SK, Ghojazadeh M, Nobari OE, Eftekharsadat B

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Research Center, Imam Reza hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Golgasht Ave, Tabriz, Iran, eslamiyanf@tbzmed.ac.ir.

Rotator cuff tendinitis is one of the main causes of shoulder pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible additive effects of low-power laser treatment in combination with conventional physiotherapy endeavors in these patients. A total of 50 patients who were referred to the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic with shoulder pain and rotator cuff disorders were selected. Pain severity measured with visual analogue scale (VAS), abduction, and external rotation range of motion in shoulder joint was measured by goniometry, and evaluation of daily functional abilities of patients was measured by shoulder disability questionnaire. Twenty-five of the above patients were randomly assigned into the control group and received only routine physiotherapy. The other 25 patients were assigned into the experimental group and received conventional therapy plus low-level laser therapy (4 J/cm(2) at each point over a maximum of ten painful points of shoulder region for total 5 min duration). The above measurements were assessed at the end of the third week of therapy in each group and the results were analyzed statistically. In both groups, statistically significant improvement was detected in all outcome measures compared to baseline (p < 0.05). Comparison between two different groups revealed better results for control of pain (reduction in VAS average) and shoulder disability problems in the experimental group versus the control (3.1 +/- 2.2 vs. 5 +/- 2.6, p = 0.029 and 4.4 +/- 3.1 vs. 8.5 +/- 5.1, p = 0.031, respectively ) after intervention. Positive objective signs also had better results in the experimental group, but the mean range of active abduction (144.92 +/- 31.6 vs. 132.80 +/- 31.3) and external rotation (78.0 +/- 19.5 vs. 76.3 +/- 19.1) had no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.20 and 0.77, respectively). As one of physical modalities, gallium-arsenide low-power laser combined with conventional physiotherapy has superiority over routine physiotherapy from the view of decreasing pain and improving the patient’s function, but no additional advantages were detected in increasing shoulder joint range of motion in comparison to other physical agents.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Nov 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22052627

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Focal Increase in Cerebral Blood Flow After Treatment with Near-Infrared Light to the Forehead in a Patient in a Persistent Vegetative State.

Nawashiro H, Wada K, Nakai K, Sato S

1 Department of Neurosurgery, National Defense Medical College , Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan .

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to quantify the cerebral blood flow (CBF) after bilateral, transcranial near-infrared light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation to the forehead in a patient in a persistent vegetative state following severe head injury. Background data: Positive behavioral improvement has been observed following transcranial near-infrared light therapy in humans with chronic traumatic brain injury and acute stroke. Methods: Single-photon emission computed tomography with N-isopropyl-[123I]p-iodoamphetamine (IMP-SPECT) was performed following a series of LED treatments. Results: IMP-SPECT showed unilateral, left anterior frontal lobe focal increase of 20%, compared to the pre-treatment value for regional CBF (rCBF) for this area, following 146 LED treatments over 73 days from an array of 23×850 nm LEDs, 13 mW each, held 5 mm from the skin, 30 min per session, the power density 11.4 mW/cm(2); the energy density 20.5 J/cm(2) at the skin. The patient showed some improvement in his neurological condition by moving his left arm/hand to reach the tracheostomy tube, post-LED therapy. Conclusions: Transcranial LED might increase rCBF with some improvement of neurological condition in severely head-injured patients. Further study is warranted.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Nov 2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22047598

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Coronally advanced flap adjunct with low intensity laser therapy: a randomized controlled clinical pilot study.

Ozturan S, Durukan SA, Ozcelik O, Seydaoglu G, Cenk Haytac M

Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

AIM: Coronally advanced flap (CAF) technique and its modifications have been proposed in the literature. Low intensity laser therapy (LILT) is shown to increase wound healing. The aim of this split-mouth randomized controlled pilot study was to assess the effects of LILT with respect to root coverage after CAF procedure for the treatment of multiple-recession type defects (MRTD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with symmetrical 74 Miller I and II gingival recessions were included in this study (37 in test, 37 in control group). A diode laser (588 nm) was applied to test sites before and immediately after surgery, and for 5 min. daily 7 days post-operatively. Comparisons of the surgical sites were made with clinical measurements. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed between test and control sites in the gingival recession depth (GRD), gingival recession width (GRW) and width of the keratinized tissue (WKT) and clinical attachment level (CAL) measurements after 1 year (p = 0.014, p = 0.015, p = 0.009 and p = 0.018 respectively). The test group presented greater complete root coverage (n = 7, 70%) compared with the control group (n = 3, 30%) after treatment. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, the results indicated that LILT may improve the predictability of CAF in multiple recessions.

J Clin Periodontol 2011 Nov 38(11) 1055-62

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22092477

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Acneiform rash due to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors: high-level laser therapy as an innovative approach.

Gobbo M, Ottaviani G, Mustacchi G, Di Lenarda R, Biasotto M

Division of Oral Pathology, Dental Science Department, University of Trieste, Ospedale Maggiore, Piazza dell’Ospitale 2, 34100, Trieste, Italy.

Acneiform rash associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors frequently presents facial manifestations. The treatment modality for such lesions still needs to be elucidated. The aim of this original report was to evaluate the effectiveness of high-level laser therapy in reducing the severity of facial acneiform rash induced by cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. Four patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and two patients with head and neck cancer showing cetuximab-induced facial rash were treated by high-level laser therapy in two 8-min-long consecutive sessions/day over a 4-day treatment. Patients wore protective glasses to prevent eye damage related to laser light. Subsequently, patients were seen once a week for up to 21 days and after 180 days. During each day of treatment and each follow-up recall, patients were asked to complete a questionnaire about the onset and progression of their acneiform rash (for a total of eight sessions). Cetuximab-related toxicity and general discomfort visual analogue scales were also recorded in each of these eight sessions in the treated and control areas in each patient. After the fourth session of high-level laser therapy, the patients showed a noteworthy decrease in both cetuximab-related toxicity and visual analogue scales, up to a complete regression of the lesions at the end of the follow-up in all treated areas. The high-level laser therapy was effective in the healing of acneiform rash associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors with no side effects.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Nov 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22120470

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Treatment of Lymphedema Praecox through Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT).

Mahram M, Rajabi M

Associate Professor of Pediatrics Department, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

A 15-year-old girl with right lower extremity lymphedema praecox was treated through Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), by means of a GaAs and GaAlAs diodes laser-therapy device. Treatment sessions were totally 24, each cycle containing 12 every other day 15-minute sessions, and one month free between the cycles. The treatment was achieved to decrease the edema and no significant increase in circumference of involved leg was found following three months after the course of treatment. Although LLLT can be considered a beneficial treatment for Lymphedema Praecox, any definite statement around its effectiveness needs more studies on more cases.

J Res Med Sci 2011 Jun 16(6) 848-51

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22091317

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Prevention of recurrent herpes labialis outbreaks through low-intensity laser therapy: a clinical protocol with 3-year follow-up.

de Paula Eduardo C, Bezinelli LM, de Paula Eduardo F, Marques da Graca Lopes R, Ramalho KM, Stella Bello-Silva M, Esteves-Oliveira M

Special Laboratory of Lasers in Dentistry – LELO, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, cpeduard@usp.br.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Nov 16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22086666

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Comparison of the long – term effectiveness of physiotherapy programs with low – level laser therapy and pulsed magnetic field in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

Dakowicz A, Kuryliszyn-Moskal A, Kosztyla-Hojna B, Moskal D, Latosiewicz R

Department of Rehabilitation, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare the long term effects of low – level laser therapy (LLLT) and pulsed magnetic field (PMF) in the rehabilitation of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).Methods: The study included 38 patients with idiopathic CTS, confirmed by electroneurographic (ENG) examination. All patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group L (18 patients) treated with LLLT and group M (20 patients) with PMF therapy. Clinical assessment, including day and night pain, the presence of paresthesia, functional tests (Phalen, Tinel, armband tests) and pain severity according to the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was conducted before treatment, after the first series of 10 sessions, after a two-week break, after the second series of 10 sessions and six months after the last series.Results: After LLLT a significant reduction of day and night pain was observed at each stage of treatment and 6 months after the last series (p
Photochem Photobiol 2011 Nov 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22053933

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Near infrared Transcranial Laser Therapy applied at Various Modes to Mice Following Traumatic Brain Injury Significantly Reduces Long-Term Neurological Deficits.

Oron U

Ramat Aviv, Tel-Aviv, Israel, 69978; oronu@post.tau.ac.il.

Near-infrared transcranial laser therapy (TLT) has been found to modulate various biological processes including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Following TBI in mice, in this study we assessed the possibility of various near-infrared TLT modes (pulsed vs. continuous) producing a beneficial effect on the long-term neurobehavioral outcome and brain lesions of these mice. TBI was induced by a weight-drop device, and neurobehavioral function was assessed from one hour and up to 56 days post-trauma using a neurological severity score (NSS). The extent of recovery is expressed as dNSS, the difference between the initial score, and that at any other, later, time point. An 808nm Ga-Al-As diode laser was employed transcranially 4, 6 or 8 hrs post-trauma to illuminate the entire cortex of the brain. Mice were divided into several groups of 6-8 mice: one control group that received a sham treatment and experimental groups that received either TLT continuous wave (CW) or pulsed wave (PW) mode transcranially. MRI was taken prior to sacrifice 56 days post-CHI. From 5 to 28 days post-TBI, the NSS of the laser-treated mice were significantly lower (p
J Neurotrauma 2011 Oct 31

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22040267

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Laser immunotherapy with gold nanorods causes selective killing of tumour cells.

Rejiya CS, Kumar J, Raji V, Vibin M, Abraham A

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala, India.

Therapeutic approaches that exploit nanoparticles to deliver drugs selectively to cancer cells are currently considered one of the most promising avenues in the area of cancer therapeutics. Recently, gold nanorods (AuNRs) have shown promising biological applications due to their unique electronic and optical properties. In this paper, we have demonstrated the anti-cancer potential of gold nanorods with low power laser light. Gold nanorods (AuNRs), surface modified with poly (styrene sulfonate) PSS and functionalized with epidermal growth factor receptor antibody conjugated with gold nanorods (anti-EGFR-AuNRs) were successfully synthesised and characterized by UV-Visible-NIR spectrophotometry and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). Inductively Coupled Plasmon Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Immunofluorescence studies confirmed the efficient uptake of these functionalized gold nanorods by human squamous carcinoma cells, A431. The in vitro photothermal therapy was conducted in four groups – control, laser alone, unconjugated AuNRs with laser and anti-EGFR conjugated AuNRs with laser. Phase contrast images have revealed cell morphology changes and cell death after the laser irradiation. In order to determine whether the cell death occur due to apoptosis or necrosis, we have evaluated the biochemical parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase release, reactive oxygen species level, mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activity. Flow cytometry analysis have shown the cell cycle changes after laser irradiation with antibody conjugated gold nanorods. Thus the results of our experiments confirmed that immunolabeled gold nanorods can selectively destruct the cancer cells and induce its apoptosis through ROS mediated mitochondrial pathway under low power laser exposure.

Pharmacol Res 2011 Nov 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22115972

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Laser photostimulation (660 nm) of wound healing in diabetic mice is not brought about by ameliorating diabetes.

Peplow PV, Chung TY, Baxter GD

Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. phil.peplow@stonebow.otago.ac.nz.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We have used a 660-nm laser diode in genetic diabetic mice to stimulate the healing of wounds covered with a Tegaderm HP dressing that causes a retardation of contraction (splinted wounds). It is possible that the stimulation of healing could be due to possible diabetes-modifying properties of laser light. This has been examined by using the 660 nm laser to irradiate non-wounded diabetic mice with the same dose and at same location as for wounded diabetic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two diabetic mice were used and divided into two equal groups. Body weight and water intake of mice were measured daily for 7 days prior to the start of treatment (Day 0). The left flank of mice in the experimental group was irradiated with 660 nm laser, 100 mW, 20 seconds/day, 7 days; for mice in the control group, the left flank was sham-treated with the laser power supply not switched on. Body weight and water intake of mice were measured to Day 14. On Day 14, the mice were fasted for 4 hours, anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone (i.p.) and blood collected by cardiac puncture into heparinized tubes. The plasma was assayed for glucose and glycated hemoglobin A1c. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in body weight and water intake over 22 days between mice in the experimental group and control group. On day 14, the mean blood plasma glucose level was not significantly different between the two groups; glycated hemoglobin A1c was not detected in the samples. CONCLUSION: Irradiation of the left flank in diabetic mice with 660 nm laser system does not have a significant hypoglycemic effect, and the laser-stimulated healing of wounds in diabetic mice is due to cellular and biochemical changes in the immediate wound environment. Lasers Surg. Med. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2011 Nov 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22109569

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Effects of the combination of low-level laser irradiation and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in bone repair.

Rosa AP, de Sousa LG, Regalo SC, Issa JP, Barbosa AP, Pitol DL, de Oliveira RH, de Vasconcelos PB, Dias FJ, Chimello DT, Siessere S

Department of Morphology, Stomatology and Physiology, School of Dentistry at Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida do Cafe, s/n – Bairro – Monte Alegre, 14040-904, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (rhBMP-2) have been used to stimulate bone formation. LLLI stimulates proliferation of osteoblast precursor cells and cell differentiation and rhBMP-2 recruits osteoprogenitor cells to the bone healing area. This in vivo study evaluated the effects of LLLI and rhBMP-2 on the bone healing process in rats. Critical bone defects were created in the parietal bone in 42 animals, and the animals were divided into six treatment groups: (1) laser, (2) 7 mug of rhBMP-2, (3) laser and 7 mug of rhBMP-2, (4) 7 mug of rhBMP-2/monoolein gel, (5) laser and 7 mug rhBMP-2/monoolein gel, and (6) critical bone defect controls. A gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser was used (wavelength 780 nm, output power 60 mW, beam area 0.04 cm(2), irradiation time 80 s, energy density 120 J/cm(2), irradiance 1.5 W/cm(2)). After 15 days, the calvarial tissues were removed for histomorphometric analysis. Group 3 defects showed higher amounts of newly formed bone (37.89%) than the defects of all the other groups (P < 0.05). The amounts of new bone in defects of groups 1 and 4 were not significantly different from each other (24.00% and 24.75%, respectively), but were significantly different from the amounts in the other groups (P < 0.05). The amounts of new bone in the defects of groups 2 and 5 were not significantly different from each other (31.42% and 31.96%, respectively), but were significantly different from the amounts in the other groups (P < 0.05). Group 6 defects had 14.10% new bone formation, and this was significantly different from the amounts in the other groups (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that LLLI administered during surgery effectively accelerated healing of critical bone defects filled with pure rhBMP-2, achieving a better result than LLLI alone or the use of rhBMP-2 alone.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Nov 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22095190

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Development of a minimally invasive laser needle system: effects on cortical bone of osteoporotic mice.

Kang H, Ko CY, Ryu Y, Seo DH, Kim HS, Jung B

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, 234 Maeji-ri, Heungup-myun, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do, 220-710, Korea.

Many studies have shown the positive effects of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of bone disease. However, laser radiation is scattered in the skin surface which reduces the initial photon density for tissue penetration and consequently the therapeutic efficacy. We developed a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) to avoid laser scattering in tissue and investigated its stimulatory effects in the cortical bone of osteoporotic mice. The MILNS was designed to stimulate cortical bone directly by employing fine hollow needles to guide 100 mum optical fibers. The study animals comprised 12 mice which were subjected to sciatic denervation of the right hind limb and were randomly divided into two groups, a sham group and a laser group which were treated using the MILNS for 2 weeks without and with laser irradiation, respectively. In vivo micro-CT images were taken to analyze the structural parameters and bone mineral density. After 2 weeks of treatment with the MILNS, the relative changes in mean polar moment inertia, cross-section thickness, and periosteal perimeter were significantly higher in the laser group than in the sham group. Moreover, the distribution of bone mineral density index was higher in the laser group. The MILNS was developed as a minimally invasive treatment modality for bone disease and resulted in positive therapeutic efficacy in the cortical bone of osteoporotic mice.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Nov 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22083368

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Light therapy by blue LED improves wound healing in an excision model in rats.

Adamskaya N, Dungel P, Mittermayr R, Hartinger J, Feichtinger G, Wassermann K, Redl H, van Griensven M

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, AUVA Research Center, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Donaueschingenstrasse 13, A-1200 Vienna, Austria.

BACKGROUND: Low level light therapy (LLLT) is an attractive alternative to enhance wound healing. So far most studies are performed with red or infrared irradiation. However, we recently showed that blue light (470 nm) can significantly influence biological systems, improving perfusion by release of nitric oxide from nitrosyl complexes with haemoglobin in a skin flap model in rats. Here, we compared the effects of blue and red low level light by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on in vivo wound healing in an excision wound model in rats. METHODS: Circular excision wounds were surgically created on the dorsum of each rat. Excisions on either the left or right side were illuminated post-OP and on five consecutive days for 10 min by LED at 470 nm or 630 nm with an intensity of 50 mW/cm(2),while protecting the contralateral side from exposure. In the control group, neither side was illuminated. On day 7 post-OP, we analysed planimetric and histological parameters, as well as expression of keratin-1, keratin-10 and keratin-17 on mRNA level. RESULTS: Illumination substantially influenced wound healing. Blue light significantly decreased wound size on day 7, which correlated with enhanced epithelialisation. Light also affected mRNA expression. Both wavelengths decreased keratin-1 mRNA on day 7 post-OP, while keratin-10 mRNA level was elevated in both light treated group compared to control. Keratin-17 mRNA was also elevated in the red light group, but was unchanged in the blue light group. CONCLUSION: In contrast to previous studies, we showed that also blue light significantly influences wound healing. Furthermore, our data suggest that light therapy can play an important role in normotrophic wound healing by affecting keratin expression. Illumination would provide an easily applicable, safe and cost-effective treatment of surface wounds.

Injury 2011 Sep 42(9) 917-21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22081819

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The Relevance of Accurate Comprehensive Treatment Parameters in Photobiomodulation.

Enwemeka CS

Office of the Dean, College of Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin , Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Nov 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22070214

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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