Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / Cold Laser Literature watch for July 2012

Here is July’s LLLT / cold laser literature watch and it’s a juicy one. 41 papers for you to review including several dental/oral applications, a systematic review on LLLT for OA (note how well the LED study performs), an amazing post hemilaminectomy pain study (a THOR study, I might add) and another TBI review from Mike Hamblin’s lab.

Analgesic effect of a low-level laser therapy (830 nm) in early orthodontic treatment.

Artes-Ribas M, Arnabat-Dominguez J, Puigdollers A

Dental School, International University of Catalunya, Campus Sant Cugat, Josep Trueta s/n, 08195-St. Cugat del Valles, Barcelona, Spain.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the pain sensation that orthodontic patients experience when elastic separators are placed between molars and premolars and to determine the degree of analgesic efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) compared to a placebo treatment. The study was conducted with 20 volunteers who were fitted with elastic separators between the maxillary molars and premolars. One quadrant was randomly chosen to be irradiated with an 830-nm laser, 100 mW, beam diameter of 7 mm, 250 mW/cm(2) applied for 20 s per point (5 J/cm(2)). Three points were irradiated in the buccal face and three were irradiated in the palate. The same procedure was applied in the contralateral quadrant with a placebo light. A visual analogue scale was used to assess pain 5 min, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after placement of the separators. Maximum pain occurred 6-24 h after placement of the elastic separators. Pain intensity was significantly lower in the laser-treated quadrant (mean, 7.7 mm) than in the placebo-treated quadrant (mean, 14.14 mm; p = 0.0001). LLLT at these parameters can reduce pain in patients following placement of orthodontic rubber separators.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jul 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22814893

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Low-level laser therapy reduces time to ambulation in dogs after hemilaminectomy: a preliminary study.

Draper WE, Schubert TA, Clemmons RM, Miles SA

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

OBJECTIVES: A prospective study to determine if low-level laser therapy and surgery for intervertebral disk herniation encourage ambulation faster than surgery alone. METHODS: Thirty-six dogs with acute paraparesis/paraplegia due to acute intervertebral disk herniation were evaluated and given a modified Frankel score. Dogs with scores 0 to 3 were included in the study. Dogs were assigned to the control group (1) or the laser treatment group (2) based on alternating order of presentation. All dogs underwent surgery for their herniated disk. Dogs in group 2 were treated postoperatively with low-level laser therapy daily for five days, or until they achieved a modified Frankel score of 4. A 5 x 200-mW 810-nm laser cluster array was used to deliver 5 W/cm(2) to the skin. All dogs were scored daily by the investigators using the modified Frankel scoring system. RESULTS: The time to achieve a modified Frankel score of 4 was significantly lower (P=0.0016) in the low-level laser therapy group (median 3.5 days) than the control group (median 14 days). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Low-level laser therapy in combination with surgery decreases the time to ambulation in dogs with T3-L3 myelopathy secondary to intervertebral disk herniation.

J Small Anim Pract 2012 Aug 53(8) 465-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22783835

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Transcranial low level laser (light) therapy for traumatic brain injury.

Huang YY, Gupta A, Vecchio D, Arce VJ, Huang SF, Xuan W, Hamblin MR

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, BAR414, 40 Blossom Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Aesthetic and Plastic Center of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

We review the use of transcranial low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) as a possible treatment for traumatic-brain injury (TBI). The basic mechanisms of LLLT at the cellular and molecular level and its effects on the brain are outlined. Many interacting processes may contribute to the beneficial effects in TBI including neuroprotection, reduction of inflammation and stimulation of neurogenesis. Animal studies and clinical trials of transcranial-LLLT for ischemic stroke are summarized. Several laboratories have shown that LLLT is effective in increasing neurological performance and memory and learning in mouse models of TBI. There have been case report papers that show beneficial effects of transcranial-LLLT in a total of three patients with chronic TBI. Our laboratory has conducted three studies on LLLT and TBI in mice. One looked at pulsed-vs-continuous wave laser-irradiation and found 10 Hz to be superior. The second looked at four different laser-wavelengths (660, 730, 810, and 980 nm); only 660 and 810 nm were effective. The last looked at different treatment repetition regimens (1, 3 and 14-daily laser-treatments). ((c) 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

J Biophotonics 2012 Jul 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22807422

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Proinflammatory cytokine levels in saliva in patients with burning mouth syndrome before and after treatment with low-level laser therapy.

Pezelj-Ribaric S, Kqiku L, Brumini G, Urek MM, Antonic R, Kuis D, Glazar I, Stadtler P

Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Brace Branchetta 20, Rijeka, Croatia, sonja.pezelj-ribaric@medri.hr.

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) cytokines in whole unstimulated saliva in subjects with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) before and after treatment with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). BMS is characterized by a continuous, painful burning sensation in a clinically normal-appearing oral mucosa. A sample consisting of 40 consecutive subjects was selected on a voluntary basis from the pool of patients who presented for diagnosis and treatment of BMS at the Oral Medicine Unit of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Rijeka. For determination of salivary levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6, ELISA (Sigma Immunochemicals, St. Louis, MO, USA) was performed to determine the salivary levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6. After 4 weeks of LLLT, the salivary levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the experimental group decreased significantly (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the experimental group regarding visual analogue scale.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jul 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22773117

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Influence of various laser therapy methods on knee joint pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Gworys K, Gasztych J, Puzder A, Gworys P, Kujawa J

Clinical Department of Rehabilitation for Adults, Medical University of Lodz.

Summary Background: The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of various laser therapy methods on knee joint pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Material and Methods: 125 patients were randomly assigned to 4 groups: * group I received one-wave laser irradiation (wave length 810 nm, dose 8 J/point) * group II received two-wave MLS laser irradiation (power 1100 mW, frequency 2000 Hz, dose 12.4 J/point) * group III received a similar regimen of two-wave MLS laser irradiation, but at a dose of 6.6 J per point * group IV was a placebo group where laser therapy procedures were simulated without actual irradiation. The effectiveness of the therapy was evaluated by means of Lequesne’s scale, a modified Laitinen questionnaire and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Statistical analysis utilised non-parametric Wilcoxon’s and Mann-Whitney’s tests. Calculations were carried out with MedCalc v. 11.6.1.0. Results: Statistically significant improvements in knee joint function and pain relief were seen in all groups (I, II and III). When groups I, II and III were compared, the largest improvement was found in group II (MLS laser, dose 12.4 J/point). The degrees of improvement in groups I and III were similar. Conclusions: One-wave laser irradiation at a dose of 8 J per point and two-wave laser irradiation with doses of 12.4 J and 6.6 J per point significantly improved knee joint function and relieved knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis.

Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2012 Jun 29 14(3) 269-77

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22764339

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Effect of low-level laser therapy after extraction of impacted lower third molars.

Ferrante M, Petrini M, Trentini P, Perfetti G, Spoto G

Dental Materials, Department of Oral Dental Diseases, University of Chieti-Italy, Via Vestini 31, 66013, Chieti, Italy, maurizio.ferrante@gmail.com.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the control of pain, swelling, and trismus associated with surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. Thirty patients were randomized into two treatment groups, each with 15 patients-group test (LLLT) and a group control (no-LLLT)-and were told to avoid any analgesics 12 h before the procedure. In group test, the 980-nm diode-laser (G-Laser 25 Galbiati, Italy) was applied, using a 600-mum handpiece, intraorally (lingual and vestibular) at 1 cm from the involved area and extraoral at the insertion point of the masseter muscle immediately after surgery and at 24 h. The group control received only routine management. Parameters used for LLLT were: continuous mode, at 300 mW (0.3 W) for a total of 180 s (60 s x 3) (0.3 W x 180 s = 54 J). Group test showed improvement in the interincisal opening and remarkable reduction of trismus, swelling and intensity of pain on the first and the seventh postoperative days. Although LLLT has been reported to prevent swelling and trismus following the removal of impacted third molars, some of these studies reported a positive laser effect while others did not. All references to the use of laser therapy in the postoperative management of third molar surgery employ different methodologies and, in some, explanations as to selection of their respective radiation parameters are not given. This study has demonstrated that LLLT, with these parameters, is useful for the reduction of postoperative discomfort after third-molar surgery.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jul 28

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22843310

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Comparative evaluation of low-level laser and CO(2) laser in treatment of patients with oral lichen planus.

Agha-Hosseini F, Moslemi E, Mirzaii-Dizgah I

Department of Oral Medicine/Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

A comparative evaluation of low-level laser and CO(2) laser therapies was performed, for the treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP). In a randomized open clinical trial, 28 patients with 57 lesions were randomly assigned to two groups. One group received CO(2) laser therapy, the other received low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for 5 sessions every other day. Participants were examined before the treatment, after 2 weeks, and at 1, 2 and 3 months, to assess the changes in sign and symptom scores. Improvements in size of lesions, in pain and clinical response scores were achieved in both groups. After 3 months, clinical response showed 100% and 85% partial to complete improvement in LLLT and CO(2) laser surgery, respectively. This demonstrates a quick and pronounced beneficial effect in controlling symptoms related to OLP. Both methods may be effective in the treatment of OLP, and can be used as alternative therapy alongside standard treatment modalities. The present study showed that LLLT displayed better results than CO(2) laser therapy as alternative or additional therapy, but further investigations in comparison with standard treatment modalities with a prolonged follow-up period will be necessary to confirm the efficacy of laser therapy in the treatment of OLP.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012 Jul 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22784653

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Efficiency of low-level laser therapy in reducing pain induced by orthodontic forces.

Bicakci AA, Kocoglu-Altan B, Toker H, Mutaf I, Sumer Z

1 Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cumhuriyet University , Sivas, Turkey .

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on reducing post-adjustment orthodontic pain via evaluation of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) composition changes at the level of prostaglandin-E(2) (PGE(2)) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Background data: LLLT has been found to be effective in pain relief. PGE(2) has the greatest impact on the process of pain signals and can be detected in GCF in order to investigate the response of dental and periodontal tissues in a biochemical manner. Materials and methods: Nineteen patients (11 females and 8 males; mean age 13.9 years) were included in this study. Maxillary first molars were banded and then a randomly selected first molar at one side was irradiated (lambda820 nm; continuous wave; output power: 50 mW; focal spot: 0.0314 cm(2); exposure duration: 5 sec; power density: 1.59 W/cm(2); energy dose: 0.25 J; energy density: 7.96 J/cm(2) for each shot), while the molar at the other side was served as placebo control. The GCF was collected from the gingival crevice of each molar to evaluate PGE(2) levels, before band placement, 1 and 24 h after laser irradiation. Pain intensity was analyzed at 5 min, 1 h, and 24 h after band placement by using VAS. Results: Although no difference was found in pain perception at 5 min and 1 h, significant reduction was observed with laser treatment 24 h after application (p
Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Aug 30(8) 460-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22775467

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Physical therapies for Achilles tendinopathy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sussmilch-Leitch SP, Collins NJ, Bialocerkowski AE, Warden SJ, Crossley KM

ABSTRACT: Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common condition, causing considerable morbidity in athletes and non-athletes alike. Conservative or physical therapies are accepted as the first line approach for management of AT. Despite a growing volume of research in AT, there remains a lack of high quality studies evaluating their efficacy. Previous systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence for non-surgical interventions for AT, but lack key quality components as outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) Statement. This study aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis (where possible) of the evidence for physical therapies for AT management. A comprehensive strategy was used to search 11 electronic databases from inception to September 13th 2011. Search terms included Achilles, tendinopathy, pain, physical therapies, electrotherapy and exercise (English language full-text publications, human studies). Reference lists of eligible papers were hand-searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they evaluated at least one non-pharmacological, non-surgical intervention for AT using at least one outcome of pain and/or function. Two independent reviewers screened 2852 search results, identifying 23 suitable studies. Two independent reviewers assessed methodological quality and risk of bias using a modified PEDro scale. One reviewer extracted study characteristics and data for effect size calculations. Methodological quality ranged from 2 to 12 (/14). Four studies were excluded due to high risk of bias, leaving 19 studies. Evidence from meta-analyses supports the use of shock wave therapy (SWT) for outcomes of pain and function (standardised mean difference -0.46, 95% confidence interval -0.88 to -0.04) and pain (-0.50, -0.90 to -0.10) at 16 weeks, and laser therapy (LT) with eccentric exercise at 12 weeks (-0.51, -0.95 to -0.06), but did not support the addition of night splints to eccentric exercise. Effect sizes from individual studies support the use of eccentric exercise, while limited evidence suggests microcurrent therapy to be an effective intervention. Practitioners should consider SWT and LT as initial interventions for AT, in conjunction with eccentric exercise. Further high-quality RCTs following CONSORT guidelines are required to establish the efficacy of other physical therapies and determine optimal clinical pathways for AT.

J Foot Ankle Res 2012 Jul 2 5(1) 15

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22747701

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Photobiomodulation: Poised from the Fringes.

Arany PR

Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University , Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Jul 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22779706

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[Near-infrared laser treatment of acute stroke : From bench to bedside].

Schellinger PD, Kohrmann M

Neurologische Klinik und Neurogeriatrie, Johannes Wesling Klinikum, Hans-Nolte-Str. 1, 32429, Minden, Deutschland, peter.schellinger@muehlenkreiskliniken.de.

Near-infrared laser therapy (NIRLT) as a transcranial laser therapy (TLT) is currently being investigated as a neuroreparatory and neuroprotective treatment for acute ischemic stroke patients in a pivotal phase III trial (NEST-3). In this review we cover the theoretical background, experimental studies, translational research and the clinical trial program.

Nervenarzt 2012 Aug 83(8) 966-74

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22801662

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Therapeutic modalities–an updated review for the hand surgeon.

Hartzell TL, Rubinstein R, Herman M

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Box 9569902, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-6902, USA. tristanhartzell@gmail.com

The number of therapeutic modalities available to the hand surgeon has greatly increased over the past several decades. A field once predicated only on heat, massage, and cold therapy now uses electrical stimulators, ultrasound, biofeedback, iontophoresis, phonophoresis, mirror therapy, lasers, and a number of other modalities. With this expansion in choices, there has been a concurrent effort to better define which modalities are truly effective. In this review, we aim to characterize the commonly used modalities and provide the evidence available that supports their continued use.

J Hand Surg Am 2012 Mar 37(3) 597-621

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22305724

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Prospects of using photostimulation of the visual analyzer in sports medicine.

Kozlovsky AP, Kuznetsova NV

All-Russian Institute of Physical Culture and Sports, Moscow, Russia. info@ecomed.ru.

Experimental studies of photostimulation of the visual analyzer by combinations of red, green, blue, and yellow colors in a pulsed mode were carried out. Significant improvement of a visual acuity is shown after photostimulation course in patients with macular degeneration and degenerative changes of the optic nerve.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2011 Dec 152(2) 236-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22808469

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Evaluation of human papillomavirus elimination from cervix uteri by infrared laser exposure.

Dymkovets VP, Ezhov VV, Manykin AA, Belov SV, Danileiko YK, Osiko VV, Salyuk VA

Moscow Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 52; A. M. Prokhorov Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences; D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia. an_manykin@mail.ru.

Elimination of types 16 and 18 human papilloma virus from the surface of cervix uteri for secondary prevention of cervical cancer was evaluated. The method is protected by patent of invention of the Russian Federation. Infrared laser therapy of cervix uteri was carried out in patients with precancer diseases of cervix uteri at Department of Gynecology of Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 52 (Moscow). Papillomavirus infection was eliminated using a Russian diode laser (lambda=1.06 mu, radiation power 10 W) with a collimating headpiece using carbon die at a distance of 10-12 cm from the exposed surface. The treatment resulted in a high percentage of elimination of types 16 and 18 oncogenic virus 4-6 weeks and during delayed periods after exposure.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2011 Dec 152(2) 228-30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22808467

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[Physiotherapy and physical therapies for fibromyalgia syndrome : Systematic review, meta-analysis and guideline].

Winkelmann A, Hauser W, Friedel E, Moog-Egan M, Seeger D, Settan M, Weiss T, Schiltenwolf M

Klinik und Poliklinik fur Physikalische Medizin und Rehabilitation, Klinikum der Universitat Munchen, Ziemssenstr. 1, 80336, Munchen, Deutschland, andreas.winkelmann@med.uni-muenchen.de.

BACKGROUND: The scheduled update to the German S3 guidelines on fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (“Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften”, AWMF; registration number 041/004) was planned starting in March 2011. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The development of the guidelines was coordinated by the German Interdisciplinary Association for Pain Therapy (“Deutsche Interdisziplinaren Vereinigung fur Schmerztherapie”, DIVS), 9 scientific medical societies and 2 patient self-help organizations. Eight working groups with a total of 50 members were evenly balanced in terms of gender, medical field, potential conflicts of interest and hierarchical position in the medical and scientific fields. Literature searches were performed using the Medline, PsycInfo, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases (until December 2010). The grading of the strength of the evidence followed the scheme of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The formulation and grading of recommendations was accomplished using a multi-step, formal consensus process. The guidelines were reviewed by the boards of the participating scientific medical societies. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Low-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise and strength training are strongly recommended. Chiropractic, laser therapy, magnetic field therapy, massage and transcranial current stimulation are not recommended. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under “Supplemental”).

Schmerz 2012 Jun 26(3) 276-86

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22760460

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Low-Level Laser Therapy Ameliorates CCl(4) -Induced Liver Cirrhosis in Rats.

Oliveira-Junior MC, Monteiro AS, Junior EC, Munin E, Osorio RA, Ribeiro W, Vieira RP

Post-graduation Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, Nove de Julho University, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

This study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the liver function, structure and inflammation in a experimental model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver cirrhosis. Wistar rats were divided into Control, LLLT, CCl(4) and CCl(4) +LLLT groups. CCl(4) groups received CCl(4) (0.4g/kg; i.p.), 3 times/week, during 12 weeks. A 830 nm LLLT was performed with a continuous wave, 35 mW,, 2.5 J/cm(2) per point, applied to 4 points of the liver (right and left upper and lower extremities, in the four lobes of the liver) for 2 weeks. Liver structure and inflammation (cirrhotic areas, collagen deposition, inflammation, density of kupffer and hepatic stellate cells), and function (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total proteins and globulins) were evaluated. LLLT significantly reduced CCl(4) -increased aspartate aminotransferase (p
Photochem Photobiol 2012 Jul 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22827550

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Assessment of the systemic effects of LLLT on thyroid hormone function in a rabbit model.

Fronza B, Somacal T, Mayer L, de Moraes JF, de Oliveira MG, Weber JB

Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to a dental extraction socket on thyroid gland function in a rabbit model, based on serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels. Sixteen male New Zealand rabbits were randomly distributed into two groups: a control group (non-irradiated animals) and an experimental group (irradiated animals: one irradiation point in the extraction socket of the lower incisor). Animals in the experimental group were irradiated with an aluminium gallium arsenide diode laser (AlGaAs; wavelength 830nm, 40mW, CW laser), for 13 days, every 48h, at a dose of 6J/cm(2) per session, resulting in a total dose of 42J/cm(2). Serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels were measured in both groups before extraction and on the last day of observation (day 15). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in pre- and post-irradiation triiodothyronine and thyroxine values. With the irradiation protocol used in this study, LLLT did not affect thyroid function in rabbits as assessed by circulating serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012 Jul 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22819694

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Effects of low-level laser therapy after nerve reconstruction in rat denervated soleus muscle adaptation.

Silva-Couto MA, Gigo-Benato D, Tim CR, Parizotto NA, Salvini TF, Russo TL

Physical Therapy Department, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil.

BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) rehabilitation remains a challenge for physical therapists because PNI effects are very disabling. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been described as a physical resource that is able to influence enzymes called metallopeptidases (MMPs) associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, thus accelerating neuromuscular recovery after nerve crush injuries. However, the effects of LLLT in the treatment of severe nerve injuries and denervated slow-twitch muscles are still inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different wavelengths and energy densities of LLLT irradiation, applied to a severe nerve injury after reconstruction, on denervated slow-twitch skeletal muscle adaptation. METHOD: Rats were submitted to a neurotmesis of the sciatic nerve followed by end-to-end neurorrhaphy. They received transcutaneous LLLT irradiation at the lesion site. The LLLT parameters were: wavelengths – 660 or 780 nm; energy densities – 10, 60 or 120 J/cm(2); power – 40 mW; spot – 4 mm(2). Sciatic functional index (SFI), histological, morphometric, and zymographic analyses were performed. One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test was used (p
Rev Bras Fisioter 2012 Jul 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22801450

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Near-Infrared Photobiomodulation in an Animal Model of Traumatic Brain Injury: Improvements at the Behavioral and Biochemical Levels.

Quirk BJ, Torbey M, Buchmann E, Verma S, Whelan HT

1 Medical College of Wisconsin , Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of near-infrared (NIR) light using an in-vivo rodent model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), controlled cortical impact (CCI), and to characterize changes at the behavioral and biochemical levels. Background data: NIR upregulates mitochondrial function, and decreases oxidative stress. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis are important in TBI. NIR enhanced cell viability and mitochondrial function in previous in-vitro TBI models, supporting potential NIR in-vivo benefits. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: severe TBI, sham surgery, and anesthetization only (behavioral response only). Cohorts in each group were administered either no NIR or NIR. They received two 670 nm LED treatments (5 min, 50 mW/cm(2), 15 J/cm(2)) per day for 72 h (chemical analysis) or 10 days (behavioral). During the recovery period, animals were tested for locomotor and behavioral activities using a TruScan device. Frozen brain tissue was obtained at 72 h and evaluated for apoptotic markers and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Results: Significant differences were seen in the TBI plus and minus NIR (TBI+/-) and sham plus and minus NIR (S+/-) comparisons for some of the TruScan nose poke parameters. A statistically significant decrease was found in the Bax pro-apoptotic marker attributable to NIR exposure, along with lesser increases in Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic marker and GSH levels. Conclusions: These results show statistically significant, preclinical outcomes that support the use of NIR treatment after TBI in effecting changes at the behavioral, cellular, and chemical levels.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Jul 13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22793787

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Electrophysiological Effects of Single Point Transcutaneous 650 and 808 nm Laser Irradiation of Rat Sciatic Nerve: A Study of Relevance for Low-Level Laser Therapy and Laser Acupuncture.

Chow R, Yan W, Armati P

Nerve Research Foundation, Brain and Mind Research Institute, The University of Sydney , Camperdown NSW, Australia .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of transcutaneous 650 nm and 808 nm laser irradiation (LI) to a single point overlying rat sciatic nerve; a comparison to four point LI and relevance to the clinical application of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and laser acupuncture (LA). Background data: Transcutaneous LI inhibits somatosensory and motor conduction when delivered to four points overlying sciatic nerve; however, effects of the same total energy delivered to a single point over the nerve, equating to laser acupuncture, are undefined. Methods: Transcutaneous 808 nm, 450 mW, (13.5 or 54 J) continuous wave (cw) mode or 650 nm, 35 mW, (1.1 or 4.4 J), cw LI or sham LI, was applied for 30 or 120 sec to a single point overlying the midpoint of rat sciatic nerve. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were then recorded after 10 and 20 min, and after 24 and 48 h. Results: 120 sec of 808 nm LI increased SSEP amplitudes only at 10 min, with no effect of 30 or 120 sec at other time points on SSEPs or on CMAPs. LI 650 nm for 30 or 120 sec did not alter SSEPs or CMAPs at any time point. Conclusions: Localized transcutaneous 808 LI to a single point overlying sciatic nerve increases SSEP amplitudes when compared with delivery of the same total energy to four points, which causes decreased SSEP amplitudes and conduction block. Therefore, the area and duration of delivery are important, independent variables with implications for clinical delivery of both LLLT and LA.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Jul 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22779441

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Effect of laser and LED phototherapies on the healing of cutaneous wound on healthy and iron-deficient Wistar rats and their impact on fibroblastic activity during wound healing.

Oliveira Sampaio SC, de C Monteiro JS, Cangussu MC, Pires Santos GM, Dos Santos MA, Dos Santos JN, Pinheiro AL

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, Salvador, BA, 40110-150, Brazil, susanasampaio2006@yahoo.com.br.

Iron deficiency impairs the formation of hemoglobin, red blood cells, as well the transport of oxygen. The wound healing process involves numerous functions, many of which are dependent on the presence of oxygen. Laser has been shown to improve angiogenesis, increases blood supply, cell proliferation and function. We aimed to study the effect of lambda660 nm laser and lambda700 nm light-emitting diode (LED) on fibroblastic proliferation on cutaneous wounds on iron-deficient rodents. Induction of iron anemia was carried out by feeding 105 newborn rats with a special iron-free diet. A 1 x 1 cm wound was created on the dorsum of each animal that were randomly distributed into seven groups: I, control anemic; II, anemic no treatment; III, anemic + L; IV, anemic + LED; V, healthy no treatment; VI, healthy + laser; VII, healthy + LED (n = 15 each). Phototherapy was carried out using either a diode laser (lambda660 nm, 40 mW, 10 J/cm(2)) or a prototype LED device (lambda700 +/- 20 nm, 15 mW, 10 J/cm(2)). Treatment started immediately after surgery and was repeated at 48-h interval during 7, 14, and 21 days. After animal death, specimens were taken, routinely processed, cut, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and underwent histological analysis and fibroblast counting. Significant difference between healthy and anemic subjects on regards the number of fibroblast between treatments was seen (p < 0.008, p < 0.001). On healthy animals, significant higher count was seen when laser was used (p < 0.008). Anemic subjects irradiated with LED showed significantly higher count (p < 0.001). It is concluded that the use of LED light caused a significant positive biomodulation of fibroblastic proliferation on anemic animals and laser was more effective on increasing proliferation on non-anemics.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jul 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22814898

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Effects of low-intensity laser therapy on periodontal tissue remodeling during relapse and retention of orthodontically moved teeth.

Kim SJ, Kang YG, Park JH, Kim EC, Park YG

Department of Orthodontics, Oral Biology Research Institute, Kyung Hee University School of Dentistry, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemoon-Ku, Seoul, 130-701, Korea.

This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) on periodontal ligament (PDL) remodeling during relapse and retention after the completion of orthodontic movement. The maxillary central incisors (n = 104) of the 52 rats were randomly divided into five groups according to the treatment modality: baseline control group without any intervention (n = 8); relapse group without retainer after tooth movement (n = 24); retention group with fixed retainer after tooth movement (n = 24); lased relapse group without retainer after tooth movement and LILT (n = 24); lased retention group with retainer after tooth movement and LILT (n = 24). LILT was daily performed using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser in a biostimulation mode: wavelength of 780 nm, continuous waves at 70 mW output power, a preset low intensity of 1.75 W/cm(2) in contact mode, resulting in energy dose of 5 J/cm(2) per irradiation for 3 s. The animals were euthanized on days 1, 3, and 7 after removal of the orthodontic appliance. Real-time RT-PCR was performed for quantitative analysis of matrix metalloproteinases mRNA expression. Immunoreactivities of collagen and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase were observed on the compression and tension sides. LILT significantly facilitated the expression of five tested MMP mRNAs in both relapse and retention groups. TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was inhibited by LILT in both groups, whereas Col-I immunoreactivity was increased by LILT only in the retention group. These results indicate that LILT would act differently on the stability after orthodontic treatment according to additional retainer wearing or not. LILT when combined with a retainer on the moved teeth may shorten the retention period by accelerating periodontal remodeling in the new tooth position, whereas, LILT on the moved teeth left without any retainer would rather increase the rate of relapse after treatment.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jul 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22814894

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In Vitro Wound Healing Improvement by Low-Level Laser Therapy Application in Cultured Gingival Fibroblasts.

Basso FG, Pansani TN, Turrioni AP, Bagnato VS, Hebling J, de Souza Costa CA

Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13414-903 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to determine adequate energy doses using specific parameters of LLLT to produce biostimulatory effects on human gingival fibroblast culture. Cells (3 x 10(4) cells/cm(2)) were seeded on 24-well acrylic plates using plain DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. After 48-hour incubation with 5% CO(2) at 37 degrees C, cells were irradiated with a InGaAsP diode laser prototype (LASERTable; 780 +/- 3 nm; 40 mW) with energy doses of 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, and 7 J/cm(2). Cells were irradiated every 24 h totalizing 3 applications. Twenty-four hours after the last irradiation, cell metabolism was evaluated by the MTT assay and the two most effective doses (0.5 and 3 J/cm(2)) were selected to evaluate the cell number (trypan blue assay) and the cell migration capacity (wound healing assay; transwell migration assay). Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney nonparametric tests with statistical significance of 5%. Irradiation of the fibroblasts with 0.5 and 3 J/cm(2) resulted in significant increase in cell metabolism compared with the nonrradiated group (P < 0.05). Both energy doses promoted significant increase in the cell number as well as in cell migration (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that, under the tested conditions, LLLT promoted biostimulation of fibroblasts in vitro.

Int J Dent 2012 2012 719452

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22844284

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The efficacy of the use of IR laser phototherapy associated to biphasic ceramic graft and guided bone regeneration on surgical fractures treated with wire osteosynthesis: a comparative laser fluorescence and Raman spectral study on rabbits.

Pinheiro AL, Santos NR, Oliveira PC, Aciole GT, Ramos TA, Gonzalez TA, da Silva LN, Barbosa AF, Silveira L Jr

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, Salvador, BA, 40110-150, Brazil, albp@ufba.br.

The aim of the present study was to assess, by Raman spectroscopy and laser fluorescence, the repair of surgical fractures fixed with wire osteosynthesis treated or not with infrared laser (lambda780 nm, 50 mW, 4 x 4 J/cm(2) = 16 J/cm(2), varphi = 0.5 cm(2), CW) associated or not to the use of hydroxyapatite and guided bone regeneration. Surgical tibial fractures were created under general anesthesia on 15 rabbits that were divided into five groups, maintained on individual cages, at day/night cycle, fed with solid laboratory pelted diet, and had water ad libitum. The fractures in groups II, III, IV, and V were fixed with wires. Animals in groups III and V were grafted with hydroxyapatite (HA) and guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique used. Animals in groups IV and V were irradiated at every other day during 2 weeks (4 x 4 J/cm(2), 16 J/cm(2) = 112 J/cm(2)). Observation time was that of 30 days. After animal death, specimens were taken and kept in liquid nitrogen and used for Raman spectroscopy. The Raman results showed basal readings of 1,234.38 +/- 220. Groups WO + B + L showed higher readings (1,680.22 +/- 822) and group WO + B the lowest (501.425 +/- 328). Fluorescence data showed basal readings of 5.83333 +/- 0.7. Groups WO showed higher readings (6.91667 +/- 0.9) and group WO + B + L the lowest (1.66667 +/- 0.5). There were significant differences between groups on both cases (p < 0.05). Pearson correlation was negative and significant (R ( 2 ) = -0.60; p < 0.001), and it was indicative that, when the Raman peaks of calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA) are increased, the level of fluorescence is reduced. It is concluded that the use of near-infrared lasertherapy associated to HA graft and GBR was effective in improving bone healing on fractured bones as a result of the increasing deposition of CHA measured by Raman spectroscopy and decrease of the organic components as shown by the fluorescence readings.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jul 26

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[Application of laser therapy in the physiotherapy of patients with multiple sclerosis].

Kubsik A, Klimkiewicz P, Woldanska-Okonska M

Klinika Rehabilitacji i Medycyny Fizykalnej, Oddzial Fizjoterapii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lodzi. anna.kubsik@wp.pl

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the nervous system, which main manifestations are disseminated demyelinated the changes in the central nervous system. The pathogenesis of this disease is still not known, the curative treatment is not possible. In connection with the alleged autoimmune genesis of MS patients are administered immunomodulatory drugs. Patients with multiple sclerosis suffer from a number of symptoms associated with this disease. The aim of this article is to present the main clinical symptoms characteristic of MS and to present biological effects of low-energy lasers used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Wiad Lek 2012 65(1) 55-61

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22827117

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[The effects of multi-mode audio frequency pulse modulating laser together with electrical stimulation on blood pressure and hemorrheology of the spontaneously hypertensive rats].

Gong W, Huang S, Si G, Zhang K, Chen Z

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

In order to explore new ways in restraining the ascending blood pressure, this paper reports a research on the effects of multi-mode audio frequency pulse modulating laser irradiation with electrical stimulation on the hemorrheology and blood pressure of the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Forty male SHR were randomly divided into four groups: Group A (control), Group B (treated with electrical stimulation on stomach 36 point (ST-36)), Group C (treated with low level pulse laser irradiation on Erjian acupuncture point), Group D (low level laser irradiation together with electrical stimulation on Erjian acupuncture point and ST-36). Laser irradiation lasted for 45 min/ day, while electrical stimulation lasted for 30 min/day. After 10 days’ treatment, we compared the hemorrheology and blood pressure of the rats in the four groups. The results were that values of hemorrheology in group A and group C were obviously improved compared with those in the other two groups. Meanwhile, the blood pressures in the three treated groups (B, C, and D) were lower than in the control group after the treatment, and the value of the rats in group A was the lowest. In conclusion, the treatment the laser irradiation combined with electrodes stimulation on spontaneously hypertensive rats brought better results of hemorrheology and blood pressure in the tested rats.

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2012 Jun 29(3) 415-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22826930

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Biomechanical effect of one session of low-level laser on the bone-titanium implant interface.

Boldrini C, de Almeida JM, Fernandes LA, Ribeiro FS, Garcia VG, Theodoro LH, Pontes AE

Master of Science Course, Educational Foundation of Barretos, UNIFEB, Rua Prof. Roberto Frade Monte 389, Bairro Aeroporto, 14783-226, Barretos, SP, Brazil.

Low-level laser (LLL) has been used on peri-implant tissues for accelerating bone formation. However, the effect of one session of LLL in the strength of bone-implant interface during early healing process remains unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the removal torque of titanium implants irradiated with LLL during surgical preparation of implant bed, in comparison to non-irradiation. Sixty-four Wistar rats were used. Half of the animals were included in LLL group, while the other half remained as control. All animals had the tibia prepared with a 2 mm drill, and a titanium implant (2.2 x 4 mm) was inserted. Animals from LLL group were irradiated with laser (gallium aluminum arsenide), with a wavelength of 808 nm, a measured power output of 50 mW, to emit radiation in collimated beams (0.4 cm(2)), for 1 min and 23 s, and an energy density of 11 J/cm(2). Two applications (22 J/cm(2)) were performed immediately after bed preparation for implant installation. Flaps were sutured, and animals from both groups were sacrificed 7, 15, 30, and 45 days after implant installation, when load necessary for removing implant from bone was evaluated by using a torquimeter. In both groups, torque values tended to increase overtime; and at 30 and 45 days periods, values were statistically higher for LLL group in comparison to control (ANOVA test, p < 0.0001). Thus, it could be suggested that a single session of irradiation with LLL was beneficial to improve bone-implant interface strength, contributing to the osseointegration process.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jul 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22825319

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Irradiation of 850-nm laser light changes the neural activities in rat primary visual cortex.

Wu XY, Mou ZX, Hou WS, Zheng XL, Yao JP, Shang GB, Yin ZQ

Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China.

Although infrared laser was proven to be an alternative approach for neural stimulation, there is very little known about the neural response to infrared laser irradiation in visual cortex. This study is to investigate the effect of near-infrared laser irradiation on neural activities at the cortex level. A 850-nm pigtailed diode laser was applied to stimulate the rat primary visual cortex while the horizontal black and white stripe pattern was used as standard visual stimulation to evoke visual-evoked potential (VEP). Both amplitude and latency of VEP P100 was measured with or without infrared pulse stimulation applied in rat primary visual cortex. Paired t test and one-way analysis of variance were used to evaluate the impact of infrared irradiation and its pulse width on the amplitudes and latencies of P100, respectively. The results from our preliminary study revealed that, the pulsed near-infrared laser depressed the VEP amplitude and shortened the latency of P100; with the increment of pulse width of infrared irradiation, further decline of VEP amplitude and much shortened latency of P100 were observed. The present work suggests that near-infrared laser irradiation can alter the neural activities in primary visual cortex transiently, and could provide a novel contactless artificial neural stimulus to brain cortex with high spatial selectivity.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jul 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22814897

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Antiphotoaging Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Irradiation on Narrow-Band Ultraviolet B-Exposed Cultured Human Skin Cells.

Tian YS, Kim NH, Lee AY

Department of Dermatology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea; College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002, Jilin, People’s Republic of China.

BACKGROUND: Antiaging effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been clinically demonstrated using one or two wavelengths. The mechanism is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine direct and indirect photobiomodulation effects of LEDs on narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB)-induced photoaging using seven different wavelengths alone or in combination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four LED wavelengths were chosen based on type I collagen and metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression. NB-UVB-irradiated fibroblasts or keratinocytes were irradiated using these four wavelengths. The expression of collagen and MMP-1 in fibroblasts with or without conditioned medium from LED-irradiated keratinocytes and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the LED-irradiated keratinocytes were examined. RESULTS: Irradiation with four wavelengths (630, 660, 830, and 850 nm) significantly increased the number of viable fibroblasts. These four wavelengths also increased type I collagen expression, particularly four combinations (630/830, 660/850, 630/850, and 660/830 nm). The fibroblasts cultured with the keratinocyte conditioned medium, particularly with a combination of 630/850 or 660/830 nm, increased collagen levels. Low tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and high transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) expression was detected in the LED-irradiated keratinocytes. CONCLUSION: The combination of 630/850- or 660/830-nm irradiation led to better direct and indirect antiphotoaging outcomes than single LED wavelengths in NB-UVB-irradiated cultured normal human skin cells.

Dermatol Surg 2012 Jul 16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22804869

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Effect of laser irradiation of donor blood on erythrocyte shape.

Baibekov IM, Ibragimov AF, Baibekov AI

Laboratory of Pathological Anatomy, V. Vakhidov Republican Specialized Center of Surgery, Ministry of Health Care of Uzbekistan Republic, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. baibekov@mail.ru.

Changes in erythrocyte shape in donor blood during storage and after irradiation with He-Ne laser and infrared laser were studied by scanning electron microscopy, thick drop express-method, and morphometry. It was found that laser irradiation delayed the appearance of erythrocytes of pathological shapes (echinocytes, stomatocytes, etc.) in the blood; He-Ne laser produced a more pronounced effect.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2012 Apr 152(6) 756-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22803182

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Zymographic and ultrastructural evaluations after low-level laser irradiation on masseter muscle of HRS/J strain mice.

Iyomasa MM, Rizzi EC, Leao JC, Issa JP, Dias FJ, Pereira YC, Fonseca MJ, Vicentini FT, Watanabe IS

Department of Morphology, Stomatology and Physiology, Faculty of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida do Cafe, s/n-Monte Alegre, 14040-904, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil, mamieiyo@forp.usp.br.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been widely used in the treatment of the stomatognathic system dysfunction; however, its biological effect remains poorly understood. This study evaluated the effect of LLLT (GaAlAs, 780 nm, 20 J/cm(2), 40 mW) on masseter muscle of HRS/J mice after different numbers of laser irradiations (three, six, and ten) for 20 s in alternate days. Three experimental groups were defined according to the number of laser irradiations and three control groups (n = 5) were used. On the third day after the last irradiation, all animals were killed and the masseter muscle was removed and processed for the following analysis: (a) transmission electron microscopy, (b) zymography, (c) immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGFR-2. The results showed: (a) with six laser applications, a dilation of T tubules, and sarcoplasmic reticulum cistern, increased pinocytosed vesicles in the endothelium; with ten laser applications, few pinocytic vesicles in the endothelium and condensed mitochondria. (b) Under the conditions of this study, the synthesis of other matrix metalloproteinases was not observed, only the MMP-2 and -9. (c) After ten laser irradiations, immunostaining was observed only for VEGFR-2. We conclude that after six laser applications, ultrastructural changes may facilitate the Ca(+2) transfer to cytosol and increase the fluid transport from one surface to another. The ultrastructural changes and no immunostaining for VEGF with ten applications may decrease the metabolic activity as well as damage the angiogenic process, suggesting that an effective number of laser applications may be less than ten, associating to this therapy a better cost-benefit.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jul 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22797825

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Effects of laser and LED radiation on mitochondrial respiration in experimental endotoxic shock.

Buravlev EA, Zhidkova TV, Vladimirov YA, Osipov AN

Department of Medical Biophysics, NI Pirogov Russian State Medical University, 1 Ostrovityanov str., 117997, Moscow, Russia, evgenii.sci@gmail.com.

Effects of low-level laser therapy (442 and 532 nm) and LED radiation (650 nm) on mitochondrial respiration in experimental endotoxic shock have been studied. A model of experimental endotoxic shock in rats was obtained by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide B. It was found that low-level laser therapy and LED radiation dramatically affected the rate of mitochondrial respiration in third and fourth states both in LPS-treated animals and in control experiments. The maximal increase of the mitochondrial respiration rate (of about 40 %) in LPS-treated animals was observed when blue laser was applied at the dose of 6 J/cm(2). Measurements of inner mitochondrial membrane surface potential with fluorescence probe JC-1 in LPS-treated rats showed in approximately 10 % decrease of potential in LPS-treated animals compared to control.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jul 14

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A comparison of the low-level laser versus low intensity pulsed ultrasound on new bone formed through distraction osteogenesis.

Kocyigit ID, Coskunses FM, Pala E, Tugcu F, Onder E, Mocan A

1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kirikkale University Faculty of Dentistry , Kirikkale, Turkey .

Abstract Objective: To assess and compare the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation (LIPUS) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the bone mineral density (BMD) of bone formed through distraction osteogenesis (DO) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Background data: LIPUS and LLLT are noninvasive supporting treatment concepts used for wound healing. LIPUS has been used to accelerate bone healing through the therapeutic effect arising from piezoelectric and angiogenetic effects on cell membranes. LLLT known as “photobiomodulation” is used in the treatment of soft and hard tissue injuries. Methods: The study was conducted with 15 New Zealand rabbits randomly divided into three groups of 5 according to treatment, as follows: Group A: DO was performed with no further treatment; Group B: DO was performed followed by 30 mW/cm(2) LIPUS at 1 Mhz for 20 min/day during the distraction period; Group C: DO was performed followed by 25 mW/cm(2) LLLT at 650 nm for 10 min/day during the distraction period. DEXA was used to examine the treated areas prior to surgery and at 30 and 60 days postoperatively. Results: In the control group, the mean BMD values at both 30 and 60 days postoperatively were below the baseline level, whereas they were above at the same time intervals in the LIPUS group. In the LLLT group, the mean BMD value at 30 days postoperatively was below the baseline level, whereas it was above the baseline level at 60 days postoperatively. Conclusions: LIPUS and LLLT applied during the distraction period accelerated the DO treatment.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Aug 30(8) 438-43

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22779421

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The effect of monochromatic infrared energy on diabetic wound healing.

He Y, Yip SL, Cheung KK, Huang L, Wang S, Cheing GL

Y He, MMed, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (SAR), China, Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University College of Medicine, Xi’an, China SLY Yip, MSc, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (SAR), China K-K Cheung, PhD, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (SAR), China L Huang, PhD, Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (SAR), China S Wang, PhD, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (SAR), China, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical School of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China GLY Cheing, PhD, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (SAR), China.

This study examined the effect of monochromatic infrared energy (MIRE) on diabetic wound healing. Fifteen diabetic rats were given MIRE intervention on their skin wounds located on the dorsum and compared with 15 control diabetic rats. Assessments were conducted for each group at weeks 1, 2 and 4 postwounding (five rats at each time point) by calculating the percentage of wound closures (WCs) and performing histological and immunohistochemical staining on sections of wound tissue. Evaluations of WCs and histological examinations of reepithelialisation, cellular content and granulation tissue formation showed no significant difference between the MIRE and the control group at each time point. Through semi-quantitative immunohistochemical staining, the deposition of type I collagen in the MIRE group was found to have improved when compared with the control group at the end of week 2 (P = 0.05). No significant differences in myofibroblast population were detected between the two groups. In conclusion, MIRE appeared to promote collagen deposition in the early stage of wound healing in diabetic rats, but the overall wound healing in the MIRE group was not significantly different from that of the control group.

Int Wound J 2012 Jul 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22776615

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Effect of 635 nm Light-Emitting Diode Irradiation on Intracellular Superoxide Anion Scavenging Independent of the Cellular Enzymatic Antioxidant System.

Lim W, Kim J, Lim C, Kim S, Jeon S, Karna S, Cho M, Choi H, Kim O

1 Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University , Bug-Gu, Gwangju, Korea.

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are dissipated by 635 nm irradiation, and the effect of 635 nm irradiation on ROS scavenging system. Background data: Intracellular ROS are produced in the form of superoxide anion by either nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase or xanthine oxidase in response to a number of stimuli. Low-level light irradiation decreases the intracellular ROS level and has been used in clinical situations for reducing the level of oxidative stress. Methods: Human epithelial cells were exposed to exogenous and endogenous oxidizing agents that promote the generation of harmful ROS. These were then irradiated with 635 nm LED light, 5 mW/cm(2) for 1 h, 18 J/cm(2) or by 470 nm LED light, also 5 mW/cm(2) for 1 h, 18 J/cm(2) on a 9 cm cell culture dish. After irradiation, the MTT reduction method and malondialdehyde (MDA) colorimetric assay were performed in xanthine/xanthine oxidase (XXO)- or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-treated HaCaT cells. The superoxide anion was detected by an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the spin trap and H(2)O(2) was assayed by flow cytometry using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCF-DA). Results: Irradiation at 635 nm enhanced cell viability in the XXO-treated HaCaT cells. Also, irradiation had a much lesser effect on cell viability in the HaCaT cells treated with exogenous H(2)O(2) as compared with that in cells treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. The level of the superoxide anion increased in response to XXO treatment, and then decreased after 635 nm irradiation. Irradiation with 635 nm led to a decrease in superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation levels in the presence or absence of diethyldithiocarbamate. Conclusions: These results highlight the potential role of 635 nm irradiation in protection against oxidative stress by scavenging superoxide anions. Also, a pathway that is independent of the activities of intracellular enzymatic ROS scavengers, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase might be involved in its mechanism of action.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Aug 30(8) 451-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22775489

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Bone Healing Effects of Diode Laser (808 nm) on a Rat Tibial Fracture Model.

Son J, Kim YB, Ge Z, Choi SH, Kim G

Associate Professor, DVM, Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Cheongju, 361-763, South Korea. ghkim@cbu.ac.kr.

Low level laser therapies (LLLT) have analgesic, vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the effects of LLLT with a diode laser (808 nm) device on the healing of the rat tibial fracture. Forty eight, 8-week-old, male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. After creating the tibial fracture model, the animals were randomly divided into laser and control groups. The animals were euthanized for histopathological and radiological evaluation. The biomechanical strength of the fractures was evaluated using a bending test. The histopathological and radiological evaluations suggested that the laser group developed new bone formations much earlier than those of the control group. The maximum tolerance force of the laser group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p
In Vivo 2012 Jul 26(4) 703-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22773585

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Experimental study of the effects of low-intensity monochromatic photodiode radiation and antitumor efficiency of cyclophosphamide injected with autoblood.

Sheiko EA, Shikhlyarova AI, Maryanovskaya GIa, Kurkina TA, Leonteva DV

Cancer Research Institute, Federal Agency for Health Care and Social Development, Rostov-on-Don, Russia. esheiko@inbox.ru

Experimental study of extracorporeal exposure of autoblood to red monochromatic photodiode radiation for improving antitumor efficiency of cyclophosphamide injected with autoblood was carried out on the model of sarcoma 45 cells ectopically transplanted to the lungs. Co-incubation of irradiated autoblood with cyclophosphamide and reinfusion of the blood to animals increased the antitumor efficiency of chemotherapy in animals with tumors.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2011 May 151(1) 58-61

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22442803

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Low level laser effect after micro-marsupialization technique in treating ranulas and mucoceles: a case series report.

Amaral MB, Freitas IZ, Pretel H, Abreu MH, Mesquita RA

Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31.270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, marciobrunoamaral@yahoo.com.br.

The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the influence of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in alleviating pain caused by micro-marsupialization and the healing of oral ranulas and selected mucoceles. Eleven patients underwent micro-marsupialization treatment associated with LLLT. The patients were irradiated with a 660-nm continuous wave from an indium-gallium-arsenide-phosphorous (InGaAsP) diode laser, at 100 mW, with a spot size on the tissue surface of 0.0283 cm(2) (irradiance = 3.53 W/cm(2)). Irradiation was carried out immediately following micro-marsupialization treatment, as well as at 24, 48, and 72 h post-micro-marsupialization. All treated oral ranulas and selected mucoceles presented clinical healing. No evidence of recurrence could be identified during a mean of 11.0-month follow-up period. The use of InGaAsP diode lasers, within the parameters tested, appears to present a good alternative treatment to reduce pain and heal oral ranulas and selected mucoceles associated with micro-marsupialization.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Jul 28

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22843311

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[The use of light-emitting diode photomatrix red-light irradiation in patients with cervical dorsopathy].

Seleznev AN, Savin AA, Koltygina AS, Savin LA, Savel’eva NA

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2012 112(1) 94-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22678684

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Questions regarding low-level laser therapy article.

Spielholz NI

Fort Lauderdale, Fla.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012 Jul 142(1) 3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22748981

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Invited commentary.

Mallet RT, Olivencia-Yurvati AH

Department of Integrative Physiology, and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd, Fort Worth, TX 76107-2699, USA. robert.mallet@unthsc.edu

Ann Thorac Surg 2012 Apr 93(4) 1186-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22450071

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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2 Responses to Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / Cold Laser Literature watch for July 2012

  1. Asha MK Lakshmanan says:

    How much does a use at home unit for pain relief and general health cost?

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