Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / Cold Laser Literature watch for Sept – Dec 2012

73 papers for your review this time including LLLT clinical trials for temporomandibular joint disorder, pain associated with orthodontic separators, meniscal tears and a third molar extraction study. An interesting case history of a stroke patient treated with LLLT, the effect of red light on sleep, endurance and performance in basketball players. There are several systematic reviews of LLLT out, including reviews on onychomycosis, TMJD, orofacial pain, oral mucositis, lymphedema and orthodontic pain (not necessarily favourable). AND HOW ABOUT THIS : “Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) combined with swimming training improved the lipid profile in rats fed with high-fat diet” The authors conclude: “LLLT decreased the total cholesterol (p < 0.05), triglycerides (p < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05), and relative mass of fat tissue (p < 0.05), suggesting increased metabolic activity and altered lipid pathways. The combination of exercise and LLLT increased the benefits of exercise alone. However, LLLT without exercise tended to increase body weight and fat content. LLLT may be a valuable addition to a regimen of diet and exercise for weight reduction and dyslipidemic control”. Enjoy.

Low level laser therapy as an adjunctive technique in the management of temporomandibular disorders.

da Silva MA, Botelho AL, Turim CV, da Silva AM

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. marco@forp.usp.br

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of low level laser therapy on subjects with intra-articular temporomandibular disorders (IA-TMD), and to quantify and compare severity of signs and symptoms before, during, and after the laser applications. The sample consisted of 45 subjects randomly divided into three groups (G) of 15 subjects each: G-I: 15 individuals with IA-TMD submitted to an energy dose of 52.5 J/cm2; G-II: dose of 105.0 J/cm2; and G-III: placebo group (0 J/cm2). In all groups, the applications were performed on condylar points on the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles. Two weekly sessions were held for five weeks, totaling 10 applications. The assessed variables were: mandibular movements and painful symptoms evoked by muscle palpation. These variables were measured before starting the study, then immediately after the first, fifth, and tenth laser application, and finally, 32 days after completing the applications. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences for G-I and G-II at the level of 1% between the doses, as well as between assessments. Therefore, it was concluded that the use of low level laser increased the mean mandibular range of motion and reduced painful symptoms in the groups that received effective treatment, which did not occur in the placebo group.

Cranio 2012 Oct 30(4) 264-71

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23156967

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-Level Laser Therapy for Treatment of Pain Associated with Orthodontic Elastomeric Separator Placement: A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial.

Nobrega C, da Silva EM, de Macedo CR

1 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Sao Paulo , UNIFESP, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of irradiation with a low-level laser therapy (LLLT), wavelength 830 nm, for treating pain inherent to tooth movement caused by orthodontic devices, simulated by positioning interdental elastomeric separators. Methods: Sixty orthodontic patients were randomly assigned to two groups: GA (ages 12-25 years; mean 17.1 years) was the control, and GB (ages 12-26 years; mean 17.9 years) the intervention group. All patients received elastomeric separators on the mesial and distal surfaces of one of the lower first molars, and immediately after insertion of the separators received irradiation as randomly indicated. The intervention group (GB) received irradiation with LLLT (aluminum gallium arsenide diode), by a single spot in the region of the radicular apex at a dose of 2 J/cm(2) and application along the radicular axis of the buccal surface with three spots of 1 J/cm(2) (wavelength 830 nm; infrared). Control group (GA) received irradiation with a placebo light in the same way. This was a double-blind study. All the patients received a questionnaire to be filled out at home describing their levels of pain 2, 6, and 24 h and 3 and 5 days after orthodontic separator placement, in situations of relaxed and occluded mouth. Results: The patients in the intervention group (LLLT) had lower mean pain scores in all the measures. The incidence of complete absence of pain (score=0) was significantly higher the intervention group. Conclusions: Based on this study, authors concluded that single irradiation with LLLT of wavelength 830 nm efficiently controlled the pain originating from positioning interdental elastomeric separators, to reproduce the painful sensation experienced by patients when fixed orthodontic devices are used.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Nov 15

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23153291

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy in meniscal pathology: a double-blinded placebo-controlled trial.

Malliaropoulos N, Kiritsi O, Tsitas K, Christodoulou D, Akritidou A, Del Buono A, Maffulli N

National Track & Field Centre, Sports Injury Clinic, Sports Medicine Clinic of S.E.G.A.S., Thessaloniki, Greece, contact@sportsmed.gr.

We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study (ISRCTN24203769) to assess the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with meniscal pathology, including only symptomatic patients with tiny focus of grade 3 attenuation (seen only on 0.7 thickness sequences) or intrasubstance tears with spot of grade 3 signal intensity approaching the articular surface. None of the patients in the study group underwent arthroscopy or new magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Paired-samples t test was used to detect significant changes in subjective knee pain over the experimental period within groups, and ANOVA was used to detect any significant differences between the two groups. Pain was significantly improved for the LLLT group than for the placebo group (F = 154, p < 0.0001). Pain scores were significantly better after LLLT. Four (12.5 %) patients did not respond to LLLT. At baseline, the average Lysholm score was 77 +/- 4.6 for the LLLT group and 77.2 +/- 2.6 for the placebo group (p > 0.05). Four weeks after LLLT or placebo therapy, the laser group reported an average Lysholm score of 82.5 +/- 4.6, and the placebo group scored 79.0 +/- 1.9. At 6 months, the laser group had an average Lysholm score of 82.2 +/- 5.7, and after 1 year, they scored 81.6 +/- 6.6 (F = 14.82923, p = 0.002). Treatment with LLLT was associated with a significant decrease of symptoms compared to the placebo group: it should be considered in patients with meniscal tears who do not wish to undergo surgery.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Oct 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23093133

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The effect of low level laser therapy on pain reduction after third molar surgery.

Saber K, Chiniforush N, Shahabi S

Laser Research Center of Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low level laser on the postoperative pain of patients who had to undergo third molar surgery. METHODS: In a randomized clinical setting, 100 patients were assigned to two groups of 50 in each. Every patient underwent surgical removal of one mandibular third molar (with osteotomy). After suturing the flap, the soft laser was applied to every patient. In group I laser radiation was applied by the dental assistant with output power of 100 mW, in continuous mode with sweeping motion, in group II, the laser hand piece was only brought into position without releasing energy, so that no patient knew which group he belonged to. The patient was given a pain evaluation form where they could determine their individual pain level and duration. RESULTS: The statistical tests showed significant difference in pain level between laser and control group (P<0.001) but no significant difference found in pain duration in two groups (P=0.019). CONCLUSION: The result of this study verifies the positive effect of the soft-laser therapy in the postoperative complication after third molar extraction.

Minerva Stomatol 2012 Jul-Aug 61(7-8) 319-22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22976514

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

A new treatment protocol using photobiomodulation and muscle/bone/joint recovery techniques having a dramatic effect on a stroke patient’s recovery: a new weapon for clinicians.

Boonswang NA, Chicchi M, Lukachek A, Curtiss D

Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Easton Hospital, Easton, Pennsylvania, USA.

The subject of this case study is a 29-year-old woman who suffered a brainstem stroke. She remained severely dizzy, had a non-functional left hand secondary to weakness, severe spasticity in the right hand, a right lateral sixth nerve palsy and was unable to ambulate on presentation. The stroke occurred 2 years before presentation. The subject had been treated for 21 months at two different stroke rehabilitation centres before presentation. Our stroke protocol includes photobiomodulation administered with the XR3T-1 device (manufactured by THOR) and ‘muscle/bone/joint/soft tissue’ recovery techniques. The patient was seen once a week for 8 weeks and treatment sessions lasted approximately 60 mins. The results were dramatic: after 8 weeks of implementation of our protocol, the patient demonstrated positive change in every area of her deficits as determined by improvements in physical examination findings. The gains achieved at 8 weeks have been maintained to this day and she continues to be treated once every 4 weeks.

BMJ Case Rep 2012 2012

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22967677

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Red light and the sleep quality and endurance performance of chinese female basketball players.

Zhao J, Tian Y, Nie J, Xu J, Liu D

Sport Biological Center, China Institute of Sport Science, No. 11 Tiyuguan Road, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China 100061. zhaojiexiu1@yahoo.com.cn zhaojiexiu@ciss.cn.

CONTEXT: Good sleep is an important recovery method for prevention and treatment of overtraining in sport practice. Whether sleep is regulated by melatonin after red-light irradiation in athletes is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of red light on sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Athletic training facility of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army and research laboratory of the China Institute of Sport Science. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty athletes of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army team (age = 18.60 6 3.60 years) took part in the study. Participants were divided into red-light treatment (n = 10) and placebo (n = 10) groups. Intervention(s): The red-light treatment participants received 30 minutes of irradiation from a red-light therapy instrument every night for 14 days. The placebo group did not receive light illumination. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was completed, serum melatonin was assessed, and 12-minute run was performed at preintervention (baseline) and postintervention (14 days). RESULTS: The 14-day whole-body irradiation with red-light treatment improved the sleep, serum melatonin level, and endurance performance of the elite female basketball players (P < .05). We found a correlation between changes in global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and serum melatonin levels (r = -0.695, P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed the effectiveness of body irradiation with red light in improving the quality of sleep of elite female basketball players and offered a nonpharmacologic and noninvasive therapy to prevent sleep disorders after training.

J Athl Train 2012 47(6) 673-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23182016

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser and light therapy for onychomycosis: a systematic review.

Ledon JA, Savas J, Franca K, Chacon A, Nouri K

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1475 NW 12th Ave, 2nd Floor, Miami, FL, 33136, USA, JLedon1@med.miami.edu.

More than just a cosmetic concern, onychomycosis is a prevalent and extremely difficult condition to treat. In older and diabetic populations, severe onychomycosis may possibly serve as a nidus for infection, and other more serious complications may ensue. Many treatment modalities for the treatment of onychomycosis have been studied, including topical lacquers and ointments, oral antifungals, surgical and chemical nail avulsion, and lasers. Due to their minimally invasive nature and potential to restore clear nail growth with relatively few sessions, lasers have become a popular option in the treatment of onychomycosis for both physicians and patients. Laser or light systems that have been investigated for this indication include the carbon dioxide, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, 870/930-nm combination, and femtosecond infrared 800-nm lasers, in addition to photodynamic and ultraviolet light therapy. This systematic review will discuss each of these modalities as well as their respective currently published, peer-reviewed literature.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Nov 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23179307

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of Class IV Laser Therapy on Fibromyalgia Impact and Function in Women with Fibromyalgia.

Panton L, Simonavice E, Williams K, Mojock C, Kim JS, Kingsley JD, McMillan V, Mathis R

1 Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, The Florida State University , Tallahassee, FL.

Abstract Objectives: This study evaluated the effects of Class IV laser therapy on pain, Fibromyalgia (FM) impact, and physical function in women diagnosed with FM. Design: The study was a double-blind, randomized control trial. Setting: Testing was completed at the university and Rheumatologist office and treatment was completed at a chiropractic clinic. Participants: Thirty-eight (38) women (52+/-11 years; mean+/-standard deviation) with FM were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, laser heat therapy (LHT; n=20) or sham heat therapy (SHT; n=18). Intervention: Both groups received treatment twice a week for 4 weeks. Treatment consisted of application of LHT or SHT over seven tender points located across the neck, shoulders, and back. Treatment was blinded to women and was administered by a chiropractic physician for 7 minutes. Outcome measures: Participants were evaluated before and after treatment for number and sensitivity of tender points, completed the FM Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the pain question of the FIQ, and were measured for function using the continuous scale physical functional performance (CS-PFP) test. Data were evaluated using repeated-measures analysis of variance with significance accepted at p
J Altern Complement Med 2012 Nov 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23176373

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low level laser therapy for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of the literature.

Melis M, Di Giosia M, Zawawi KH

Craniomandibular Pain Center at Tufts University, USA. marcellomelis01@libero.it

The authors performed a review of the literature to evaluate the efficacy of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Selection criteria included: 1) human subjects, 2) articles written in English, and 3) randomized placebo-controlled trials. Evaluation was performed according to the CONSORT 2010 criteria. A total of 14 articles were included in the review. Studies varied considerably in terms of methodological design, particularly regarding the site of application of the laser beam, the number of applications performed, their duration, the laser beam features (wavelength, frequency, output, dosage), and outcome measures. The outcome of the trials was controversial and not particularly related to any features of the laser beam, to the number of laser applications, and their duration. Based on the results of this review no definitive conclusions can be drawn on the efficacy of LLLT for the treatment of TMD. Many methodological differences among the studies, especially regarding the number and duration of laser applications and characteristics of the laser beam (wavelength, frequency, output), do not allow for standardized guidelines for effective treatment with LLLT. The only indication seems to be that LLLT is probably more effective for the treatment of TMJ disorders, and less effective for the treatment of masticatory muscle disorders.

Cranio 2012 Oct 30(4) 304-12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23156972

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Evaluation of low-level laser therapy effectiveness on the pain and masticatory performance of patients with myofascial pain.

de Moraes Maia ML, Ribeiro MA, Maia LG, Stuginski-Barbosa J, Costa YM, Porporatti AL, Conti PC, Bonjardim LR

Health Science Program, Federal University of Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil.

This study investigated the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the masticatory performance (MP), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain intensity in patients with myofascial pain. Twenty-one subjects, with myofascial pain according to Research Diagnostic Criteria/temporomandibular dysfunction, were divided into laser group (n = 12) and placebo group (n = 9) to receive laser therapy (active or placebo) two times per week for 4 weeks. The measured variables were: (1) MP by analysis of the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the chewed particles using Optocal test material, (2) PPT by a pressure algometer, and (3) pain intensity by the visual analog scale (VAS). Measurements of MP and PPT were obtained at three time points: baseline, at the end of treatment with low-level laser and 30 days after (follow-up). VAS was measured at the same times as above and weekly throughout the laser therapy. The Friedman test was used at a significance level of 5 % for data analysis. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sergipe (CAAE: 0025.0.107.000-10). A reduction in the GMD of crushed particles (p < 0.01) and an increase in PPT (p < 0.05) were seen only in the laser group when comparing the baseline and end-of-treatment values. Both groups showed a decrease in pain intensity at the end of treatment. LLLT promoted an improvement in MP and PPT of the masticatory muscles.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Nov 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23143142

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to standard therapy in acute pericoronitis, and its impact on oral health-related quality of life.

Sezer U, Eltas A, Ustun K, Senyurt SZ, Erciyas K, Aras MH

Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey. ufuxezer@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct to standard therapy in acute pericoronitis. METHODS: Eighty acute pericoronitis patients were randomly assigned to one of four LLLT groups: (neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet [Nd:YAG] 1064-nm: n=20, 8 J/cm2, 0.25 W, 10 Hz, 10 sec; 808-nm diode: n=20, 8 J/cm2, 0.25 W, continuous mode, 10 sec; 660-nm diode: n=20, 8 J/cm2, 0.04 W, continuous mode, 60 sec; or a placebo laser control group: n=20). After standard treatment, LLLT or a placebo laser were applied to the treatment area at a distance of 1 cm from the buccal site. Interincisal opening, pain perception, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) were evaluated at baseline, 24 h, and 7 days after laser application. The data were analyzed by the one-way ANOVA test. RESULTS: We found that the trismus and the OHRQoL in the Nd:YAG and the 808-nm diode groups were significantly improved when compared with the 660-nm diode and control groups at 24 h (p<0.05). No statistically significant differences were detected on day 7 among the groups with regard to any of the parameters evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that both the 1064-nm Nd:YAG and the 808-nm diode lasers were effective in improving trismus and OHRQoL in acute pericoronitis. Taking into account the limitations of this study, we conclude that the 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser has biostimulatory effects and improves OHRQoL, making it suitable for LLLT.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Oct 30(10) 592-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22974370

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Is low level laser effective for the treatment of orofacial pain?: A systematic review.

Tengrungsun T, Mitriattanakul S, Buranaprasertsuk P, Suddhasthir T

Department of Advanced General Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. dtttr@mahidol.ac.th

The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) as a treatment for orofacial pain considering the methodology of the studies. PubMed (1983-2009) and one conference proceeding were searched. Studying quality was assessed using a validated instrument. A high-quality score was defined as high or low. Outcomes were defined as either positive (+), neutral (0), or negative (-). Thirty-three studies met inclusion criteria. The best evidence synthesis method was used to formulate outcome of LLLT for each type of control group. LLLT vs. placebo pooling revealed high-quality trials in three of eight positive studies. In LLLT vs. other active treatment pooling, two high-quality studies out of nine neutral trials were found. Quality of the trial was not significantly associated with neutral results (p=0.05). Only limited evidence indicated that LLLT is more effective than placebo, sham laser, and other active treatments.

Cranio 2012 Oct 30(4) 280-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23156969

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Promoting Wound Healing in Minor Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis By Non-Thermal, Non-Ablative CO(2) Laser Therapy: A Pilot Study.

Zand N, Fateh M, Ataie-Fashtami L, Djavid GE, Fatemi SM, Shirkavand A

Medical Laser Research Center, Iranian Center for Medical Laser (ICML), Academic Center for Education , Culture and Research (ACECR), Tehran, Iran .

Abstract Background and Objective: This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) was designed to evaluate the effects of non-thermal, non-ablative CO(2) laser therapy (NACLT) to promote wound healing in minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis (miRAS). Study design/materials and methods: Ten patients with 20 minor aphthous ulcers completed this study. Each patient had two discrete aphthous ulcers that had developed within 72 h before enrollment. One of the ulcers was randomly allocated to be treated with NACLT and the other one served as placebo. Before laser irradiation, a layer of transparent, non-anesthetic oral gel with high water content was placed on the laser and placebo lesions both. The CO(2) laser device was operated using 1 W power in defocused continuous mode, scanning rapidly over the lesion. The placebo lesion was irradiated with the same laser, but with an inactive probe. The healing times of the lesions were recorded by a blinded physician. Results: The healing period was significantly shorter in ulcers treated by NACLT than in those treated with placebo (p=0.02). The process was not painful and anesthesia was not required. There were no visible side effects after NACLT and during follow-up periods. Conclusions: The results of this RCT suggest that single session of NACLT could be used to promote wound healing in minor aphthous ulcers, with no visible side effects.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Dec 30(12) 719-23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23113511

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Surgical Alternative for Treatment of Vertical Root fracture: A Case Report.

Nogueira Leal da Silva EJ, Romao Dos Santos G, Liess Krebs R, Coutinho-Filho Tde S

Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Brazil.

Vertical root fracture (VRF) has been a great challenge in dentistry; most fractures often result in tooth extraction. Inflammation of tissues around the fractured root is the main reason for tooth extraction. Based on the strategic importance of some fractured teeth, treatment may be necessary and often complicated. However, performing a proper repair or even splinting the fractured segments may result in tooth preservation. Accordingly, in this case we report a new method for fractured tooth preservation. The surgical exposition of the fracture tooth was carried out through the radicular portion of the element via ultrasonic preparation, filling with composed resin and a synthetic hydroxyapatite graft. All these were performed around the tooth which received five sections of low-power laser. The patient was followed for two years with no signs or symptoms of inflammation and gingival recession. In conclusion, the used treatment protocol could be considered as a promising approach for VRF treatment, especially in cases where there is advanced or moderate bone loss in the surrounding sites of the fractured tooth.

Iran Endod J 2012 Winter 7(1) 40-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23060913

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Cancer-related lymphedema risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and impact: a review.

Paskett ED, Dean JA, Oliveri JM, Harrop JP

The Ohio State University, 1590 North High St, Suite 525, Columbus, OH 43201; electra.paskett@osumc.edu.

PURPOSE Cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is an incurable condition associated with lymph-involved cancer treatments and is an increasing health, quality of life (QOL), and cost burden on a growing cancer survivor population. This review examines the evidence for causes, risk, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and impact of this largely unexamined survivorship concern. METHODS PubMed and Medline were searched for cancer-related LE literature published since 1990 in English. The resulting references (N = 726) were evaluated for strength of design, methods, sample size, and recent publication and sorted into categories (ie, causes/prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and QOL). Sixty studies were included. Results Exercise and physical activity and sentinel lymph node biopsy reduce risk, and overweight and obesity increase risk. Evidence that physiotherapy reduces risk and that lymph node status and number of malignant nodes increase risk is less strong. Perometry and bioimpedence emerged as attractive diagnostic technologies, replacing the use of water displacement in clinical practice. Swelling can also be assessed by measuring arm circumference and relying on self-report. Symptoms can be managed, not cured, with complex physical therapy, low-level laser therapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Sequelae of LE negatively affect physical and mental QOL and range in severity. However, the majority of reviewed studies involved patients with breast cancer; therefore, results may not be applicable to all cancers. CONCLUSION Research into causes, prevention, and effect on QOL of LE and information on LE in cancers other than breast is needed. Consensus on definitions and measurement, increased patient and provider awareness of signs and symptoms, and proper and prompt treatment/access, including psychosocial support, are needed to better understand, prevent, and treat LE.

J Clin Oncol 2012 Oct 20 30(30) 3726-33

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23008299

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Prevention of oral mucositis in children receiving cancer therapy: A systematic review and evidence-based analysis.

Qutob AF, Gue S, Revesz T, Logan RM, Keefe D

Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80209, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia; School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Frome Rd., Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia; Department of Paediatric Dentistry, The Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 72 King William Rd., North Adelaide, SA 5006, Australia. Electronic address: akram_qutob@yahoo.com.

This systematic review investigated, critically appraised, and rated the evidence on agents used to prevent oral mucositis in children. A comprehensive search of the relevant literature was performed up to December 2011. Articles were included according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critically appraised for validation and quality assessment using a checklist consisting of 18 categories. Each article was then rated for its strength of evidence. 16,471 articles were retrieved from 19 different databases and then reduced to 27 articles that fit the inclusion criteria. Five articles on oral care protocols supported their use to prevent oral mucositis in children. Seven articles on chlorhexidine mouthwash and three on laser therapy had conflicting evidence of its use. The preventative agents that were supported by one or two articles included: benzydamine mouthwash, iseganan mouthwash, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mouthwash, oral/enteral glutamine, oral propantheline and cryotherapy, oral cryotherapy, oral sucralfate suspension, prostaglandin E2 tablets, and chewing gum. The reduction in the rates of occurrence of oral mucositis when using agents of fair (B) to good (A) evidence ranged from 22% to 52%. In conclusion, this review suggests the use of oral care protocols to prevent oral mucositis in children because of their strength of evidence (fair to good). The authors suggest avoiding agents with fair to good evidence against their use (oral sucralfate suspension, prostaglandin E2 tablets, and GM-CSF mouthwash). Agents with conflicting evidence (chlorhexidine mouthwash (used solely), laser therapy, and glutamine) should also be avoided until further research confirms their efficacy.

Oral Oncol 2012 Sep 7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22959949

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy in secondary lymphedema after breast cancer: systematic review.

E Lima MT, E Lima JG, de Andrade MF, Bergmann A

Augusto Motta University Center-UNISUAM, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, marybiscaia@yahoo.com.br.

Complex physical therapy is the main treatment for the secondary lymphedema after breast cancer. The low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in order to stimulate lymphangiogenesis, encourage lymphatic motility, and reduce lymphostatic fibrosis. However, these factors could also favor the development of recurrence and metastasis. The objective of this study is to discuss the use of LLLT in the treatment of lymphedema after breast cancer. This study utilized a systematic review on the use of LLLT in the treatment of lymphedema after breast cancer. Evaluating quality of articles was conducted through the PEDro scale. Of the 41 articles identified, four were considered to be of high methodological quality (score >/= 5). The low-level laser in the axillary region was performed in all studies. The control group was not similar across studies. The results presented showed that there was a reduction in limb volume in the group subjected to low-power laser when compared with other treatments. No studies have evaluated the risk of metastasis or relapse in the irradiated areas. Because no studies have included the complex physical therapy as the comparison group, we cannot claim that laser treatment is the best efficacy or effectiveness in lymphedema treatment after breast cancer. No studies have evaluated the hypothesis that the LLLT can increase the risk of recurrence or metastasis. Therefore, the questions about the safety of this procedure in cancer patients remain.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Nov 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23192573

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Evaluation of the effect of laser acupuncture and cupping with ryodoraku and visual analog scale on low back pain.

Lin ML, Wu HC, Hsieh YH, Su CT, Shih YS, Lin CW, Wu JH

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan ; Department of Pain Management, Taipei City Hospital Zhong Xing Branch, Zheng Zhou Road, No.145, Taipei 103, Taiwan.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture (LA) and soft cupping on low back pain. In this study, the subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: active group (real LA and soft cupping) and placebo group (sham laser and soft cupping). Visual analog scale (VAS) and Ryodoraku were used to evaluate the effect of treatment on low back pain in this trial. Laser, 40 mW, wavelength 808 nm, pulse rate 20 Hz, was used to irradiate Weizhong (BL40) and Ashi acupoints for 10 minutes. And the Ryodoraku values were measured 2 times, that is, before and 15 minutes after treatment. The results show that there were significant difference between the first day baseline and the fifth day treatment in VAS in the two groups. Therefore, LA combined with soft cupping or only soft cupping was effective on low back pain. However, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the placebo group have been decreased apparently, and didn’t come back to their original values. It means that “cupping” plays the role of “leak or purge” in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). On the other hand, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the active group have been turned back to almost their original values; “mend or reinforcing” effect is attributed to the laser radiation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 2012 521612

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23118792

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effectiveness of Low-Level Laser Therapy Combined with an Exercise Program to Reduce Pain and Increase Function Among Adults with Shoulder Pain: A Critically Appraised Topic.

Thornton AL, McCarty CW, Burgess MJ

Department of Human Movement Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk VA.

CLINICAL SCENARIO: Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal condition that affects up to 25% of the general population. Shoulder pain can be caused by any number of underlying conditions including subacromial impingement syndrome, rotator cuff tendinitis and biceps tendinitis. Regardless of the specific pathology, pain is generally the number one symptom associated with shoulder injuries and can severely affect daily activities and quality of life of patients with these conditions. Two of the primary goals in the treatment of these conditions is reducing pain and increasing shoulder ROM. Conservative treatment has traditionally included a therapeutic exercise program targeted at increasing range of motion, strengthening the muscles around the joint, proprioceptive training or some combination of those activities. In addition, these exercise programs have been supplemented with other interventions including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections, manual therapy, activity modification and a wide array of therapeutic modalities (e.g., cryotherapy, EMS, ultrasound). Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been utilized as an additional modality in the conservative management of patients with shoulder pain. However, the true effectiveness of LLLT on decreasing pain and increasing function in patients with shoulder pain is unclear.

J Sport Rehabil 2012 Oct 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23069702

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Shining light on nanotechnology to help repair and regeneration.

Gupta A, Avci P, Sadasivam M, Chandran R, Parizotto N, Vecchio D, de Melo WC, Dai T, Chiang LY, Hamblin MR

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences, Delhi, India.

Phototherapy can be used in two completely different but complementary therapeutic applications. While low level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT) uses red or near-infrared light alone to reduce inflammation, pain and stimulate tissue repair and regeneration, photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the combination of light plus non-toxic dyes (called photosensitizers) to produce reactive oxygen species that can kill infectious microorganisms and cancer cells or destroy unwanted tissue (neo-vascularization in the choroid, atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries). The recent development of nanotechnology applied to medicine (nanomedicine) has opened a new front of advancement in the field of phototherapy and has provided hope for the development of nanoscale drug delivery platforms for effective killing of pathological cells and to promote repair and regeneration. Despite the well-known beneficial effects of phototherapy and nanomaterials in producing the killing of unwanted cells and promoting repair and regeneration, there are few reports that combine all three elements i.e. phototherapy, nanotechnology and, tissue repair and regeneration. However, these areas in all possible binary combinations have been addressed by many workers. The present review aims at highlighting the combined multi-model applications of phototherapy, nanotechnology and, reparative and regeneration medicine and outlines current strategies, future applications and limitations of nanoscale-assisted phototherapy for the management of cancers, microbial infections and other diseases, and to promote tissue repair and regeneration.

Biotechnol Adv 2012 Aug 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22951919

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Diode Laser on Pain and Edema in Individuals With Cleft Lip and Palate Submitted to Secondary Bone Graft.

da Silva MJ, Esper LA, Sbrana MC, da Silva CC, Oliveira PG, de Almeida AL

Objective : To clinically evaluate the effects of diode laser, GaAlAs, on the pain and edema after secondary alveolar bone graft. Design : Case-control, double-blind study. Setting : Institutional tertiary referral hospital. Participants : The sample was composed of 60 individuals with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, of both genders, aged 9 to 15 years, submitted to secondary alveolar bone graft. Main Outcome Measures : The individuals were divided into an experimental group (patients irradiated with diode laser GaAlAs, energy density of 4 J/cm(2), power of 100 mW, and wavelength in the infrared spectrum, for 10 seconds per point on 10 points, adding up to a dose of 40 J/cm(2)) and a placebo group (simulated laser application for 60 seconds per point, also on 10 points). Applications were made on the receptor site immediately postoperatively and after 24 and 48 hours. The pain and edema were assessed preoperatively and at each application. Results : The two groups presented increase in pain and edema in 24 and 48 hours. No statistically significant difference was found between groups. Conclusions : According to the present methodology, the use of low-level laser to control the pain and edema in the postoperative period of secondary alveolar bone graft was not effective.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2012 Nov 5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23126316

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[The efficacy of polychromatic visible and infrared radiation used for the postoperative immunological rehabilitation of patients with breast cancer].

The immunological rehabilitation of the patients with oncological problems after the completion of standard anti-tumour therapy remains a topical problem in modern medicine. The up-to-date phototherapeutic methods find the increasingly wider application for the treatment of such patients including the use of monochromatic visible (VIS) and near infrared (nIR) radiation emitted from lasers and photodiodes. The objective of the present study was to substantiate the expediency of postoperative immune rehabilitation of the patients with breast cancer (BC) by means of irradiation of the body surface with polychromatic visible (pVIS) in combination with polychromatic infrared (pIR) light similar to the natural solar radiation without its minor UV component. The study included 19 patients with stage I–II BC at the mean age of 54.0 +/- 4.28 years having the infiltrative-ductal form of the tumour who had undergone mastectomy. These patients were randomly allocated to two groups, one given the standard course of postoperative rehabilitation (control), the other (study group) additionally treated with pVIS + pIR radiation applied to the lumbar-sacral region from days 1 to 7 after surgery. A Bioptron-2 phototherapeutic device, Switzerland, was used for the purpose (480-3400 nm, 40 mW/cm2, 12 J/cm2, with the light spot diameter of 15 cm). The modern standard immunological methods were employed. It was found that mastectomy induced changes of many characteristics of cellular and humoral immunity; many of them in different patients were oppositely directed. These changes were apparent within the first 7 days postoperatively. The course of phototherapy (PT) was shown to prevent the postoperative decrease in the counts of monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, the total amount of CD3+ -T-lymphocytes (LPC), CD4+ -T-helpers, activated T-lymphocytes (CD3+ HLA-DR+ cells) and IgA levels as well as intracellular digestion rate of neutrophil-phagocyted bacteria. Moreover PT promoted faster normalization of postoperative leukocytosis and activation of cytotoxic CD8+ -T-LPC, reduced the elevated concentration of immune complexes in blood. Among the six tested cytokines, viz. IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-alpha, and IFN-gamma, only the latter two underwent significant elevation of their blood concentrations (IL-6 within 1 day) and IFN-gamma (within 7 days after mastectomy). The course of PT resulted in the decrease of their levels to the initial values. The follow-up of the treated patients during 4 years revealed neither recurrence of the disease nor the appearance of metastases.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2012 Jul-Aug (4) 23-32

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22994061

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Management of myofascial pain of upper trapezius: a three group comparison study.

Kannan P

Center for Physiotherapy Research, University of Otago, New Zealand. priyastanpt@gmail.com

It is important to identify the most effective therapeutic modality in the management of myofascial trigger points (MTPt). Thus we aimed to study the effect of therapeutic ultrasound, laser and ischemic compression in reducing pain and improving cervical range of motion among patients with MTPt. Experimental study comparing three groups was designed as a 5 days trial, a co-relational design was considered. Outcome measures: VAS for pain, provocative pain test using “soft tissue tenderness grading scheme” and active cervical lateral flexion using inch tape. Methods- Patients were divided into 3 groups, Gr 1 underwent treatment using therapeutic ultrasound, Gr 2 with therapeutic laser and Gr 3 with ischemic compression. Assessments were done on day 1 and day 5 of treatment respectively. RESULTS: ANOVA revealed improvement among all 3 groups as statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the start and end of trial. Analysis using Chi square test shows a statistically significant difference in the improvement between laser and the other 2 groups. Mean difference in the change of scores between the assessments showed laser therapy to have a tendency towards progressive improvement over the treatment period and a better improvement than the other 2 groups. We conclude that laser can be used as an effective treatment regimen in the management of myofascial trigger points thereby reducing disability caused due to musculoskeletal pathology.

Glob J Health Sci 2012 Sep 4(5) 46-52

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22980377

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Therapeutic effects of short-term monochromatic infrared energy therapy on patients with knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

Hsieh RL, Lo MT, Lee WC, Liao WC

STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. OBJECTIVES: To examine the short-term therapeutic effects of monochromatic infrared energy (MIRE) on participants with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients were assessed according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. BACKGROUND: MIRE is commonly used in therapy for patients with peripheral neuropathies. However, research has not focused intensively on the therapeutic effects of MIRE in patients with knee OA. METHODS: This study enrolled 73 participants with knee OA. Participants received six 40-minute sessions of active or placebo MIRE treatment (890-nm wavelength; power, 6.24 W; energy density, 2.08 J/cm2/min; total energy, 83.2 J/cm2) over the knee joints for 2 weeks. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-related outcomes were collected weekly over 4 weeks using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Lysholm Knee Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire, World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief version, and OA Quality of Life Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found for the interaction of group by time for Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score scores, including pain, other symptoms, function in daily living, function in sport and recreation, and knee-related quality of life. Scores on the Lysholm Knee Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire, World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief version, and OA Quality of Life Questionnaire also showed no significant differences between the 2 groups at any of the 4 follow-up assessments. CONCLUSION: Short-term MIRE therapy provided no beneficial effects to body functions, activities, participation, and quality of life in patients with knee OA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapy, level 1b-.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(11):947-956, Epub 5 September 2012. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.3881.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012 42(11) 947-56

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22960644

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Utilizing electromagnetic radiation for hair growth: a critical review of phototrichogenesis.

Kalia S, Lui H

Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, and Photomedicine Institute, Vancouver Coastal Health, Vancouver, BC. Electronic address: sunil.kalia@vch.ca.

Hair loss has a high prevalence in the general population and can have significant medical and psychological sequelae. Pattern hair loss and alopecia areata represent the major reasons patients present to dermatologists in relation to hair loss. Because conventional treatment options are generally incompletely effective, novel methods for hair grown induction are being developed. The role of using electromagnetic radiation, including low-level laser therapy for the management of hair loss through phototrichogenesis, is reviewed in this article.

Dermatol Clin 2013 Jan 31(1) 193-200

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23159188

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of intravenous low-intensity laser irradiation of the blood on clinical and laboratory parameters of hepatocellular insufficiency.

Babaev AV, Gogolev DE, Reiner OV, Korochkin IM, Fandeev AV, Pivovarov VY, Fedulaev YN, Drachan KM

Department of Faculty Therapy, Faculty of Pediatrics, N. I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia. zlatopupc@mail.ru.

Patients with hepatocellular insufficiency received a course of intravenous laser irradiation of the blood. After the treatment, a positive dynamics of clinical and biochemical indices of the major hepatic syndromes was observed: alleviation of the major clinical symptoms and significant positive changes in biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and total cholrsterol).

Bull Exp Biol Med 2012 Sep 153(5) 754-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23113277

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Use of low intensity laser treatment in neuropathic pain refractory to clinical treatment in amputation stumps.

Santamaria E, Ribas C, Paiva WS, Pinto NC, Yeng LT, Okada M, Fonoff ET, Chavantes MC, Teixeira MJ

Pain Center, Department of Neurology, Hospital das Clinicas School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Debilitating stump pain following amputation surgery is a major problem when it affects the patient’s quality of life, often making the patient totally dependent on others for their day-to-day care. Attempts have been made to treat those patients through pharmacological, psychological, and physical therapies, but in many cases these fail to relieve the pain. This article focuses on three patients with chronic, intense, and debilitating stump pain who were previously treated with pain medications, but with little success. These patients underwent nine sessions of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) to the stump – this is a new treatment that has been used to treat other pain disorders. All patients reported a decrease in the intensity of their pain and increased ability to perform daily living activities during a 4-month follow-up.

Int J Gen Med 2012 5 739-42

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23049266

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of orthodontic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

He WL, Li CJ, Liu ZP, Sun JF, Hu ZA, Yin X, Zou SJ

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Orthodontics, West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 14 Section 3 Ren Min Nan Lu, Chengdu, 610041, China.

This review aimed to identify the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the management of orthodontic pain. This systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out in accordance with Cochrane Handbook and the PRISMA statement. An extensive literature search for RCTs, quasi-RCTs, and CCTs was performed through CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, Medline, CNKI, and CBM up to October 2011. Risk of bias assessment was performed via referring to the Cochrane tool for risk of bias assessment. Meta-analysis was implemented using Review Manager 5.1. As a result, four RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and two CCTs were selected from 152 relevant studies, including 641 patients from six countries. The meta-analysis demonstrated that 24 % risk of incidence of pain was reduced by LLLT (RR = 0.76, 95 % CI range 0.63-0.92, P = 0.006). In addition, compared to the control group, LLLT brought forward “the most painful day” (MD = -0.42, 95 % CI range -0.74- – 0.10, P = 0.009). Furthermore, the LLLT group also implied a trend of earlier end of pain compared with the control group (MD = -1.37, 95 % CI range -3.37-0.64, P = 0.18) and the pseudo-laser group (MD = -1.04, 95 % CI range -4.22-2.15, P = 0.52). However, because of the methodological shortcomings and risk of bias of included trials, LLLT was proved with limited evidence in delaying pain onset and reducing pain intensity. In the future, larger and better-designed RCTs will be required to provide clearer recommendations.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Sep 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23001570

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[The characteristics of cell and humoral immunity in patients with acute pancreatitis under impact of cold laser radiation].

Gul’muradova NT, Geinits AV, Ziazin SIu

The analysis of immune status of 57 patients with acute pancreatitis made it possible to assess the impact of cold laser radiation on cell and humoral immunity under different forms of acute destructive pancreatitis. The sessions of laser therapy applied to patients with acute edematous pancreatitis favored the normalization of leucocytes indices, regeneration of lymphocytes. The leucocyte-T-lymphocyte index came to normality which is an indicator of adequacy of immune response.

Klin Lab Diagn 2012 Jul (7) 46-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22988804

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Overview of non-invasive factors (low level laser and low intensity pulsed ultrasound) accelerating tooth movement during orthodontic treatment.

Jawad MM, Husein A, Alam MK, Hassan R, Shaari R

Orthodontic Unit, School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia, dr.mohammedalazzawi@ymail.com.

The need for orthodontic treatment is increasing all the time. As the treatment is time consuming ranging from a year to several years, any method of reducing the period of treatment and increasing the quality of the tissue will be beneficial to patients. The use of non-invasive techniques such as low level laser therapy and low intensity pulsed ultasound in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement are promising. Thus, this overview study will help to generate more understanding about the background information and the possible applications of them in daily orthodontics, depending on previous literature searching for reviews and original research articles.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Sep 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22986701

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of low-level laser therapy on pain, quality of life and sleep in patients with fibromyalgia: study protocol for a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

de Carvalho PD, Leal-Junior EC, Alves AC, Rambo CS, Sampaio LM, Oliveira CS, Albertini R, Oliveira LV

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been widely used as adjuvant strategy for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The light-tissue interaction (photobiostimulation) promotes analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and improves tissue healing, which could justify the recommendation of this therapy for patients with fibromyalgia, leading to an improvement in pain and possibly minimizing social impact related to this disease. The present study proposes to evaluate the effect of LLLT on tender points in patients with fibromyalgia, correlating this outcome with quality of life and sleep. METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with fibromyalgia will be treated at the Integrated Health Center and the Sleep Laboratory of the Post Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences of the Nove de Julho University located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. After fulfilling the eligibility criteria, a clinical evaluation and assessments of pain and sleep quality will be carried out and self-administered quality of life questionnaires will be applied. The 120 volunteers will be randomly allocated to an intervention group (LLLT, n = 60) or control group (CLLLT, n = 60). Patients from both groups will be treated three times per week for four weeks, totaling twelve sessions. However, only the LLLT group will receive an energy dose of 6 J per tender point. A standardized 50-minute exercise program will be performed after the laser application. The patients will be evaluated regarding the primary outcome (pain) using the following instruments: visual analog scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire and pressure algometry. The secondary outcome (quality of life and sleep) will be assessed with the following instruments: Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Berlin Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and polysomnography. ANOVA test with repeated measurements for the time factor will be performed to test between-groups differences (followed by the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test), and a paired t test will be performed to test within-group differences. The level of significance for the statistical analysis will be set at 5% (P <=0.05).Trial registrationThe protocol for this study is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials — ReBEC (RBR-42gkzt).

Trials 2012 Nov 21 13(1) 221

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23171567

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-Level Laser Therapy in Pediatric Bell’s Palsy: Case Report in a 3-Year Old Child.

Fontana CR, Bagnato VS

1 Department of Clinical Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP) , Araraquara, SP, Brazil .

Abstract Objectives: The objective of this study was to apply low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to accelerate the recovery process of a child patient with Bell’s palsy (BP). Design: This was a prospective study. Subject: The subject was a 3-year-old boy with a sudden onset of facial asymmetry due to an unknown cause. Materials and methods: The low-level laser source used was a gallium aluminum arsenide semiconductor diode laser device (660 nm and 780 nm). No steroids or other medications were given to the child. The laser beam with a 0.04-cm(2) spot area, and an aperture with approximately 1-mm diameter, was applied in a continuous emission mode in direct contact with the facial area. The duration of a laser session was between 15 and 30 minutes, depending on the chosen points and the area being treated. Light was applied 10 seconds per point on a maximum number of 80 points, when the entire affected (right) side of the face was irradiated, based on the small laser beam spot size. According to the acupuncture literature, this treatment could also be carried out using 10-20 Chinese acupuncture points, located unilaterally on the face. In this case study, more points were used because the entire affected side of the face (a large area) was irradiated instead of using acupuncture points. Outcome measures: The House-Brackmann grading system was used to monitor the evolution of facial nerve motor function. Photographs were taken after every session, always using the same camera and the same magnitude. The 3-year-old boy recovered completely from BP after 11 sessions of LLLT. There were 4 sessions a week for the first 2 weeks, and the total treatment time was 3 weeks. Results: The result of this study was the improvement of facial movement and facial symmetry, with complete reestablishment to normality. Conclusions: LLLT may be an alternative to speed up facial normality in pediatric BP.

J Altern Complement Med 2012 Nov 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23140111

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Transcranial red and near infrared light transmission in a cadaveric model.

Jagdeo JR, Adams LE, Brody NI, Siegel DM

Department of Dermatology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, United States of America. jrjagdeo@gmail.com

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Low level light therapy has garnered significant interest within the past decade. The exact molecular mechanisms of how red and near infrared light result in physiologic modulation are not fully understood. Heme moieties and copper within cells are red and near infrared light photoreceptors that induce the mitochondrial respiratory chain component cytochrome C oxidase, resulting in a cascade linked to cytoprotection and cellular metabolism. The copper centers in cytochrome C oxidase have a broad absorption range that peaks around 830 nm. Several in vitro and in vivo animal and human models exist that have demonstrated the benefits of red light and near infrared light for various conditions. Clinical applications for low level light therapy are varied. One study in particular demonstrated improved durable functional outcomes status post-stroke in patients treated with near infrared low level light therapy compared to sham treatment [1]. Despite previous data suggesting the beneficial effect in treating multiple conditions, including stroke, with low level light therapy, limited data exists that measures transmission in a human model. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate this idea, we measured the transmission of near infrared light energy, using red light for purposes of comparison, through intact cadaver soft tissue, skull bones, and brain using a commercially available LED device at 830 nm and 633 nm. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that near infrared measurably penetrates soft tissue, bone and brain parenchyma in the formalin preserved cadaveric model, in comparison to negligible red light transmission in the same conditions. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that near infrared light can penetrate formalin fixed soft tissue, bone and brain and implicate that benefits observed in clinical studies are potentially related to direct action of near infrared light on neural tissue.

PLoS One 2012 7(10) e47460

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23077622

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy of leg ulcer in sickle cell anemia.

Bonini-Domingos CR, Valente FM

Laboratory of Hemoglobin and Genetics of Hematological Diseases, Biology Department, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Julio de Mesquita Filho” – UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil.

Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter 2012 34(1) 65-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23049388

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Skin Penetration Time-Profiles for Continuous 810 nm and Superpulsed 904 nm Lasers in a Rat Model.

Joensen J, Ovsthus K, Reed RK, Hummelsund S, Iversen VV, Lopes-Martins RA, Bjordal JM

1 Department of Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy, and Radiography; Faculty of Health and Social Science; Bergen University College ; Bergen; Norway .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the rat skin penetration abilities of two commercially available low-level laser therapy (LLLT) devices during 150 sec of irradiation. Background data: Effective LLLT irradiation typically lasts from 20 sec up to a few minutes, but the LLLT time-profiles for skin penetration of light energy have not yet been investigated. Materials and methods: Sixty-two skin flaps overlaying rat’s gastrocnemius muscles were harvested and immediately irradiated with LLLT devices. Irradiation was performed either with a 810 nm, 200 mW continuous wave laser, or with a 904 nm, 60 mW superpulsed laser, and the amount of penetrating light energy was measured by an optical power meter and registered at seven time points (range, 1-150 sec). Results: With the continuous wave 810 nm laser probe in skin contact, the amount of penetrating light energy was stable at approximately 20% (SEM+/-0.6) of the initial optical output during 150 sec irradiation. However, irradiation with the superpulsed 904 nm, 60 mW laser showed a linear increase in penetrating energy from 38% (SEM+/-1.4) to 58% (SEM+/-3.5) during 150 sec of exposure. The skin penetration abilities were significantly different (p<0.01) between the two lasers at all measured time points. Conclusions: LLLT irradiation through rat skin leaves sufficient subdermal light energy to influence pathological processes and tissue repair. The finding that superpulsed 904 nm LLLT light energy penetrates 2-3 easier through the rat skin barrier than 810 nm continuous wave LLLT, corresponds well with results of LLLT dose analyses in systematic reviews of LLLT in musculoskeletal disorders. This may explain why the differentiation between these laser types has been needed in the clinical dosage recommendations of World Association for Laser Therapy.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Dec 30(12) 688-94

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23025702

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Conservative management of midportion Achilles tendinopathy: a mixed methods study, integrating systematic review and clinical reasoning.

Rowe V, Hemmings S, Barton C, Malliaras P, Maffulli N, Morrissey D

Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Bart’s and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

BACKGROUND: Clinicians manage midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT) using complex clinical reasoning underpinned by a rapidly developing evidence base. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to develop an inclusive, accessible review of the literature in combination with an account of expert therapists’ related clinical reasoning to guide clinical practice and future research. METHODS: Searches of the electronic databases, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PEDro, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were conducted for all papers published from inception to November 2011. Reference lists and citing articles were searched for further relevant articles. Inclusion required studies to evaluate the effectiveness of any conservative intervention for midportion AT. Exclusion criteria included in vitro, animal and cadaver studies and tendinopathies in other locations (e.g. patella, supraspinatus). From a total of 3497 identified in the initial search, 47 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Studies were scored according to the PEDro scale, with a score of >/= 8/10 considered of excellent quality, 5-7/10 good, and
Sports Med 2012 Nov 1 42(11) 941-67

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23006143

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of low-level laser stimulation on EEG.

Wu JH, Chang WD, Hsieh CW, Jiang JA, Fang W, Shan YC, Chang YC

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ming Chuan University, No. 5 Deming Road, Gweishan Township, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan.

Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG) changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz) to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 2012 951272

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22973409

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Photobiomodulation in dentistry.

Ross G

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Oct 30(10) 565-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22970655

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[Radio-induced oral and pharyngeal mucositis: management updates].

Caillot E, Denis F

Service de radiotherapie, CHU de Poitiers, France. e.caillot@gmail.com

Mucositis is a major side effect induced by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy of head and neck cancer. This toxicity impacts patient’s quality of life and may compromise optimal treatments. Pathophysiology, risk factors, incidence and consequences of mucositis will be discussed in this review. Its management remains principally supportive (pain medication and nutritional support); however, in recent years several studies have revealed that the use of low level energy laser is particularly useful in the prevention and treatment of chemo- and radio-induced mucositis.

Cancer Radiother 2012 Sep 16(5-6) 358-63

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22841560

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) combined with swimming training improved the lipid profile in rats fed with high-fat diet.

Aquino AE Jr, Sene-Fiorese M, Paolillo FR, Duarte FO, Oishi JC, Pena AA Jr, Duarte AC, Hamblin MR, Bagnato VS, Parizotto NA

Optics Group from Institute of Physics of Sao Carlos (IFSC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, Brazil, spydera@ig.com.br.

Obesity and associated dyslipidemia is the fastest growing health problem throughout the world. The combination of exercise and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) could be a new approach to the treatment of obesity and associated disease. In this work, the effects of LLLT associated with exercises on the lipid metabolism in regular and high-fat diet rats were verified. We used 64 rats divided in eight groups with eight rats each, designed: SC, sedentary chow diet; SCL, sedentary chow diet laser, TC, trained chow diet; TCL, trained chow diet laser; SH, sedentary high-fat diet; SHL, sedentary high-fat diet laser; TH, trained high-fat diet; and THL, trained high-fat diet laser. The exercise used was swimming during 8 weeks/90 min daily and LLLT (GA-Al-As, 830 nm) dose of 4.7 J/point and total energy 9.4 J per animal, applied to both gastrocnemius muscles after exercise. We analyzed biochemical parameters, percentage of fat, hepatic and muscular glycogen and relative mass of tissue, and weight percentage gain. The statistical test used was ANOVA, with post hoc Tukey-Kramer for multiple analysis between groups, and the significant level was p < 0.001, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05. LLLT decreased the total cholesterol (p < 0.05), triglycerides (p < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05), and relative mass of fat tissue (p < 0.05), suggesting increased metabolic activity and altered lipid pathways. The combination of exercise and LLLT increased the benefits of exercise alone. However, LLLT without exercise tended to increase body weight and fat content. LLLT may be a valuable addition to a regimen of diet and exercise for weight reduction and dyslipidemic control.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Nov 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23151893

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level-laser irradiation induces photorelaxation in coronary arteries and overcomes vasospasm of internal thoracic arteries.

Plass CA, Wieselthaler GM, Podesser BK, Prusa AM

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine II; Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: As low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) seems to induce vasodilation besides many other known biological effects, LLLI has been increasingly used in therapy of medical conditions with various irradiation parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LLLI on photorelaxation of human coronary and internal thoracic arteries (ITA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty vessel segments of ITA used for routine coronary artery bypass grafting as well as left anterior descending coronary arteries (LAD) of patients undergoing cardiac transplantation were cut into 4-mm rings stored in a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution and evaluated in a myograph. Both types of vessel segments were irradiated by a semiconductor non-thermal GaAs diode laser operating at a wavelength of 680 nm. After precontraction with thromboxane agonist U44619, respective relaxation responses were evaluated and compared to pharmacological dilatation induced by substance P. RESULTS: Mean pharmacological vasodilation by substance P was 22.6 +/- 3.3%, 12.8 +/- 1.4%, and 20.4 +/- 3.2% in macroscopic healthy LAD, LAD with atheromatous plaque, and ITA, respectively. Average photorelaxation induced by LLLI was 16.5 +/- 2.0%, 1.9 +/- 1.7%, and 6.8 +/- 4.7%, accordingly. Vasodilatatory responses induced either by substance P or administration of LLLI were significantly decreased in LAD with atheromatous plaque (P < 0.0001). Vasospasms of ITA segments occurring during experiments could be abandoned when LLLI was administered. CONCLUSION: Macroscopic healthy LAD exposed to LLLI revealed significant photorelaxation. With the administration of LLLI, 73% of the maximal obtainable effect by an endothelium-dependent vasodilator could be reached. Furthermore, LLLI has the potential to overcome vasospasms of ITA. Lasers Surg. Med. 44: 705-711, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2012 Nov 44(9) 705-11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23007916

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

DNA repair gene expression in biological tissues exposed to low-intensity infrared laser.

de Souza da Fonseca A, Mencalha AL, Araujo de Campos VM, Ferreira Machado SC, de Freitas Peregrino AA, Geller M, de Paoli F

Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, 20550900, Brazil, adnfonseca@ig.com.br.

Special properties of laser light have led to its usefulness in many applications in therapy. Excitation of endogenous chromophores in biotissues and generation of free radicals could be involved in its biological effects. DNA lesions induced by free radicals are repaired by base excision repair pathway. In this work, we evaluated the expression of APE1 and OGG1 genes related to repair of DNA lesions induced by free radicals. Skin and muscle tissues of Wistar rats were exposed to low-intensity infrared laser at different fluences and frequencies. After laser exposition of 1 and 24 h, tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and evaluation of APE1 and OGG1 gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data obtained show that laser radiation alters the expression of APE1 and OGG1 mRNA differently in skin and muscle tissues of Wistar rats depending of the fluence, frequency, and time after exposure. Our study suggests that low-intensity infrared laser affects expression of genes involved in repair of DNA lesions by base excision repair pathway.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Sep 2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22941447

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy improves crescentic glomerulonephritis in rats.

Yamato M, Kaneda A, Kataoka Y

Cellular Function Imaging Laboratory, RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, 6-7-3 Minatojima Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047, Japan.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can reduce inflammation in a variety of clinical conditions, including trauma, postherpetic neuralgia, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the effect of LLLT on internal organs has not been elucidated. The goal of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of daily external LLLT in an animal model of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Crescentic glomerulonephritis was induced in male Wister Kyoto rats by intravenous injection of antibody for glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The rats were irradiated with a low-reactive level diode laser with an infrared wavelength of 830 nm from the shaved skin surface once a day for 14 days (irradiation spot size on the skin surface, 2.27 cm(2); power intensity, 880 mW/cm(2); irradiation mode, continuous mode; irradiation time, 250 s; energy, 500 J; energy density, 220 J/cm(2)). After laser irradiation for 14 days, animals were killed, and the extent of inflammation was evaluated. Expression of gene for inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Crescent formation in glomeruli and infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes were assessed by histochemical observation. Injection of anti-GBM antibody induced severe glomerulonephritis with crescent formation. Histological observations indicated that LLLT suppressed crescent formation and infiltration of ED1+ macrophages and CD8+ lymphocytes into the glomeruli. LLLT attenuated the levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha messenger RNA in the renal cortex. Externally directed LLLT suppresses the activity of rat anti-GBM crescentic glomerulonephritis in rats. LLLT has the potential to be used for direct treatment of glomerulonephritis.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Nov 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23139073

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Light-emitting diode photobiomodulation: effect on bone formation in orthopedically expanded suture in rats-early bone changes.

Ekizer A, Uysal T, Guray E, Yuksel Y

Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey, dtekizer@hotmail.com.

The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate histomorphometrically the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) photobiomodulation therapy (LPT) on bone formation in response to expansion of the interpremaxillary suture in rats. Twenty male, 50- to 60-day-old Wistar rats were divided into two equal groups (control and experimental). Both groups were subjected to expansion for 5 days, and 50 cN of force was applied to the maxillary incisors with helical spring. An OsseoPulse(R) LED device, 618-nm wavelength and 20-mW/cm(2) output power irradiation, was applied to the interpremaxillary suture for 10 days. Bone formation in the sutural area was histomorphometrically evaluated, including the amount of new bone formation (in square micrometers), number of osteoblasts, number of osteoclasts, and number of vessels. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical evaluation at p < 0.025 level. Significant differences were found between groups for all investigated histomorphometric parameters. New bone formation area (p = 0.024, 1.48-fold), number of osteoblasts (p < 0.001, 1.59-fold), number of osteoclasts (p = 0.004, 1.43-fold), and number of vessels (p = 0.007, 1.67-fold) showed higher values in the experimental group than the control. Bone histomorphometric measurements revealed that bone architecture in the LPT group was improved. The application of LPT can stimulate bone formation in the orthopedically expanded interpremaxillary suture during expansion and the early phase of the retention periods.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Nov 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23139069

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level visible light (LLVL) irradiation promotes proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells.

Lipovsky A, Oron U, Gedanken A, Lubart R

Department of Chemistry, Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, 52900, Israel.

Low-level visible light irradiation was found to stimulate proliferation potential of various types of cells in vitro. Stem cells in general are of significance for implantation in regenerative medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of low-level light irradiation on the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow, and light irradiation was applied at energy densities of 2.4, 4.8, and 7.2 J/cm(2). Illumination of the MSCs resulted in almost twofold increase in cell number as compared to controls. Elevated reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production was also observed in MSCs cultures following illumination with broadband visible light. The present study clearly demonstrates the ability of broadband visible light illumination to promote proliferation of MSCs in vitro. These results may have an important impact on wound healing.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Sep 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23007630

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser therapy and the pain-related behavior after injury of the inferior alveolar nerve: possible involvement of neurotrophins.

Martins DD, Santos FM, Oliveira ME, Britto LR, Lemos JB, Chacur M

Institute of Biomedical Sciences , Department of Anatomy, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2415, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2415, Sao Paulo, Sao, Brazil, 05508900, 551130918452; martinsd@usp.br.

Nerve-related complications have been frequently reported in dental procedures, and a very frequent type of occurrence involves the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). The nerve injury in humans often results in persistent or chronic neuropathic pain characterized by spontaneous burning pain accompanied by allodynia and hyperalgesia. In this investigation we used an experimental IAN injury in rats to which we associated laser therapy to assess how laser stimulates nerve repair in experimental animals. We also studied the nociceptive behavior (allodynia von Frey test) before and after the injury and the behavioral effects of treatment with laser therapy. Since neurotrophins are essential for the process of nerve regeneration, we used immunoblotting techniques to approach the effects of laser therapy upon the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The injured animals treated with laser had an improved nociceptive behavior. In irradiated animals there was an enhanced expression of NGF (53%) and a decrease of BDNF expression (40%) after laser therapy. These results indicate that BDNF plays a locally crucial role in pain-related behavior development after IAN injury, increasing after lesions (in parallel to the installation of pain behavior) and decreasing with laser therapy (in parallel to the improvement of pain behavior), whereas NGF probably contributes for the repair of nerve tissue and acts by improving the pain-related behavior, thus increasing after laser therapy.

J Neurotrauma 2012 Nov 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23190308

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

LLLT improves tendon healing through increase of MMP activity and collagen synthesis.

Guerra FD, Vieira CP, Almeida MS, Oliveira LP, de Aro AA, Pimentel ER

Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, CP 6109, Campinas, Sao Paulo, 13083-970, Brazil, dgflavia@yahoo.com.br.

The Achilles tendon has a high incidence of rupture, and the healing process leads to a disorganized extracellular matrix (ECM) with a high rate of injury recurrence. To evaluate the effects of different conditions of low-level laser (LLL) application on partially tenotomized tendons, adult male rats were divided into the following groups: G1, intact; G2, injured; G3, injured + LLL therapy (LLLT; 4 J/cm(2) continuous); G4, injured + LLLT (4 J/cm(2), 20 Hz); G5, injured; G6, injured + LLLT (4 J/cm(2) continuous); and G7, injured + LLLT (4 J/cm(2), 20 Hz until the 7th day and 2 kHz from 8 to 14 days). G2, G3, and G4 were euthanized 8 days after injury, and G5, G6, and G7 were euthanized on the 15th day. The quantification of hydroxyproline (HOPro) and non-collagenous protein (NCP), zymography for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and Western blotting (WB) for collagen types I and III were performed. HOPro levels showed a significant decrease in all groups (except G7) when compared with G1. The NCP level increased in all transected groups. WB for collagen type I showed an increase in G4 and G7. For collagen type III, G4 presented a higher value than G2. Zymography for MMP-2 indicated high values in G4 and G7. MMP-9 increased in both treatment groups euthanized at 8 days, especially in G4. Our results indicate that the pulsed LLLT improved the remodeling of the ECM during the healing process in tendons through activation of MMP-2 and stimulation of collagen synthesis.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Nov 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23179310

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of photobiomodulation on expression of IL-1beta in skeletal muscle following acute injury.

Fernandes KP, Alves AN, Nunes FD, Souza NH, Silva JA Jr, Bussadori SK, Ferrari RA

Rehabilitation Sciences and Biophotonics, Universidade Nove de Julho-UNINOVE, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, kristianneporta@gmail.com.

Muscle repair is regulated by growth factors and cytokines. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) seems to influence acute inflammation and accelerate skeletal muscle repair. This study verifies the effect of LLLT on the expression of IL-1beta in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats following acute injury. Wistar rats (n = 35) were allocated into three groups: control (without lesion and LLLT, n = 5), injury group (n = 15), and injury + LLLT group (n = 15). The acute injury was induced by the contact with a cooled metal probe (3 mm in diameter) during 10 s, twice, in the same muscle area. LLLT was used three times a week using the InGaAlP laser (660 nm; beam spot of 0.04 cm(2), output power of 20 mW, power density of 500 mW/cm(2), and energy density of 5 J/cm(2) during 10 s). The animals were analyzed at 1, 7, and 14 days following injury. TA muscles samples were used for obtaining total RNA and performing cDNA synthesis. Real-time polymerase chain reactions were realized using IL-1beta primer. There was a decrease in IL-1beta expression after 7 days in LLLT group in comparison with the no treated group. In conclusion, LLLT was able to decrease IL-1beta expression during the skeletal muscle repair following an acute injury.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Nov 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23179308

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Infrared low-level diode laser on inflammatory process modulation in mice: pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Fukuda TY, Tanji MM, Silva SR, Sato MN, Plapler H

Physical Therapy Sector, Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo (ISCMSP), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, tfukuda10@yahoo.com.br.

To evaluate the modulation of proinflammatory (interleukin-6, IL-6; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNF-alpha; and interferon-gamma, IFN-gamma) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor-beta1, TGF-beta1) in the inflammation processes in vivo with low-level laser action, 50 isogenic mice were randomly distributed into three groups: control (no surgical procedure, n = 10), sham (surgical procedure with three standard cutaneous incisions, followed by an abdominal muscle incision and suture, n = 20), and laser (same procedure followed by laser exposure, n = 20). The sham group was divided into three subgroups: sham I (euthanasia and evaluation, 36 h after surgical procedure), sham II (euthanasia and evaluation, 60 h after surgical procedure), and sham III (euthanasia and evaluation, 84 h after surgical procedure). The laser group was also divided in three subgroups: laser I (a single laser session, 12 h after surgery), laser II (two laser sessions, 12 and 36 h after surgery), and laser III (three laser sessions, 12, 36, and 60 h after surgery). All animals in the laser groups received three points per session of continuous infrared laser (wavelength of 780 nm, power of 20 mW, fluency of 10 J/cm(2), exposure time of 20 s per point, and energy of 0.4 J). After euthanasia, spleen mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured for 48 h. Concentrations of IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and TGF-beta1 were obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. There was a significant difference between the IL-6 and TNF-alpha concentrations in the 60-and 84-h evaluations when the laser and sham groups were compared to the control group (p < 0.05), except for laser II in the TNF-alpha analysis (p > 0.05). The IFN-gamma concentration analysis showed a significant difference only in sham II when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Thus, there was a modulatory effect of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in the laser group, particularly in the 60-h postoperative evaluation. There was no significant difference between the laser, sham, and control groups for TGF-beta1 analysis (p > 0.05). The low-level laser application decreased the TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma release in vivo of spleen mononuclear cells in mice, especially after two exposure sessions. However, there was no modulation of the IL-6 and TGF-beta1 release.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Nov 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23179306

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Comparison between pulsed ultrasound and low level laser therapy on experimental haemarthrosis.

Ravanbod R, Torkaman G, Esteki A

Department of Physical Therapy, Biomechanical Research Laboratory, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

The use of pulsed ultrasound (PUS) and low level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with haemophilia has been recommended for supportive treatment of acute and chronic phases of haemarthrosis but its role has not been supported by experimental evidence. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these modalities on joint swelling, friction and biomechanical parameters of articular cartilage. An experimental rabbit knee haemarthrosis model was used to test the hypothesis that LLLT and PUS favourably impacted on the biotribological and biomechanical properties of cartilage after joint bleeding. To test this, 35 male albino rabbits weighing 1.5-2 kg were used. The left knee of 30 rabbits was injected with 1 mL of fresh autologous blood two times per week for four consecutive weeks to simulate recurrent haemarthrosis; five rabbits served as non-bleeding controls. Ten rabbits were treated with PUS and 10 with LLLT and the remaining 10 were not treated. The treatments were started after 2 days and the treatment duration was planned for 5 days (sessions) in ultrasound and laser groups. A low level Ga-Al-As laser was applied with an 810 nm wavelength, 25 mW power, and 1 J cm(-2) dosage for 200 s duration. The PUS treatment was applied with a duty cycle of 1/9, frequency of 1 MHz, and power of 0.4 W cm(-2) for 150 s. Joint perimeter was measured before the procedure at the beginning of therapies and after cessation of the procedure. Friction and biomechanical parameters were measured immediately after the killing of the animals. The results demonstrate that PUS was more effective in reducing knee joint swelling than LLLT. Moreover, PUS had the unique ability of reducing the joint friction below normal values. However, it was not successful in returning the articular cartilage force and stiffness to normal state. LLLT was more effective in increasing equilibrium force of the articular cartilage than PUS, however, neither therapy normalized this parameter. From these data, we conclude that PUS is more effective than LLLT in reducing joint swelling and articular joint friction after experimental haema-rthrosis.

Haemophilia 2012 Nov 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23167284

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of low-level laser therapy on incorporation of block allografts.

Valiati R, Paes JV, de Moraes AN, Gava A, Agostini M, Masiero AV, de Oliveira MG, Pagnoncelli RM

1. School of Dentistry, Universidade do Planalto Catarinense (UNIPLAC), Lages, Brazil; ; 2. School of Dentistry, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, Brazil;

Objective To assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the incorporation of deep-frozen block allografts in a rabbit model.Background Data Studies have shown that LLLT has beneficial effects on tissue repair and new bone formation.Methods Bone tissue was harvested from two rabbits, processed by deep-freezing and grafted into the calvaria of 12 animals, which were then randomly allocated into two groups: experimental (L) and control (C). Rabbits in group L were irradiated with an aluminum gallium arsenide diode laser (AlGaAs; wavelength 830 nm, 4 J/cm(2)), applied to four sites on the calvaria, for a total dose of 16 J/cm(2) per session. The total treatment dose after eight sessions was 128 J/cm(2). Animals were euthanized at 35 (n = 6) or 70 days (n = 6) postoperatively.Results Deep-freeze-processed block allografts followed by LLLT showed incorporation at the graft-host interface, moderate bone remodeling, partial filling of osteocyte lacunae, less inflammatory infiltrate in the early postoperative period, and higher collagen deposition than the control group.Conclusion Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that allograft bone processed by deep-freezing plus LLLT is suitable as an alternative for the treatment of bone defects. Use of the deep-freezing method for processing of bone grafts preserves the structural and osteoconductive characteristics of bone tissue.

Int J Med Sci 2012 9(10) 853-61

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23155359

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

How effective could laser-based approaches be in assisting dendritic cell immunotherapy?

Chen X, Wu MX

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School (HMS), 50 Blossom Street, Edwards 211, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Immunotherapy 2012 Oct 4(10) 983-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23148749

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Regenerative medicine, stem cells, and low-level laser therapy: future directives.

Abrahamse H

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg , Johannesburg, South Africa .

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Dec 30(12) 681-2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23140266

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy decreases renal interstitial fibrosis.

Oliveira FA, Moraes AC, Paiva AP, Schinzel V, Correa-Costa M, Semedo P, Castoldi A, Cenedeze MA, Oliveira RS, Bastos MG, Camara NO, Sanders-Pinheiro H

1 Division of Nephrology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora , Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Brazil .

Abstract Objective: the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Background data: Regardless of the etiology, CKD involves progressive widespread tissue fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and loss of kidney function. This process also occurs in kidney allograft. At present, effective therapies for this condition are lacking. We investigated the effects of LLLT on the interstitial fibrosis that occurs after experimental UUO in rats. Methods: The occluded kidney of half of the 32 Wistar rats that underwent UUO received a single intraoperative dose of LLLT (AlGaAs laser, 780 nm, 22.5 J/cm(2), 30 mW, 0.75 W/cm(2), 30 sec on each of nine points). After 14 days, renal fibrosis was assessed by Sirius red staining under polarized light. Immunohistochemical analyses quantitated the renal tissue cells that expressed fibroblast (FSP-1) and myofibroblast (alpha-SMA) markers. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and Smad3. Results: The UUO and LLLT animals had less fibrosis than the UUO animals, as well having decreased expression inflammatory and pro-fibrotic markers. Conclusions: For the first time, we showed that LLLT had a protective effect regarding renal interstitial fibrosis. It is conceivable that by attenuating inflammation, LLLT can prevent tubular activation and transdifferentiation, which are the two processes that mainly drive the renal fibrosis of the UUO model.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Dec 30(12) 705-13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23134313

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy using the minimally invasive laser needle system on osteoporotic bone in ovariectomized mice.

Ko CY, Kang H, Seo DH, Jung B, Schreiber J, Kim HS

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Yonsei-Fraunhofer Medical Device Lab, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710, Republic of Korea; Research Team, Korea Orthopedics & Rehabiliation Engineering Center, Bupyeong, Incheon 403-712, Republic of Korea.

This study tested the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in preventing and/or treating osteoporotic trabecular bone. Mice were ovariectomized (OVX) to induce osteoporotic bone loss. The tibiae of eight OVX mice were treated for 5days each week for 2weeks by LLLT (660nm, 3J/cm(2)) using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) which is designed to minimize loss of laser energy before reaching bone (LASER group). Another eight mice received a sham treatment (SHAM group). Structural parameters of trabecular bone were measured with in vivo micro-computed tomography images before and after laser treatment. After LLLT for 2weeks, the percentage reduction (%R) was significantly lower in BV/TV (bone volume fraction) and Tb.N (trabecular number, p
Med Eng Phys 2012 Nov 2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23127900

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of soft laser in bone repair after expansion of the midpalatal suture in dogs.

Santiago VC, Piram A, Fuziy A

Researcher and postgraduate student, University of Marilia, Marilia, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: odontovania@hotmail.com.

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this research was to study the influence of soft laser treatment on the process of bone repair after expansion of the midpalatal suture. METHODS: The sample for this case-control experimental study was 11 dogs. They were randomly divided into 2 groups, both of which underwent rapid maxillary expansion with a hyrax appliance. The animals in group 1 were also treated with laser therapy. They were killed, and histologic specimens of the palatal suture were prepared. The Student t test was applied for independent data, and the Mann-Whitney test was used for nonparametric data. RESULTS: A significant difference was observed in the quality of the palatal sutures between the animals in groups 1 and 2. The connective tissues of the sutures in the group 1 animals were similar to the original configurations, with more advanced osteogenesis and fibrogenesis, compared with those of group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Soft laser appears to influence the behavior of the repair process, contributing to suture reorganization and palatal bone osteogenesis during and after expansion.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012 Nov 142(5) 615-24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23116502

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Assessment of the effect of low-energy diode laser irradiation on gamma irradiated rats’ mandibles.

El-Maghraby EM, El-Rouby DH, Saafan AM

Health Radiation Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Cairo, Egypt.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biostimulative and regenerative effects of low intensity laser irradiation (LILT) (applied before or after initiation of radiotherapy) on gamma irradiated rats’ jaw bones. METHODS: Forty eight male Albino rats were equally divided into two groups: group 1, in which the left side of the mandible was subjected to three successive sessions of laser (LILT) prior to whole body gamma radiation (2Gy/3 fractions/week) and group 2, received whole body gamma radiation (2Gy/3 fractions/week) prior to three successive sessions of laser applied to left side. The right side of both groups was used as gamma irradiated non-lased control group. Each group was then subdivided into four equal subgroups (a, b, c, d) according to the time of scarification (3, 7, 14, 21 days respectively). Specimens were subjected to histological, histomorphometric and scanning electron microscopic examinations. RESULTS: Thin irregular bone trabeculae and widened marrow spaces were identified in the control group. The lased sides of groups 1 and 2 demonstrated regular, thick and continuous bone trabeculae. Ultrastructurally, collagen fibres of the control group appeared irregularly arranged and more spaced compared to groups 1 and 2. Normal-sized osteocytic lacunae were seen in the lased groups, as compared to the wide lacunar spaces noted in the control group. Histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the area of bone trabeculae, as well as the width of compact bone, for the lased groups. CONCLUSIONS: LILT seemed to attenuate the radiation-related damage in alveolar bones.

Arch Oral Biol 2012 Oct 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23102551

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Indicators of oxidative stress after ionizing and/or non-ionizing radiation: Superoxid dismutase and malondialdehyde.

Freitinger Skalicka Z, Zolzer F, Beranek L, Racek J

Southbohemian University in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Department of Radiology and Toxicology, Czech Republic. Electronic address: zuzana.skalicka@centrum.cz.

Several authors have suggested that low level laser light may have a positive influence on side effects caused by ionizing radiation therapy. We therefore studied indicators of oxidative stress after exposure to gamma radiation with or without pre-exposure to low level laser light. Groups of mice were exposed to light from a laser diode at a wavelength of 830nm, delivering an energy of 20 or 100J to 1cm(2) in the abdominal part of the animal with a power density of 300mW/cm(2) in continuous regime. Following this treatment (or sham irradiation), mice were irradiated with graded doses of (60)Co gamma rays. Levels of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were measured in murine blood cells 30min or 3days after exposure. For both time points, there was a clear increase of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde with gamma dose, but laser light (alone or in combination with gamma irradiation) did not seem to have any influence on either parameter. Because the physical parameters in our experiments were similar to those of studies showing a positive effect of laser pre-exposure, we conclude that the lack of an observed effect in our case was due to differences in biological parameters, i.e. to differences between the tissues or cell types studied. It is also possible, of course, that laser effects would be seen mainly in the skin immediately exposed, and not to the same degree in blood cells circulating through that area, which were exposed to considerably smaller laser energies.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2012 Dec 5 117 111-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23099481

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Enhanced wound healing effect of canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells with low-level laser therapy in athymic mice.

Kim H, Choi K, Kweon OK, Kim WH

Department of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cell source for skin tissue engineering. However, one obstacle to this approach is that the transplanted ASC population can decline rapidly in the recipient tissue. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on transplanted canine ASCs in a skin wound animal model. METHODS: LLLT, ASC transplantation (ASCs) and ASC transplantation with LLLT (ASCs+LLLT) were applied to the wound bed in athymic mice. Wound healing was assessed by gross evaluation and by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The survival, differentiation and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor of the ASCs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. RESULTS: The ASCs and ASCs+LLLT groups stimulated wound closure and histological skin regeneration. The ASCs+LLLT group enhanced the wound healing, including neovascularization and regeneration of skin appendages, compared with the ASCs group. The ASCs contributed skin regeneration via differentiation and secretion of growth factors. In the ASCs+LLLT group, the survival of ASCs was increased by the decreased apoptosis of ASCs in the wound bed. The secretion of growth factors was stimulated in the ASCs+LLLT group compared with the ASCs group. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that LLLT is an effective biostimulator of ASCs in wound healing that enhances the survival of ASCs and stimulates the secretion of growth factors in the wound bed.

J Dermatol Sci 2012 Dec 68(3) 149-56

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23084629

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Evaluation of muscle regeneration in aged animals after treatment with low-level laser therapy.

Pertille A, Macedo AB, Oliveira CP

Graduate Program in Physical Therapy, Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.

BACKGROUND: The aging process and its associated morphophysiological changes trigger a reduction in the regenerative ability of the satellite cells, a reduction of vascular tissue and an increase in the production of fibroblasts, developing a cellular environment unfavorable for muscle regeneration. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on the muscle regeneration of old experimental rat models after contusion. METHOD: A total of 25 old rats,18 months old, were divided into three groups: control group (CT) without treatment; injury group (IN) with muscle contusion and without treatment and laser group (LA) with contusion and low-level laser therapy, 830 nm, 30 mW e 4 J/cm(2). The no invasive contusion was induced in the Tibialis Anterior muscle and the samples were collected after 7 and 21 treatment sessions. The muscle was evaluated by Light Microscopy and Immunoblotting. RESULTS: After 21 days of treatment there was a significant reduction in the areas of inflammation/regeneration of the LA 21 group compared to IN 21 group. The cross-sectional area of the fibers in regeneration was not statistically different between the groups. Molecular analysis showed that the content of MyoD was statistically reduced in the IN 21 group compared to the CT group. The Myogenin content was increased in the IN 21 group compared to the CT group. Ultimately, the content of TGF-beta1 on the IN 21 group was higher when compared to the CT group. CONCLUSION: Considering the parameters used, the laser therapy demonstrated to be effective for muscle regeneration in old rats, however only through its anti-inflammatory effect.

Rev Bras Fisioter 2012 Oct 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23060238

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Collagen Production in Diabetic Wounded Fibroblasts in Response to Low-Intensity Laser Irradiation at 660 nm.

Ayuk SM, Houreld NN, Abrahamse H

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg , Doornfontein, South Africa .

Abstract Background: Collagen type I (Col-I) is a major component of the extracellular matrix and is important in wound healing processes. Several studies have shown that low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) biostimulates Col-I synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. This study aimed to determine if LILI affects collagen production and related cellular responses in an in vitro diabetic wounded fibroblast model. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on isolated human skin fibroblasts. Different cell models (normal and diabetic wounded) were used. Cells were irradiated with 5 J/cm(2) at a wavelength of 660 nm and incubated for 48 or 72 h. Nonirradiated cells (0 J/cm(2)) were used as controls. Cellular viability (Trypan blue exclusion test), morphology (bright-field microscopy), proliferation [VisionBlue quick cell proliferation assay and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay], and Col-I (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay) were assessed. Results: Diabetic wounded cells irradiated with 5 J/cm(2) at 660 nm showed a significant increase in cell migration, viability, proliferation, and collagen content. Conclusions: This study shows that LILI stimulates Col-I synthesis in diabetic wound healing in vitro at 660 nm.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2012 Dec 14(12) 1110-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23057714

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Anti-inflammatory effect of low-intensity laser on the healing of third-degree burn wounds in rats.

de Moraes JM, Eterno de Oliveira Mendonca D, Moura VB, Oliveira MA, Afonso CL, Vinaud MC, Bachion MM, de Souza Lino R Jr

Biological Sciences Institute, Federal University of Goias (UFG), Campus II-Samambaia, saida para Neropolis-Km 13, Goiania, GO, 74001-970, Brazil.

Third-degree burn wounds are considered severe injuries because they destroy all the skin layers and may affect subcutaneous tissues, fasciae, muscles, and bones. To favor the healing process of the injured tissues, it is very useful to diminish the occurrence of the inflammatory process. The present study was aimed at comparing the effect of different energetic densities of AlGaInP laser on the inflammatory process and in the healing of third-degree burn wounds in Wistar rats. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee, in which 36 adult male rats were selected and suffered the induction of third-degree burn injury. These rats were divided as follows: group 1-control (treated with silver sulfadiazine), group 2-received energy density of 3 J/cm(2), and group 3-received energy density of 6 J/cm(2). All animals daily received an occlusive bandage with silver sulfadiazine and 8 % papain. The laser therapy was performed alternatively three times a week. The animals were evaluated on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days after the initial lesion and euthanized for the macroscopic, histologic, and morphometric analysis. A higher production of collagen was observed at 7 days and a greater re-epithelialization at 21 days in group 3 (6 J/cm(2)). Furthermore, the latter when compared to the other groups presented macroscopically a better aspect of the scar at 21 days with more granulation tissue and fibrosis. We conclude that the AlGaInP laser used in dosages of 3 and 6 J/cm(2) favors the healing of third-degree burn wounds induced in rats.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Oct 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23053250

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Visible 532 nm laser irradiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells: Effect on proliferation rates, mitochondria membrane potential and autofluorescence.

Anwer AG, Gosnell ME, Perinchery SM, Inglis DW, Goldys EM

“Ewa M. Goldys.” MQ BioFocus Research Centre, Macquarie University, North Ryde, 2109 NSW, Australia.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The photobiological effect of laser light on cells and tissues originates from light absorption by endogenous chromophores and hence it depends on the wavelength of light source and cell type. Earlier studies regarding the biostimulation effects of green laser light investigated a wide variety of cells but not adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCS). In this study we reported the in vitro effect of 532-nm Nd:YAG laser on proliferation, mitochondrial activity of these mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the autofluorescence emission at wavelengths associated with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavoproteins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ADSCS were exposed to 532 nm second harmonic generation laser light at moderate power density (0.153 W/cm(2) ) for periods of 30, 45, 60, 180, and 300 seconds. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using JC1 stain and confocal laser scanning microscopy, cell proliferation rates, and cellular autofluorescence emission at 450 and 540 nm wavelengths were measured using micro plate spectrofluorometer 48 hours after irradiation. RESULTS: Shorter (30-60 seconds) exposure times led to significantly increased proliferation, attributed to increased mitochondrial activity (P < 0.05). At longer exposures we observed a significant decrease in proliferation and autofluorescence (P < 0.05). Strong correlation was observed between proliferation rates of cells and autofluorescence intensity. CONCLUSION: Our results show that autofluorescence of the respiratory chain components and key autofluorescent metabolites offers a non-invasive method to quantify cellular response to laser irradiation. Lasers Surg. Med. 44: 769-778, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2012 Nov 44(9) 769-78

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23047589

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of the pulse frequency of low-level laser therapy on the tooth movement speed of rat molars.

Duan J, Na Y, Liu Y, Zhang Y

1 Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University , Shenyang, Liaoning, China .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of the orthodontic tooth movement of rat molars under continuous wave (CW) and pulsed wave (PW) low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Background data: It remains unclear whether LLLT can increase the speed of tooth movement, and no consensus has been established regarding the appropriate parameters and experimental design of LLLT. Materials and methods: Orthodontic movement was induced in 40 rats with 10g coil springs. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups. In Group I, the maxillary left first molars were irradiated with CW by a gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser source (830 nm, 180 mW, 3.6 J/cm(2), and 0.9 W/cm(2) for 4 sec at three locations for 3 consecutive days). In Groups II, III, and IV, animals were irradiated with PW at 2, 4, and 8 Hz, respectively (50% duty cycle, average power of 90 mW, 3.6 J/cm(2), and 0.45 W/cm(2) for 8 sec at three locations for 3 consecutive days). Group V served as the control (no irradiation). The movement distance was measured on days 3, 7, and 14. Results: Although there were no significant differences among the irradiation groups, significant differences were found between the control and irradiation groups starting from day 3. Conclusions: The CW and PW treatments both led to faster orthodontic tooth movement compared with the control group.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Nov 30(11) 663-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23025701

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3, and induced nitric oxide synthase expressions after low-level laser therapy in an axonotmesis experimental model.

Gomes LE, Dalmarco EM, Andre ES

1 Laboratorio de Fisioterapia Neurologica Experimental (LFNE), Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB) , Blumenau, Brazil .

Abstract Background data: A robust body of evidence has shown that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) improves peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the biochemical background triggered in this process is not yet fully understood. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mRNA expression of neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], nerve growth factor [NGF], and neurotrophin-3, [NT-3]) and also an inflammatory marker (induced nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) in an axonotmesis experimental model after low-level laser therapy. Methods: Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats (250-350 g) were subjected to right sciatic nerve crush injury, and 24 h later, the animals in the three different experimental groups (n=18) were irradiated on a daily basis with helium-neon laser (collimated HeNe laser, continuous emission, wavelength: 632.8 nm, power density: 0.5 mW/cm(2), irradiation time: 20 sec, energy density: 10 J/cm(2)) during 7, 14, and 21 consecutive days, respectively. The control group (n=18) underwent the same procedures, but with the equipment turned off. At the end of the experiments, animals were killed with an overdose of anesthesia to remove samples from the sciatic nerve lesion epicenter to determine the mRNA expression of BDNF, NGF, NT-3 and iNOS enzyme. Results: Comparisons between groups showed that HeNe laser increased the mRNA expression of both BDNF and NGF factors after 14 days of LLLT, with peak expression at the 21st day. Increase in NT-3 mRNA expression was not observed. In addition, HeNe laser produced iNOS expression reduction, which played an important role in the inflammatory process. Conclusions: The reported data could have a relevant practical value because LLLT is a noninvasive procedure, and have revealed significant increase in neurotrophic factor expressions and inflammatory process reduction, opening the possibility of using LLLT as an important aid to nerve regeneration process.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Nov 30(11) 642-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23003120

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy (808 nm) reduces inflammatory response and oxidative stress in rat tibialis anterior muscle after cryolesion.

Assis L, Moretti AI, Abrahao TB, Cury V, Souza HP, Hamblin MR, Parizotto NA

Laboratory of Electrothermophototherapy, Department of Phisiotherapy, University of Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Muscle regeneration is a complex phenomenon, involving coordinated activation of several cellular responses. During this process, oxidative stress and consequent tissue damage occur with a severity that may depend on the intensity and duration of the inflammatory response. Among the therapeutic approaches to attenuate inflammation and increase tissue repair, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may be a safe and effective clinical procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LLLT on oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammatory mediators produced during a cryolesion of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20): control (BC), injured TA muscle without LLLT (IC), injured TA muscle submitted to LLLT (IRI). The injured region was irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days, starting immediately after the lesion using a AlGaAs laser (continuous wave, 808 nm, tip area of 0.00785 cm(2) , power 30 mW, application time 47 seconds, fluence 180 J/cm(2) ; 3.8 mW/cm(2) ; and total energy 1.4 J). The animals were sacrificed on the fourth day after injury. RESULTS: LLLT reduced oxidative and nitrative stress in injured muscle, decreased lipid peroxidation, nitrotyrosine formation and NO production, probably due to reduction in iNOS protein expression. Moreover, LLLT increased SOD gene expression, and decreased the inflammatory response as measured by gene expression of NF-kbeta and COX-2 and by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta concentration. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that LLLT could be an effective therapeutic approach to modulate oxidative and nitrative stress and to reduce inflammation in injured muscle. Lasers Surg. Med. 44: 726-735, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2012 Nov 44(9) 726-35

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23001637

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Diclofenac (Topical and Intramuscular) as Single and Combined Therapy in Experimental Model of Controlled Muscle Strain in Rats.

de Paiva Carvalho RL, Leal-Junior EC, Petrellis MC, Marcos RL, de Carvalho MH, De Nucci G, Lopes-Martins RA

Department of Pharmacology, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Muscle injuries represent ca 30% of sports injuries and excessive stretching of muscle causes more than 90% of injuries. Currently the most used treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), however, in last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is becoming an interesting therapeutic modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single and combined therapies (LLLT, topical application of diclofenac and intramuscular diclofenac) on functional and biochemical aspects in an experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats. Muscle strain was induced by overloading tibialis anterior muscle of rats. Injured groups received either no treatment, or a single treatment with topical or intramuscular diclofenac (TD and ID), or LLLT (3 J, 810 nm, 100 mW) 1 h after injury. Walking track analysis was the functional outcome and biochemical analyses included mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and blood levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ). All treatments significantly decreased COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression compared with injury group (P < 0.05). However, LLLT showed better effects than TD and ID regarding PGE(2) levels and walking track analysis (P < 0.05). We can conclude that LLLT has more efficacy than topical and intramuscular diclofenac in treatment of muscle strain injury in acute stage.

Photochem Photobiol 2012 Sep 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22989160

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Influence of the HPA axis on the inflammatory response in cutaneous wounds with the use of 670-nm laser photobiomodulation.

Vilela DD, Chamusca FV, Andrade JC, Vallve ML, Gonzalez AC, Andrade Zde A, Medrado AR, Reis SR

Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica – Dentistry Course, Av. Silveira Martins 3386, CEP 40150-100, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. deylavilela@yahoo.com.br

This study evaluated the influence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in cutaneous wounds subjected to laser biomodulation. A total of 48 rats were divided into two groups: Group I (GI) with 24 adrenalectomized animals and Group II (GII) with 24 non-adrenalectomized animals. Each group was divided into two subgroups: the irradiated subgroup which laser was applied to four points at the edges of the wound (670 nm laser, 9 mW) and control subgroup. Rats in each subgroup were sacrificed at 24 or 72 h. Adrenal glands were only removed from GI rats. Three days after adrenalectomy, a cutaneous wound was made. An immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-CD45 and anti-CD8 antibodies. Flow cytometry was used to count T lymphocytes and their subpopulations in blood. Decreases in the number of CD45-positive inflammatory cells and in the total numbers of CD8- and CD45-positive cells were observed in histological sections of adrenalectomized animals subjected to laser biomodulation at 24h. Similar results were observed for distribution of total lymphocytes in blood (p<0.05). The action of 670 nm laser does not depend exclusively on HPA axis. It is believed that corticosteroid-promoting enzymes liberated in non-adrenal tissues may influence immune response under the influence of this type of phototherapy.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2012 Nov 5 116 114-20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22959586

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of imiquimod and low-intensity laser (lambda660nm) in chemically induced oral carcinomas in hamster buccal pouch mucosa.

de C Monteiro JS, de Oliveira SC, Reis Junior JA, Gurgel CA, de Souza SC, Pinheiro AL, Dos Santos JN

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, Salvador, BA, 40110-150, Brazil, julianademonteiro@hotmail.com.

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common neoplasm of the oral cavity. It is aggressive, highly proliferative, and metastatic. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of LLLT and imiquimod on DMBA chemically induced lesions on the oral mucosa of hamsters. SCCs were induced on 25 hamsters. Animals of G1 (control 1) were killed and the presence of tumors confirmed; G2 (control 2) suffered no interventions for additional 4 weeks; animals of G3 (laser treatment) were irradiated (lambda660nm, 50 mW, CW, O = 3 mm, 0.07 cm(2), 714.2 mW/cm(2), 133 s, 95 J/cm(2), 6.65 J) at every other day for 4 weeks; animals of G4 (imiquimod treatment) received 5 % imiquimod three times a week for 4 weeks; and animals of G5 (imiquimod and laser treatment) received both treatments for the same period. Samples were taken and underwent histological analysis by light microscopy and were investigated using immunohistochemistry for S-100(+) dendritic cells. In G1, G2, and G3, the evaluations showed malignant tumors and the absence of S-100(+) dendritic cells in the tumor stroma. In G4, 60 % of the animals had no malignant tumors, and S-100(+) dendritic cells were present in the stroma of the tumors as well as dysplasia. In G5, 40 % of the animals presented SCC, with scarce or no S-100(+) dendritic cells. The imiquimod treatment played a direct effect on SCC, demonstrated by the increased number of S-100(+) dendritic cells, which could suggest an important role of immune surveillance against neoplastic proliferation. Furthermore, its association with laser needs to be further investigated.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Sep 1

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22941426

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-Level Laser Therapy and Sodium Diclofenac in Acute Inflammatory Response Induced by Skeletal Muscle Trauma: Effects in Muscle Morphology and mRNA Gene Expression of Inflammatory Markers.

de Almeida P, Lopes-Martins RA, Tomazoni SS, Albuquerque-Pontes GM, Santos LA, Vanin AA, Frigo L, Vieira RP, Albertini R, de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho P, Leal-Junior EC

Post Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Pharmacological therapy is widely used in the treatment of muscle injuries. On the other hand, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) arises as a promising nonpharmacological treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sodium diclofenac (topical application) and LLLT on morphological aspects and gene expression of biochemical inflammatory markers. We performed a single trauma in tibialis anterior muscle of rats. After 1 h, animals were treated with sodium diclofenac (11.6 mg g(-1) of solution) or LLLT (810 nm; continuous mode; 100 mW; 3.57 W cm(-2) ; 1, 3 or 9 J; 10, 30 or 90 s). Histological analysis and quantification of gene expression (real-time polymerase chain reaction-RT-PCR) of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were performed at 6, 12 and 24 h after trauma. LLLT with all doses improved morphological aspects of muscle tissue, showing better results than injury and diclofenac groups. All LLLT doses also decreased (P < 0.05) COX-2 compared to injury group at all time points, and to diclofenac group at 24 h after trauma. In addition, LLLT decreased (P < 0.05) TNF-alpha compared both to injury and diclofenac groups at all time points. LLLT mainly with dose of 9 J is better than topical application of diclofenac in acute inflammation after muscle trauma.

Photochem Photobiol 2012 Sep 1

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22937980

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser and light-emitting diode effects on pre-osteoblast growth and differentiation.

Pagin MT, de Oliveira FA, Oliveira RC, Sant’ana AC, de Rezende ML, Greghi SL, Damante CA

Bauru School of Dentistry, Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The acceleration of bone regeneration by low-intensity laser irradiation may hold potential benefits in clinical therapy in orthopedics and dentistry. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) and laser on pre-osteoblast MC3T3 proliferation and differentiation. Cells were irradiated with red, infrared, and LED (3 and 5 J/cm(2)). Lasers had a power density of 1 W/cm(2) and irradiation time of 2 and 5 s. LED had a power density of 60 mW/cm(2) and irradiation time of 50 and 83 s. Control group did not receive irradiation. Cell growth was assessed by a colorimetric test (MTT) (24, 48, 72, and 96 h), and cell differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) quantification after growth in osteogenic medium (72 and 96 h and 7 and 14 days). At 24 h, the cell growth was enhanced 3.6 times by LED (5 J/cm(2)), 6.8 times by red laser (3 J/cm(2)), and 10.1 times by red laser (5 J/cm(2)) in relation to control group (p < 0.05). At the other periods, there was no influence of irradiation on cell growth (p > 0.05). The production of ALP was not influenced by irradiation at any period of time (p > 0.05). Low-intensity laser and LED have similar effects on stimulation of cell growth, but no effect on cell differentiation.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Nov 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23179312

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Concurrence of emerging developments in photobiomodulation and cancer.

Santana-Blank L, Rodriguez-Santana E, Santana Rodriguez KE

Fundalas, Foundation Interdisciplinary for Research and Development Caracas , Venezuela .

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Nov 30(11) 615-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23050735

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy regulates microglial function through Src-mediated signaling pathways: implications for neurodegenerative diseases.

Song S, Zhou F, Chen WR

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science & Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, No, 55 Zhongshan Avenue West, Guangzhou, Tianhe District, 510631, China. zhouff@scnu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Activated microglial cells are an important pathological component in brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of He-Ne (632.8 nm, 64.6 mW/cm2) low-level laser therapy (LLLT), a non-damaging physical therapy, on activated microglia, and the subsequent signaling events of LLLT-induced neuroprotective effects and phagocytic responses. METHODS: To model microglial activation, we treated the microglial BV2 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For the LLLT-induced neuroprotective study, neuronal cells with activated microglial cells in a Transwell cell-culture system were used. For the phagocytosis study, fluorescence-labeled microspheres were added into the treated microglial cells to confirm the role of LLLT. RESULTS: Our results showed that LLLT (20 J/cm2) could attenuate toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated proinflammatory responses in microglia, characterized by down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression and nitric oxide (NO) production. LLLT-triggered TLR signaling inhibition was achieved by activating tyrosine kinases Src and Syk, which led to MyD88 tyrosine phosphorylation, thus impairing MyD88-dependent proinflammatory signaling cascade. In addition, we found that Src activation could enhance Rac1 activity and F-actin accumulation that typify microglial phagocytic activity. We also found that Src/PI3K/Akt inhibitors prevented LLLT-stimulated Akt (Ser473 and Thr308) phosphorylation and blocked Rac1 activity and actin-based microglial phagocytosis, indicating the activation of Src/PI3K/Akt/Rac1 signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The present study underlines the importance of Src in suppressing inflammation and enhancing microglial phagocytic function in activated microglia during LLLT stimulation. We have identified a new and important neuroprotective signaling pathway that consists of regulation of microglial phagocytosis and inflammation under LLLT treatment. Our research may provide a feasible therapeutic approach to control the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

J Neuroinflammation 2012 9 219

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22989325

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
This entry was posted in Research. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.