A new record for LLLT: THOR Literature watch for January 2013 Low Level Laser Therapy / Cold Laser / Photobiomodulation PBM

56 new abstracts in one month. This must be a record for new LLLT papers indexed by pubmed in a single month. These include a study on healthy humans showing that transcranial LLLT applied to the frontal cortex improves attention, memory and mood. There are three systematic reviews (TMJD, lateral epicondylitis & dentin hypersensitivity) and clinical trials on TMJD, allergic rhinitis, OA, oral mucositis, cartilage repair, three on orthodontic pain and several papers on primary / secondary reactions, downstream (cellular) effects and  some in-vivo studies.

Transcranial infrared laser stimulation produces beneficial cognitive and emotional effects in humans.

Barrett DW, Gonzalez-Lima F

Department of Psychology and Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

This is the first controlled study demonstrating the beneficial effects of transcranial laser stimulation on cognitive and emotional functions in humans. Photobiomodulation with red to near-infrared light is a novel intervention shown to regulate neuronal function in cell cultures, animal models, and clinical conditions. Light that intersects with the absorption spectrum of cytochrome oxidase was applied to the forehead of healthy volunteers using the laser diode CG-5000, which maximizes tissue penetration and has been used in humans for other indications. We tested whether low-level laser stimulation produces beneficial effects on frontal cortex measures of attention, memory and mood. Reaction time in a sustained-attention psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) was significantly improved in the treated (n=20) vs. placebo control (n=20) groups, especially in high novelty-seeking subjects. Performance in a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) memory task showed also a significant improvement in treated vs. control groups as measured by memory retrieval latency and number of correct trials. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS-X), which tracks self-reported positive and negative affective (emotional) states over time, was administered immediately before treatment and 2weeks after treatment. The PANAS showed that while participants generally reported more positive affective states than negative, overall affect improved significantly in the treated group due to more sustained positive emotional states as compared to the placebo control group. These data imply that transcranial laser stimulation could be used as a non-invasive and efficacious approach to increase brain functions such as those related to cognitive and emotional dimensions. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation has also been proven to be safe and successful at improving neurological outcome in humans in controlled clinical trials of stroke. This innovative approach could lead to the development of non-invasive, performance-enhancing interventions in healthy humans and in those in need of neuropsychological rehabilitation.

Neuroscience 2013 Jan 29 230 13-23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23200785

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser Therapy of Recurrent Aphthous Ulcer in Patient with HIV Infection.

Caputo BV, Noro Filho GA, Dos Santos CC, Okida Y, Giovani EM

Paulista University (Unip), 1212 Dr. Bacelar Street, Vila Clementino, 04026-002 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is a pathological change found in the oral mucosa, characterized by painful single or multiple ulcers. The etiologic aspect of RAU is not well understood; however it is known that due to lower CD4 cell counts patients had higher prevalence of these oral lesions, and immunosuppressed patients with HIV are predisposed. Patient FC is African descent, 26 years old, male, HIV + CD4 67 cells/mm(3), with minor RAU in the upper and lower right side lip, measuring about 4 mm, and major RAU in tongue and the tonsillar pillar measuring 2 cm. The patient was treated with laser therapy with the objective to help reverse the damage and decrease the symptoms. After one week there was remission of the lesions. The laser showed to be an important alternative therapy that promoted analgesic, healing effects and improving the quality of life of patients.

Case Report Med 2012 2012 695642

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23346114

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of low-level laser therapy on pain levels in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review.

Maia ML, Bonjardim LR, Quintans Jde S, Ribeiro MA, Maia LG, Conti PC

Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, SE, Brazil.

Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are characterized by the presence of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and/or masticatory muscle pain and dysfunction. Low-level laser is presented as an adjuvant therapeutic modality for the treatment of TMD, especially when the presence of inflammatory pain is suspected. Objective: To systematically review studies that investigated the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the pain levels in individuals with TMD. Material and Methods: The databases Scopus, embase, ebsco and PubMed were reviewed from January/2003 to October/2010 with the following keywords: laser therapy, low-level laser therapy, temporomandibular joint disorders, temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome, temporomandibular joint, temporomandibular, facial pain and arthralgia, with the inclusion criteria for intervention studies in humans. exclusion criteria adopted were intervention studies in animals, studies that were not written in english, Spanish or Portuguese, theses, monographs, and abstracts presented in scientific events. Results: After a careful review, 14 studies fit the criteria for inclusion, of which, 12 used a placebo group. As for the protocol for laser application, the energy density used ranged from 0.9 to 105 J/cm(2), while the power density ranged from 9.8 to 500 mW. The number of sessions varied from 1 to 20 and the frequency of applications ranged from daily for 10 days to 1 time per week for 4 weeks. A reduction in pain levels was reported in 13 studies, with 9 of these occurring only in the experimental group, and 4 studies reporting pain relief for both the experimental group and for the placebo. Conclusion: Most papers showed that LLLT seemed to be effective in reducing pain from TMD. However, the heterogeneity of the standardization regarding the parameters of laser calls for caution in interpretation of these results. Thus, it is necessary to conduct further research in order to obtain a consensus regarding the best application protocol for pain relief in patients with TMD.

J Appl Oral Sci 2012 Dec 20(6) 594-602

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23329239

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

A Comparative Pilot Study of Symptom Improvement Before and After Phototherapy in Korean Patients with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis.

Lee HM, Park MS, Park IH, Lee SH, Lee SK, Kim KS, Choi H

Medical Devices Clinical Trial Center, Guro Hospital, Korea University, Seoul, Korea; Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

Although allergic rhinitis is not life threatening, it significantly influences the quality of a patient’s life. This study is intended to evaluate the safety and efficacy of phototherapy with low-level energy of a 650 nm laser irradiation system in perennial allergic rhinitis patients. This clinical trial was an open-label, single-center study with 42 perennial allergic rhinitis subjects. Following laser irradiation in the nasal cavity with a laser irradiation system, the efficacy at weeks 1 through 4 was determined. The symptoms were scored with four parameters (nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, sneezing and itching) before and after illumination of the laser, and the total score was recorded. A survey of Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) was conducted by patients before and after treatment. Following treatment, significant improvement in the clinical symptoms of nasal obstruction (P < 0.001), rhinorrhea (P = 0.005), sneezing (P = 0.001) and itching (P = 0.003) was reported by 68% of perennial allergic rhinitis patients. The overall RQLQ scores significantly improved by 45% from the baseline with the treatment after 4 weeks. These results indicate that phototherapy is an effective modality for treating perennial allergic rhinitis and is another option in the steroid-free management of immune-mediated mucosal diseases.

Photochem Photobiol 2012 Dec 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23253070

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Treatment of human cartilage defects by means of Nd:YAG Laser Therapy.

Zati A, Desando G, Cavallo C, Buda R, Giannini S, Fortuna D, Facchini A, Grigolo B

Department of Rehabilitation and Functional Recovery, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy.

Articular cartilage lesions represent a challenging problem for orthopaedic surgeons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new pulsed Nd:YAG High Intensity Laser Therapy on the regeneration of cartilage tissue in patients with traumatic lesions. Clinical, histological and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed. Ten patients affected by chondral lesions scheduled for ACI procedure, were enrolled into the study. During the chondrocyte expansion for ACI procedure, cartilage from five patients was treated by Nd:YAG High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT group). No laser treatment was performed in the remaining patients, who were used as controls. Cartilage repair was assessed by clinicians using two different scores: Cartilage Repair Assessment (CRA) and Overall Repair Assessment (ORA). Cartilage biopsy specimens were harvested to perform histological and immunohistochemical analyses at T0 (before laser treatment) and T1 (at the end of the treatment). A significant decrease in cartilage depth was noticed in the HILT group at T1. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluations showed some regenerative processes in cartilaginous tissue in terms of high amount of proteoglycans, integration with adjacent articular cartilage and good cellular arrangement in the HILT group. By contrast, a not well organized cartilaginous tissue with various fibrous features in the control group at T0 and T1 was observed. In conclusion, the use of this new pulsed Nd:YAG HILT resulted promising in the treatment of moderate cartilage lesions markedly in the young patients.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2012 Oct-Dec 26(4) 701-11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23241120

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of frequent laser irradiation on orthodontic pain.

Kim WT, Bayome M, Park JB, Park JH, Baek SH, Kook YA

a Former graduate student, Graduate School of Clinical Dental Science, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract Objective: To analyze the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on perception of pain after separator placement and compare it with perceptions of control and placebo groups using a frequent irradiation protocol. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients were randomly allocated to a laser group, a light-emitting diode (LED) placebo group, or a control group. Elastomeric separators were placed on the first molars. In the laser and LED groups, first molars were irradiated for 30 seconds every 12 hours for 1 week using a portable device. Pain was marked on a visual analog scale at predetermined intervals. Repeated measure analysis of variance was performed for statistical analysis. Results: The pain scores of the laser group were significantly lower than those of the control group up to 1 day. The pain scores in the LED group were not significantly different from those of the laser group during the first 6 hours. After that point, the pain scores of the LED group were not significantly different from those of the control. Conclusions: Frequent LLLT decreased the perception of pain to a nonsignificant level throughout the week after separator placement, compared with pain perception in the placebo and control groups. Therefore, LLLT might be an effective method of reducing orthodontic pain.

Angle Orthod 2012 Dec 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23241006

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of low-level laser therapy on pain following activation of orthodontic final archwires: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Dominguez A, Velasquez SA

Department of Orthodontics, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia. angela.dominguezc@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of GaAlAs laser light to reduce pain induced by post-adjustment orthodontic final archwire, compared with a placebo control group, and also to evaluate if there are differences in pain gradient when conventional brackets or self-ligating brackets are used for orthodontic treatment. BACKGROUND DATA: Previous reports indicate that laser therapy is a safe and efficient alternative to alleviate pain caused in the initial stages of treatment, but there are no studies about its efficacy during the last stages of orthodontic treatment. METHODS: The initial sample was 60 orthodontic patients from a private practice, treated by straight wire technique, 30 of them with mini brackets Equilibrium((R)) (Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany) and 30 with self-ligation In-Ovation C((R)) (GAC/Dentsply, Tokyo, Japan) slot 0.022 inch brackets. The archwires used in the final stage of orthodontic treatment were stainless steel 0.019×0.025 inch, slot 0.022 inch in both groups. In a design of divided mouth, the dental arches were randomly assigned to receive one dental arch irradiation with 830 nm 100mW therapeutic laser (Photon Lase II), for 22 sec (2.2 J, 80 J/cm(2)) along the vestibular surface and 22 sec (2.2 J, 80 J/cm(2)) along the palatal surface of the root in the randomly selected arch. The opposite dental arch received placebo treatment, with the laser light off. Pain was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS) after 2, 6, and 24 h, and 2, 3, and 7 days of application. RESULTS: The time course of pain showed the same tendency in both groups, reaching a peak 24 h after the archwire activation. The application of laser therapy reduced pain for any period of time up to 7 days (p<0.00001) and for any kind of bracket. CONCLUSIONS: Low intensity laser application reduces pain induced by archwires used during the final stage of orthodontic treatment, without any interference regarding the kind of bracket, as reported by patients.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Jan 31(1) 36-40

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23240876

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Intranasal phototherapy versus azelastine in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.

Albu S, Baschir S

II-nd Department of Otolaryngology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Electronic address: silviualbu63@gmail.com.

OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that intranasal phototherapy represents an alternative choice in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). Our aim was to compare the efficacy of intranasal phototherapy with that of azelastine in patients with SAR. METHODS: Seventy seven patients were randomly assigned to the two treatment groups: Group A (phototherapy) and Group B (azelastine). Subjective and objective outcomes were represented by changes in Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS), Quality of life scores (Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire – RQLQ), and nasal resistance. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that both azelastine and intranasal phototherapy are able to significantly improve TNSS, including individual nasal symptoms. Nevertheless, phototherapy reduced nasal obstruction better than azelastine (p=0.038). Both treatments were highly effective in improving RQLQ scores overall and in seven separate domains. CONCLUSION: Whether intranasal phototheraphy will be a standard treatment of SAR or not should be appraised in future studies and clinical trials.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2012 Dec 7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23228884

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of low-level laser therapy on patient reported measures of oral mucositis and quality of life in head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy-a randomized controlled trial.

Gautam AP, Fernandes DJ, Vidyasagar MS, Maiya AG, Nigudgi S

Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India, ajayphysio@gmail.com.

PURPOSE: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT)-induced oral mucositis (OM) adversely affects a patient’s oral functions and quality of life (QOL). Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) showed some preventive and curative effects against clinically reported objective measures of OM in few trials including our recently published study. There is dearth of evidence regarding the effects of LLLT on patient’s subjective experience of OM and QOL. Hence, we did this study to evaluate the effects of LLLT on a patient’s reported measures of OM and QOL in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving CRT. METHODS: This triple blinded study randomized 220 HNC patients scheduled for CRT (three weekly Cisplatin + RT = 66 Gray (2 Gy/session), five fractions/week for 6.5 weeks, total 33 fractions) into laser (110) and placebo (110) groups. The laser group received LLLT (Technomed Electronics Advanced Laser Therapy 1000, He-Ne, lambda = 632.8 nm, power density = 24 mW/cm(2), dosage = 3.0 J at each point, total dose/session = 36-40 J, spot size 1 cm(2), irradiation time/point 125 s) before each radiation session, while the placebo group did not receive laser therapy. Methodology was similar to our recently published study (Gautam et al. Radiother Oncol 104:349-354, 2012). In this part of our study, a blinded assessor collected subjective outcomes of the patient’s reported measures of OM using Oral Mucositis Weekly Questionnaire-Head and Neck (OMWQ-HN) and QOL using Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment-Head and Neck (FACT-HN) Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA through general linear model. Statistical significance was kept at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Results analysis revealed that OMWQ-HN (F = 12.199, df = 6,1314, p < 0.001) and FACT-HN (p < 0.05) scores were significantly lower in LLLT than placebo group patients. Also, a significant reduction (p < 0.001) in incidence of severe OM, need for opioid analgesics, and total parenteral nutrition was observed. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT was effective in improving the patient’s subjective experience of OM and QOL in HNC patients receiving CRT.

Support Care Cancer 2012 Dec 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23224689

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Evaluation of orofacial function in temporomandibular disorder patients after low-level laser therapy.

Gokcen-Rohlig B, Kipirdi S, Baca E, Keskin H, Sato S

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University , Istanbul , Turkey.

Abstract Objective. To evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on occlusal contact area, occlusal pressure and bite force in temporomandibular disorder patients. Patients and method. Twenty patients (14 women, six men, mean age 33.1 +/- 3.8 years) diagnosed with myofascial pain according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorder (RDC/TMD) participated in the study. Twenty healthy individuals, matched in age and gender, served as a control group. Low-level laser was applied to the mastication muscles three times per week, for a total of 10 sessions. The mandibular mobility range was evaluated. The maximum bite force, occlusal contact area and occlusal pressure were measured bilaterally with a dental pre-scale before and after treatment. All variables were analyzed descriptively. Changes in the masticatory muscle tenderness, mandibular movements, maximum bite force, occlusal contact area and occlusal pressure were compared by paired-sample Student’s t-tests. Results. There was a significant increase in the pressure pain threshold of the examined muscles. Mandibular movements were significantly improved in all patients. There was also a significant decrease in pain by palpation after laser exposure. However, no significant change was found in the maximum bite force, occlusal contact area or occlusal pressure after the treatment and also the values after the treatment were still significantly lower than those of the healthy individuals. Conclusion. This particular type of LLLT is effective at relieving pain but does not provide physical improvement.

Acta Odontol Scand 2012 Dec 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23210731

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The efficacy of low-level laser therapy for the treatment of myogenous temporomandibular joint disorder.

Ahrari F, Madani AS, Ghafouri ZS, Tuner J

Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, AhrariF@mums.ac.ir.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been commonly used for the treatment of painful musculoskeletal conditions, but the results of previous studies on this subject are controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of LLLT in the management of patients with myogenic temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 20 patients with myogenic TMD were randomly divided into laser and placebo groups. In the laser group, a pulsed 810-nm low-level laser (average power 50 mW, peak power 80 W, 1,500 Hz, 120 s, 6 J, and 3.4 J/cm(2) per point) was used on painful muscles three times a week for 4 weeks. In the placebo group, the treatment was the same as that in the laser group, but without energy output. The patients were evaluated before laser therapy (T1), after six sessions of laser application (T2), at the end of treatment (T3), and 1 month after the last application (T4), and the level of pain and the amount of mouth opening were measured. There was a significant increase in mouth opening and a significant reduction of pain symptoms in the laser group (p < 0.05). A similar improvement was not observed in the placebo group (p > 0.05). Between-group comparisons revealed no significant difference in pain intensity and mouth opening measurement at any of the evaluation time points (p > 0.05). LLLT can produce a significant improvement in pain level and mouth opening in patients affected with myogenic TMD.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jan 15

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23318917

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Evidence for the effectiveness of electrophysical modalities for treatment of medial and lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review.

Dingemanse R, Randsdorp M, Koes BW, Huisstede BM

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine and Physical Therapy, Erasmus Medical Center-University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

BACKGROUND: Several treatments are available to treat epicondylitis. Among these are instrumental electrophysical modalities, ranging from ultrasound, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to laser therapy, commonly used to treat epicondylitis. OBJECTIVES: To present an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of electrophysical modality treatments for both medial and lateral epicondylitis (LE). METHODS: Searches in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Pedro were performed to identify relevant randomised clinical trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarise the results. RESULTS: A total of 2 reviews and 20 RCTs were included, all of which concerned LE. Different electrophysical regimes were evaluated: ultrasound, laser, electrotherapy, ESWT, TENS and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy. Moderate evidence was found for the effectiveness of ultrasound versus placebo on mid-term follow-up. Ultrasound plus friction massage showed moderate evidence of effectiveness versus laser therapy on short-term follow-up. On the contrary, moderate evidence was found in favour of laser therapy over plyometric exercises on short-term follow-up. For all other modalities only limited/conflicting evidence for effectiveness or evidence of no difference in effect was found. CONCLUSIONS: Potential effectiveness of ultrasound and laser for the management of LE was found. To draw more definite conclusions high-quality RCTs examining different intensities are needed as well as studies focusing on long-term follow-up results.

Br J Sports Med 2013 Jan 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23335238

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The effect of 810-nm low-level laser therapy on pain caused by orthodontic elastomeric separators.

Eslamian L, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Hassanzadeh-Azhiri A, Badiee MR, Fekrazad R

Dentofacial Deformities Research Center, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 810-nm (DMC Equipamentos, Sao Carlos, Brazil) continuous wave low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the pain caused by orthodontic elastomeric separators. Thirty-seven orthodontic patients (12 male and 25 female, aged 11-32 years, mean age = 24.97 years) participated in the study, including 20 subjects aged 18 years or more, and 17 under 18 years of age. Four elastomeric separators (Dentarum, Springen, Germany) were placed for the first permanent molars (distal and mesial), either for maxillary (22 patients) or mandibular (15 patients) arches; one quadrant was randomly selected and used as a placebo group (received no laser irradiation). After separator placement for each quadrant, patients received 10 doses (2 J/cm(2), 100 mW, 20 s) of laser irradiation on the buccal side (at the cervical third of the roots), for distal and mesial of the second premolars and first permanent molars, as well as distal of second permanent molars (five doses). The same procedure was repeated for the lingual or palatal side (five doses). After 24 h, patients returned to the clinic and received another 10 doses of laser irradiation on the same quadrant. Postseparation pain level recorded on a 10-cm visual analog scale for both jaws immediately (hour 0), and after 6, 24, 30 h, as well as on days 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Significant differences in the pain perception (PP) were found between the laser and placebo groups at 6, 24, 30 h, and day 3 of the experiment (P < 0.05). Friedman’s test of multiple comparisons revealed significant differences in the PP among various time intervals for laser (chi-square = 173.407, P = 0.000) and placebo (chi-square = 184.712, P = 0.000) groups. In both groups, pain was highest at 6 and 30 h after placing elastomeric separators. No gender differences were observed in both groups. More pain was recorded in the mandible (P < 0.05) at 24 (laser group) and 30 h (both groups) after starting the experiment. The PP was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for the group aged 18 years or more, only at days 3 [both groups] and 4 [laser group only] of the experiment. The 810-nm continuous wave LLLT significantly reduced the PP in the first 3 days after orthodontic separation. However, the mean postseparation PP in both groups was low and wide ranges of PP scores were observed.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jan 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23334785

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Physical Therapy Management of Knee Osteoarthritis in the Middle-aged Athlete.

Adams T, Band-Entrup D, Kuhn S, Legere L, Mace K, Paggi A, Penney M

Advanced Sports Therapy, Wellesley daggerOrthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy, Boston, MA.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is prevalent in today’s population, including the athletic and recreationally active “middle-aged” population. OA is a degenerative condition of the articular/hyaline cartilage of synovial joints and commonly affects the knee joint. In general, athletic participation does not specifically influence a higher incidence of knee OA in this population; however, traumatic injury to the knee joint poses a definitive risk in developing early-onset OA. The purpose of this article is to review evidence-based nonpharmacological interventions for the conservative management of knee OA. Manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, patient education, and weight management are strongly supported in the literature for conservative treatment of knee OA. Modalities [thermal, electrical stimulation (ES), and low-level laser therapy (LLLT)] and orthotic intervention are moderately supported in the literature as indicated management strategies for knee OA. While many strongly supported conservative interventions have been published, additional research is needed to determine the most effective approach in treating knee OA.

Sports Med Arthrosc 2013 Mar 21(1) 2-10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23314262

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser therapy may be better than topical desensitizing agents for treating dentin hypersensitivity.

Blatz MB

Department of Preventive and Restorative Sciences, Robert Schattner Center, University of Pennsylvania, School of Dental Medicine, 240 S. 40th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. mblatz@dental.upenn.edu

SELECTION CRITERIA: Two independent reviewers screened the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of ControlledTrials, the National Research Register, and the Cochrane Oral HealthGroup’sTrials Register for articles written in English between 1977 and January1, 2010. The inclusion criteria comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the application of laser desensitizing procedures and topical desensitizing agents in patients with at least 2 or more hypersensitive teeth confirmed by evaporative stimulus or tactile hypersensitivity assessment. Trial groups needed to receive laser therapy, whereas the control groups received topical desensitizing agents, such as fluoride varnish, dentin bonding agents, or others. Outcomes had to be measured by clinical performance (decrease of hypersensitivity) and/or patients’ self-assessment. Studies with loss in follow-up greater than 20% or with confusing data/probable errors were excluded. A total of 176 potential relevant titles, abstracts, and articles were found, 28 of which were screened for further evaluation. Out of these, 8 trials met all inclusion criteria, involving a total of 234 patients. The quality of these trials was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Accordingly, only 1 study was classified as A level, 5 as B level, and 2 as C level. A meta-analysis was not performed because of the heterogeneity of the studies. KEY STUDY FACTOR: Studies that assess the application of laser desensitizing procedures in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was reduction of tooth sensitivity following treatment with either a laser or a topical desensitizing agent. Evaluations were made at varying intervals up to 6 months after treatment. MAIN RESULTS: Eight trials reporting on a total of 234 patients were included based on the specified criteria and 20 articles were excluded. Sample size in each of the included studies varied from 20 to 70 patients with differing follow-up intervals of up to 6 months. Most studies used Visual Analog Scale scores or other subjective tools to assess sensitivity. All 8 studies compared one kind of laser versus one kind of topical desensitizingagent. However, types of lasers as well as types of desensitizing agents differed among the reviewed studies. Half of the studies compared gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) lasers with various topical desensitizing agents; however, findings were conflicting. Two moderate-quality trials indicated that GaAlAs laser and the control desensitizing agents preformed similarly. Another moderate-quality trial demonstrated that the application of a bonding agent was significantly better than a GaAlAs laser in the reduction of hypersensitivity. The only reviewed study that was classified as an A-level study revealed a significantly greater immediate and long-term desensitizing effect than the control. The remaining studies involved Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, and CO(2) lasers, all of them reporting a slightly greater decrease in sensitivity as compared with topical desensitizing agents. Five of 8s tudies reported on the safety of laser application and did not find any detrimental pulpal effects, allergic reactions, or clinically detectable complications during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The authors concluded that the results obtained from the 8 studies included in this systematic review were conflicting but indicated a slight clinical advantage of laser therapy over topical medicaments in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. It was further concluded that application of lasers under controlled parameters for this indication may not lead to adverse effects.

J Evid Based Dent Pract 2012 Sep 12(3 Suppl) 229-30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23253851

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Piroxicam and laser phototherapy in the treatment of TMJ arthralgia: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

de Carli ML, Guerra MB, Nunes TB, di Matteo RC, de Luca CE, Aranha AC, Bolzan MC, Witzel AL

Department of Stomatology, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of piroxicam associated with low-level laser therapy compared with single therapies in 32 patients presenting temporomandibular joint arthralgia in a random and double-blind research design. The sample, divided into laser + piroxicam, laser + placebo piroxicam and placebo laser + piroxicam groups, was submitted to the treatment with infrared laser (830 nm, 100 mW, 28 s, 100 J cm(-2) ) at 10 temporomandibular joint and muscle points on each side during four sessions concomitant to take one capsule a day of piroxicam 20 mg during 10 days. The treatment was evaluated throughout four sessions and 30 days follow-up through visual analogue scale (VAS), maximum mouth opening and joint and muscle (temporal and masseter) pain on palpation. The results showed that all the study groups had a significant improvement in the VAS scores (P < 0.05), and there were no significant group differences. Piroxicam was effective in the reduction of joint and muscle pain on palpation (P < 0.05) and showed the lowest temporal pain (P = 0.02) at the 30-day follow-up. The combination of low-level laser therapy and piroxicam was not more effective than single therapies in the treatment of temporomandibular joint arthralgia. The use of piroxicam was more effective in the following 30 days.

J Oral Rehabil 2013 Mar 40(3) 171-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23252583

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[Comparative study of time-correlated temperature and back-scattered light intensity for human Hegu acupoint and non-acupoint tissue irradiated by near-infrared laser].

Zhou F, Wei HJ, Guo ZY, Li A, Yang NN, Yang HQ, Xie SS

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science & Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China. zfscnu0000@163.com

Characteristics and differences of temperature and back-scattered light intensity in different depths of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mm for both human Hegu acupoint and non-acupoint tissue irradiated by 808 nm diode laser at the different power of 15, 25 and 35 mW were studied. The temperature and the back-scattered light intensity in different depths of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mm for human Hegu acupoint and non-acupoint tissue were measured by using the infrared thermography and optical coherence tomography. The result shows few differences in the temperature and the back-scattered light intensity of human Hegu acupoint and non-acupoint tissue before irradiation. The temperature and back-scattered light intensity of Hegu acupoint and the non-acupoint after irradiation were significantly higher, and the temperature and back-scattered light intensity of Hegu acupoint significantly were higher than the non-acupoint areas. At 0-40 min after the irradiation, the temperature and back-scattered light intensity of Hegu acupoint and the non-acupoint area will fluctuate and gradually decrease with the passage of time. From the results above, it is clearly seen that Hegu acupoint is different from non-acupoint both in the back-scattered light intensity and temperature after irradiation, and Hegu acupoint is more sensitive to laser irradiation than non-acupoint tissue.

Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2012 Sep 32(9) 2366-71

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23240398

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Mechanisms of action for light therapy: a review of molecular interactions.

Prindeze NJ, Moffatt LT, Shupp JW

The Burn Center, Department of Surgery, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, MedStar Health, Research Institute, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Five decades after the first documented use of a laser for wound healing, research in light therapy has yet to elucidate the underlying biochemical pathways causing its effects. The aim of this review is to summarize the current research into the biochemical mechanisms of light therapy in order to better direct future studies. The implication of cytochrome c oxidase as the photoacceptor modulating light therapy is reviewed, as are the predominant hypotheses of the biochemical pathways involved in the stimulation of wound healing, cellular proliferation, production of transcription factors and other reported stimulatory effects.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2012 Nov 1 237(11) 1241-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23239434

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser treatment with near-infrared light increases venous nitric oxide levels acutely: a single-blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy.

Mitchell UH, Mack GL

From the Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah (UHM, GLM).

OBJECTIVE: The use of near-infrared light in the form of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has become more popular in the treatment of a variety of conditions where increased peripheral blood flow is desired. The hypothesis behind its working mechanism is its purported ability to generate nitric oxide (NO) in the treated area. We tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of near-infrared light lies in its ability to generate NO at the treatment site. DESIGN: We conducted a single-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial to measure NO, by its metabolites nitrite and nitrate, in venous blood draining from tissue receiving LLLT. Fifteen healthy subjects received LLLT to the forearm, and blood samples were taken immediately before treatment; at 1, 5, 15, and 30 mins; as well as 15 mins after the treatment to check for NO content. RESULTS: We found a significant treatment effect (F = 15.75, P = 0.003). A post hoc test showed that minutes 1, 5, and 15 were different compared with the baseline measures (P’s < 0.05). The area under the treatment curve was significantly larger than the area under the sham treatment curve (t = 2.26, P = 0.037). A limitation of this study was that the data were collected from healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT increased NO levels in venous blood draining from the treatment site in healthy subjects. The peak increase in NO occurred 5 mins into the treatment, after which it slowly waned. Further research is necessary to assess NO increases with LLLT in patients with pathologies.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2013 Feb 92(2) 151-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23334615

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Assessment of the effects of low-level laser therapy on the thyroid vascularization of patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism by color Doppler ultrasound.

Hofling DB, Chavantes MC, Juliano AG, Cerri GG, Knobel M, Yoshimura EM, Chammas MC

Ultrasound Unit, Department of Radiology, Clinics Hospital, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, 05403-000 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil ; Laser Medical Center, Heart Institute, Clinics Hospital, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, 05403-000 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background. Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT) frequently alters thyroid vascularization, likely as a result of the autoimmune process. Objective. To evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the thyroid vascularization of patients with hypothyroidism induced by CAT using color Doppler ultrasound parameters. Methods. In this randomized clinical trial, 43 patients who underwent levothyroxine replacement for CAT-induced hypothyroidism were randomly assigned to receive either 10 sessions of LLLT (L group, n = 23) or 10 sessions of a placebo treatment (P group, n = 20). Color Doppler ultrasounds were performed before and 30 days after interventions. To verify the vascularity of the thyroid parenchyma, power Doppler was performed. The systolic peak velocity (SPV) and resistance index (RI) in the superior (STA) and inferior thyroid arteries (ITAs) were measured by pulsed Doppler. Results. The frequency of normal vascularization of the thyroid lobes observed in the postintervention power Doppler examination was significantly higher in the L than in the P group (P = 0.023). The pulsed Doppler examination revealed an increase in the SPV of the ITA in the L group compared with the P group (P = 0.016). No significant differences in the SPV of the STA and in the RI were found between the groups. Conclusion. These results suggest that LLLT can ameliorate thyroid parenchyma vascularization and increase the SPV of the ITA of patients with hypothyroidism caused by CAT.

ISRN Endocrinol 2012 2012 126720

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23316383

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The clinical and histological effect of home-use, combination blue-red LED phototherapy for mild to moderate acne vulgaris in Korean patients: a double blind, randomized controlled trial.

Kwon HH, Lee JB, Yoon JY, Park SY, Ryu HH, Park BM, Kim YJ, Suh DH

Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Acne Research Laboratory, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea Department of Dermatology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.

Background: Blue and red light have been reported to have beneficial effects on acne. However, there has been no double blind randomized study of acne treatment for combined blue and red light emitting diode (LED) device and associated molecular mechanisms have been rarely elucidated. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and histological changes of combined blue and red LED phototherapy for acne vulgaris. Methods: Thirty five patients with mild to moderate acne were randomly assigned to either home-use, LED device irradiation group or control group using sham device. The treatment group was instructed to serially irradiate 420 nm blue light and 660 nm red light for 2.5 minutes twice per day for 4 weeks. Results: At the final visit of 12 weeks, both inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions decreased significantly by 77% and 54% in the treatment group, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the control group. In the treatment group, sebum output reduction, attenuated inflammatory cell infiltrations and a decreased size of sebaceous gland were found. The immunostaining intensity for interleukin-8, interleukin-1alpha, matrix metalloproteinase-9, toll-like receptor-2, nuclear factor kappaB, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and sterol response element binding protein-1 was reduced concomitantly. Messenger RNA expression of sterol response element binding protein-1c was also decreased. No severe adverse reactions were reported. Conclusions: This LED phototherapy was safe and effective for treating not only inflammatory but also non-inflammatory acne lesions with good compliance. Experimental results correlated well with clinical results, partly elucidating related molecular mechanisms.

Br J Dermatol 2012 Dec 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23278295

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[The efficacy of the combined rehabilitative treatment of the patients presenting with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diseases of the hepatobiliary system].

A total of 80 patients presenting with exogenous constitutional obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diseases of the hepatobiliary system (including chronic non-calculous cholecystitis and fatty hepatosis) were enrolled to participate in the present study. The basal treatment consisted of the adequate reducing diet, remedial gymnastics, massage, reflexo-acupuncture, the application of galvanic muds, and controlled intake of chofitol. It was supplemented with magnetic laser irradiation of selected abdominal regions, and electrical stimulation of femoral, dorsal, and abdominal muscles. It was shown that the combination of the above procedures and physical factors significantly improves the overall outcome of the treatment. The patients suffering intestinal dysbacteriosis were prescribed the intake of probiotic Nor Narine together with Jermuk mineral water; they were found to benefit from such treatment due to normalization of intestinal biocenosis and improvement of their general condition. The clinical and paraclinical data obtained in this study give evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of certain physical factors and especially their combination used for the medical rehabilitation of the patients presenting with constitutional obesity, metabolic syndrome, and digestive disorders. Moreover, the well-apparent positive results were documented from the combined treatment with magnetic laser radiation and therapeutic muds.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2012 Sep-Oct (5) 24-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23210358

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of 808 nm low-level laser therapy in exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue in elderly women.

Toma RL, Tucci HT, Antunes HK, Pedroni CR, de Oliveira AS, Buck I, Ferreira PD, Vassao PG, Renno AC

Department of Biosciences, Federal University of Sao Paulo Campus Baixada Santista, Av. Ana Costa, 95, 11060-001, Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil, renataluri@gmail.com.

Aging process involves several structural changes in muscle tissue which lead to decrease in musculoskeletal function. One of the most common physiological modifications is the increase in fatigability in elderly people, which leads to inability to maintain strength and motor control. In this context, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has demonstrated positive results in reducing fatigue during physical exercise. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of LLLT on skeletal muscle fatigue in elderly women. Twenty-four subjects divided in two groups entered a crossover randomized triple-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Active LLLT (808 nm wavelength, 100 mW, energy 7 J) or an identical placebo LLLT was delivered on the rectus femoris muscle immediately before a fatigue protocol. Subjects performed a fatigue protocol which consisted of voluntary isotonic contractions of knee flexion-extension performed with a load corresponding to 75 % of 1-MR (Maximum Repetition) during 60 s. Surface electromyography (SEMG) signals were recorded from rectus femoris muscle of dominant lower limb to evaluate peripheral fatigability using median frequency analysis of SEMG signal. The number of repetitions of flexion-extension during fatigue protocol was also compared between groups. The values of median frequency were used to calculate the slope coefficient. The results showed no difference in the slope comparing placebo LLLT and active LLLT groups (p = 0.293). However, a significant difference was observed in the number of repetitions between groups, after active LLLT, subjects demonstrated significantly higher number of repetitions (p = 0.047). In this study, LLLT was efficient in increasing the mean number of repetitions during knee flexion-extension exercise, although results have not shown delay electromyographic fatigue.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jan 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23296713

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Violet laser acupuncture – Part 5: An investigation of different stimulation frequencies on heart rate and variability.

He W, Wedig D, Wang L, Gaischek I, Litscher G

Stronach Research Unit for Complementary and Integrative Laser Medicine, Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Violet laser acupuncture was recently described by our research group. Neurochemical studies of acupuncture analgesia revealed that 2- and 100-Hz peripheral stimulation induce differential peptide release from preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin via different neural pathways. The goal of the fifth part of this series was to perform a pilot investigation on the effects of 2- and 100-Hz violet laser acupuncture on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) in 13 healthy volunteers (mean age +/- standard deviation: 23.9 +/- 1.7 years) using a new non-invasive method. We found a significant difference in mean HR before, during, and after 2- or 100-Hz violet laser acupuncture, and there was a significant difference of the low frequency/ high frequency ratio before, during, and after 2- or 100-Hz violet laser acupuncture. However, we did not observe a significant difference in total HRV before, during, or after treatment. Further studies should be carried out to compare the effects of different violet laser acupuncture frequencies.

J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2012 Dec 5(6) 290-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23265079

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Independent evaluation of low-level laser therapy at 635 nm for non-invasive body contouring of the waist, hips, and thighs.

McRae E, Boris J

117 S. Saunders St., Boerne, Texas 78006. lizmcraemd11@gmail.com.

INTRODUCTION: The non-invasive body-contouring segment continues to exhibit uninhibited growth, a trend that has provoked the emergence of numerous body-contouring devices. One particular device, low-level laser therapy at 635 nm (LLLT-635), has exhibited promising clinical results. We performed an independent, physician-led trial to evaluate the utility of LLLT-635 nm for non-invasive body contouring of the waist, hips, and thighs. METHODS: Eighty-six participants were retrospectively assessed at an individual clinic in the United States. A multi-head laser device was administered every-other-day for 2 weeks. Each treatment consisted of 20 minutes of anterior and posterior treatment. Patients received concurrent treatment of the waist, hips, and bilateral thighs. Circumferential measurements were evaluated at baseline and one week following the 2-week treatment administration phase. RESULTS: Compared with baseline, a statistically significant 2.99 in. (7.59 cm) mean loss was observed at the post-procedure evaluation point (P < 0.0001). When analyzed individually, the waist, hips, and thighs each reported a statistically significant reduction of -1.12, -0.769, and -1.17, respectively. Furthermore, linear regression analysis revealed a weak linear dependence (r = 0.179) between the reported weight and circumference change. CONCLUSION: These data further validate the clinical efficacy and safety of LLLT at 635 nm. Lasers Surg. Med. 45: 1-7, 2013. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2013 Jan 45(1) 1-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23355338

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser acupuncture for depression: A randomised double blind controlled trial using low intensity laser intervention.

Quah-Smith I, Smith C, Crawford JD, Russell J

School of Psychiatry University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Australia. Electronic address: quahsmith@gmail.com.

INTRODUCTION: Trials of acupuncture for the treatment of depression have produced mixed results. We examined the effectiveness of laser acupuncture compared with placebo acupuncture for the treatment of major depression. METHODS: A randomised, double blinded, placebo controlled trial was conducted in Sydney, Australia. Participants aged 18-50 years with DSM-IV major depressive disorder were eligible to join the study. Forty-seven participants were randomised to receive laser acupuncture or placebo laser at acupoints LR14, CV14, LR8, HT7 and KI3. The intervention was administered twice a week for 4 weeks and once a week for another four weeks, for a total of 12 sessions. The primary outcome assessed the change in severity of depression using the Hamilton-Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and secondary outcomes assessed the change in severity of depression using the Quick Inventory for Depression-Self Reporting (QID-SR), the Quick Inventory for Depression-Clinician (QIDS-CL), with outcomes assessed at eight weeks. The treatment response (greater than 50% improvement in HAM-D) and remission (HAM-D<8) were analysed. RESULTS: At eight weeks participants showed greater improvement in the active laser group on the primary and clinician-rated secondary outcome measures (HAM-D (mean 9.28 (SD 6.55) vs. mean 14.14 (SD 4.78 p<0.001); QIDS-CL (mean 8.12 (SD 6.61 versus 12.68 (mean SD 3.77)) p<0.001). The self-report QIDS-SR scores improved in both groups but did not differ significantly between the groups. In the active laser group, QIDS-SR scores remained significantly lower than baseline at 3 months follow-up. Response rates (active laser, placebo laser) on ITT (intention to treat) analyses were 72.0% and 18.2% (p<0.001), respectively. Remission rates on ITT analyses (active laser, placebo laser) were 56.0% and 4.5% (p<0.001). Transient fatigue was the only adverse effect reported. LIMITATIONS: There was no follow-up for the placebo group at one and 3 months. CONCLUSION: Laser acupuncture showed a clinically and statistically significant benefit with reducing symptoms of depression on objective measures.

J Affect Disord 2013 Jan 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23337655

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[Advancement in the research of effect of low level laser therapy on wound healing].

Mao HS, Yao M, Fang Y

Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, the Third People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 201900, China.

Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is a therapeutic method which regulates the biological behavior of cells with light. The effects of LLLT consist of promotion of tissue repair, inhibition of inflammation, and relief of pain by promoting or inhibiting the cell proliferation, increasing or decreasing the release of some bioactive substances. Therefore, LLLT is also known as photomodulation. At present, there are many relevant experimental studies of LLLT abroad, and they are also used clinically. This article reviews the effect of LLLT on wound healing.

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2012 Dec 28(6) 462-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23327917

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Bisphosphonates and osteonecrosis: an open matter.

Vescovi P

Unit of Oral Pathology and Medicine and Laser-Assisted Surgery, Section of Dentistry, Department of ENT/Dental/Ophthalmological and Cervico-Facial Sciences, University of Parma, Italy.

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) in patients on long-term Bisphosphonate Therapy (BPT) is being reported in the last ten years in the literature with increasing frequency. The therapy for this condition is a real dilemma. Temporary suspension of BPT offers no short term benefits, hyperbaric oxygen has no proven efficiency and therefore is not recommended, intermittent or continuous antibiotic with surgical debridement can be beneficial to palliate the symptoms. Er:YAG laser can be used to eliminate necrotic portions of the bone by partial or total resection of the jaws as an alternative to conventional rotary tools. The high degree of affinity of this wavelength for water and hydroxyapatite means the soft tissue and bone can both be treated. The technique can also be used for conservative interventions by gradually evaporating the part of necrotic bone, getting close to the healthy area. One certain advantage of the Er:YAG laser is its bactericidal and biostimulatory action, inducing the healing of the soft tissues and the bone, quicker than in conventional treatments. In conclusion, from our experience, it is possible to observe that an early conservative surgical approach with Er:YAG laser associated to biostimulation, LLLT (Low Level Laser Therapy), for BRONJ could be considered as more efficacious in comparison to medical therapy or other techniques.

Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab 2012 Sep 9(3) 142-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23289026

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Management of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease with acupuncture: a case report.

Set T, Maras I, Khan AS, Ozdemir H

Department of Family Medicine, Ataturk University, , Erzurum, Turkey.

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a rare temporary hip joint deformity mostly effecting young children from 4-10 years of age. It involves mainly the head of the femur, which softens and breaks down due to interruption of blood supply (avascular necrosis). We report a case of LCPD that was treated late and had a poor prognosis, but improved significantly during a prolonged course of acupuncture. A 12-year-old boy reported to an orthopaedic clinic in 2006 with limping and was diagnosed with LCPD. Surgeons applied orthosis without improvement and decided to perform surgery in 2008. However, the parents declined the surgical option and took the boy to an acupuncture clinic the same year. Needle acupuncture for 20 min and laser acupuncture locally on the hip joint area for 5 min were applied. After 30 sessions of acupuncture, the boy started to improve clinically. Imaging studies showed that new bone cells started to develop in the femoral head. After 130 sessions in 2010 the radiographic appearance showed almost 90% improvement, and after 196 sessions, in August 2012, he was fully recovered. Needle acupuncture treatment combined with laser acupuncture may be an option for the management of LCPD.

Acupunct Med 2012 Dec 12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23234840

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Stimulation of TRPV1 by Green Laser Light.

Gu Q, Wang L, Huang F, Schwarz W

Shanghai Research Center for Acupuncture and Meridians, 199 Guoshoujing Road, Shanghai 201203, China.

Low-level laser irradiation of visible light had been introduced as a medical treatment already more than 40 years ago, but its medical application still remains controversial. Laser stimulation of acupuncture points has also been introduced, and mast-cells degranulation has been suggested. Activation of TRPV ion channels may be involved in the degranulation. Here, we investigated whether TRPV1 could serve as candidate for laser-induced mast cell activation. Activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin resulted in degranulation. To investigate the effect of laser irradiation on TRPV1, we used the Xenopus oocyte as expression and model system. We show that TRPV1 can functionally be expressed in the oocyte by (a) activation by capsaicin (K(1/2) = 1.1 muM), (b) activation by temperatures exceeding 42 degrees C, (c) activation by reduced pH (from 7.4 to 6.2), and (d) inhibition by ruthenium red. Red (637 nm) as well as blue (406 nm) light neither affected membrane currents in oocytes nor did it modulate capsaicin-induced current. In contrast, green laser light (532 nm) produced power-dependent activation of TRPV1. In conclusion, we could show that green light is effective at the cellular level to activate TRPV1. To which extend green light is of medical relevance needs further investigation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 2012 857123

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23365602

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The influence of low-intensity laser therapy on bone healing.

Ebrahimi T, Moslemi N, Rokn A, Heidari M, Nokhbatolfoghahaie H, Fekrazad R

Dentist, Dental Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

OBJECTIVE: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) is defined to supply direct biostimulative light energy to the cells. While several studies have demonstrated that LILT has stimulating effects on bone cells and can accelerate the repair process of the bone, others reported delayed fracture healing or no effects after LILT. The aim of this article was to review the studies evaluating the biomodulation effects of LILT on bone-derived stem cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To access relevant articles, searching in three electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct was conducted until April 2012. The key words used were low-level laser, low-intensity laser, low-power laser therapy, stem cell, bone marrow stem cell, bone and osteoblast. The articles that met the eligibility criteria were included in this review of literature. RESULTS: Twenty-five relevant articles (13 in vitro and 12 animal studies) were included. Eleven in vitro studies showed positive results with regard to acceleration of cell proliferation and differentiation. All animal studies showed improved bone healing in sites irradiated with low-intensity laser. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the reviewed articles, low intensity laser therapy can accelerate bone healing in extraction sites, bone fracture defects and distraction osteogenesis, provided proper parameters were applied.

J Dent (Tehran) 2012 Fall 9(4) 238-48

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23323186

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Transcranial low-level laser therapy improves neurological performance in traumatic brain injury in mice: effect of treatment repetition regimen.

Xuan W, Vatansever F, Huang L, Wu Q, Xuan Y, Dai T, Ando T, Xu T, Huang YY, Hamblin MR

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America ; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America ; Department of Otolaryngology, Traditional Chinese Medical University of Guangxi, Nanning, China.

Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been clinically applied around the world for a spectrum of disorders requiring healing, regeneration and prevention of tissue death. One area that is attracting growing interest in this scope is the use of transcranial LLLT to treat stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). We developed a mouse model of severe TBI induced by controlled cortical impact and explored the effect of different treatment schedules. Adult male BALB/c mice were divided into 3 broad groups (a) sham-TBI sham-treatment, (b) real-TBI sham-treatment, and (c) real-TBI active-treatment. Mice received active-treatment (transcranial LLLT by continuous wave 810 nm laser, 25 mW/cm(2), 18 J/cm(2), spot diameter 1 cm) while sham-treatment was immobilization only, delivered either as a single treatment at 4 hours post TBI, as 3 daily treatments commencing at 4 hours post TBI or as 14 daily treatments. Mice were sacrificed at 0, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days post-TBI for histology or histomorphometry, and injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) at days 21-27 to allow identification of proliferating cells. Mice with severe TBI treated with 1-laser Tx (and to a greater extent 3-laser Tx) had significant improvements in neurological severity score (NSS), and wire-grip and motion test (WGMT). However 14-laser Tx provided no benefit over TBI-sham control. Mice receiving 1- and 3-laser Tx had smaller lesion size at 28-days (although the size increased over 4 weeks in all TBI-groups) and less Fluoro-Jade staining for degenerating neurons (at 14 days) than in TBI control and 14-laser Tx groups. There were more BrdU-positive cells in the lesion in 1- and 3-laser groups suggesting LLLT may increase neurogenesis. Transcranial NIR laser may provide benefit in cases of acute TBI provided the optimum treatment regimen is employed.

PLoS One 2013 8(1) e53454

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23308226

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces oxidative stress in primary cortical neurons in vitro.

Huang YY, Nagata K, Tedford CE, McCarthy T, Hamblin MR

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 40 Blossom Street, Boston MA 02114, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, USA; Department of Pathology, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) involves absorption of photons being in the mitochondria of cells leading to improvement in electron transport, increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and greater ATP production. Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by LLLT in normal cells that are beneficial. We exposed primary cultured murine cortical neurons to oxidative stressors: hydrogen peroxide, cobalt chloride and rotenone in the presence or absence of LLLT (3 J/cm(2) , CW, 810 nm wavelength laser, 20 mW/cm(2) ). Cell viability was determined by Prestoblue(TM) assay. ROS in mitochondria was detected using Mito-sox, while ROS in cytoplasm was detected with CellRox(TM) . MMP was measured with tetramethylrhodamine. In normal neurons LLLT elevated MMP and increased ROS. In oxidatively-stressed cells LLLT increased MMP but reduced high ROS levels and protected cultured cortical neurons from death. Although LLLT increases ROS in normal neurons, it reduces ROS in oxidatively-stressed neurons. In both cases MMP is increased. These data may explain how LLLT can reduce clinical oxidative stress in various lesions while increasing ROS in cells in vitro. ((c) 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

J Biophotonics 2012 Dec 27

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23281261

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of IR laser on myoblasts: a proteomic study.

Monici M, Cialdai F, Ranaldi F, Paoli P, Boscaro F, Moneti G, Caselli A

ASAcampus Joint Laboratory, ASA Res. Div., Dept. Clinical Physiopathology, University of Florence, Italy.

Laser therapy is used in physical medicine and rehabilitation to accelerate muscle recovery and in sports medicine to prevent damages produced by metabolic disturbances and inflammatory reactions after heavy exercise. The aim of this research was to get insight into possible benefits deriving from the application of an advanced IR laser system to counteract deficits of muscle energy metabolism and stimulate the recovery of hypotrophic tissue. We studied the effect of IR laser treatment on proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeleton organization and global protein expression in C2C12 myoblasts. We found that laser treatment induced a decrease in the cell proliferation rate without affecting cell viability, while leading to cytoskeletal rearrangement and expression of the early differentiation marker MyoD. The differential proteome analysis revealed the up-regulation and/or modulation of many proteins known to be involved in cell cycle regulation, cytoskeleton organization and differentiation.

Mol Biosyst 2013 Jan 31

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23364335

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-Power Laser Irradiation Suppresses Inflammatory Response of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells by Modulating Intracellular Cyclic AMP Level and NF-kappaB Activity.

Wu JY, Chen CH, Wang CZ, Ho ML, Yeh ML, Wang YH

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based tissue regeneration is a promising therapeutic strategy for treating damaged tissues. However, the inflammatory microenvironment that exists at a local injury site might restrict reconstruction. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been widely applied to retard the inflammatory reaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of LPLI on human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in an inflammatory environment. We showed that the hADSCs expressed Toll-like Receptors (TLR) 1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR6 and that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Interleukin-8 (IL-8)). LPLI markedly inhibited LPS-induced, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at an optimal dose of 8 J/cm(2). The inhibitory effect triggered by LPLI might occur through an increase in the intracellular level of cyclic AMP (cAMP), which acts to down-regulate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) transcriptional activity. These data collectively provide insight for further investigations of the potential application of anti-inflammatory treatment followed by stem cell therapy.

PLoS One 2013 8(1) e54067

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23342077

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser Therapy in Metabolic Syndrome-related Kidney Injury.

Ucero AC, Sabban B, Benito-Martin A, Carrasco S, Joeken S, Ortiz A

IIS-FundacionJimenezDiaz, Madrid, Spain, 28040.

Metabolic syndrome is characterized by hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of chronic end-stage kidney disease in humans. Chronic kidney disease is characterized by kidney inflammation and eventual development of kidney fibrosis. Low-level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT) can be used to relieve pain associated with some inflammatory diseases due to photochemical effects. Despite the known contribution of inflammation to metabolic syndrome and kidney disease, there is scarce information on the potential therapeutic use of LLLT in renal disease. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled study was to test the hypothesis that LLLT could modulate chronic kidney injury. Rats with nephropathy, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes (strain ZSF1) were subjected to three different conditions of LLLT or sham treatment for eight weeks, and then sacrificed ten weeks later. The main findings of this study are that the LLLT-treated rats had lower blood pressure after treatment and a better preserved glomerular filtration rate with less interstitial fibrosis upon euthanasia at the end of follow-up. This initial proof-of-concept study suggests that LLLT may modulate chronic kidney disease progression, providing a painless, non-invasive, therapeutic strategy, which should be further evaluated. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology (c) 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

Photochem Photobiol 2013 Jan 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23360312

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser reduces the production of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-10 induced by OVA.

Oliveira RG, Ferreira AP, Cortes AJ, Aarestrup BJ, Andrade LC, Aarestrup FM

Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, SUPREMA, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Delayed, or type IV, hypersensitivity reactions are a useful model to study the effects of new substances on the immune system. In this study, the experimental model of the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to ovalbumin (OVA) was used to evaluate the immunomodulating effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), which is used as an adjuvant therapy in medicine, dentistry, and physical therapy because of its potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects observed in several studies. The effects of LLLT (lambda 780 nm, 0.06 W/cm(2) of radiation, and fluency of 3.8 J/cm(2)) in reaction to ovalbumin in Balb/C mice were examined after the induction phase of the hypersensitivity reaction. The animals treated with azathioprine (AZA), the animals that received a vehicle instead of ovalbumin, and those not immunized served as controls (n = 6 for each group). Footpad thickness measurements and hematoxylin-eosin histopathological exams were performed. Proliferation tests were also performed (spontaneous, in the presence of concanavalin A and ovalbumin) to determine the production in mononuclear cells cultures of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), INF-gamma, and IL-10. In the group of animals irradiated with lasers and in the group treated with AZA, footpad thickness measurements were significantly reduced in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). This reduction was accompanied by a very significant reduction in the density of the inflammatory infiltrate and by a significant reduction in the levels of TNF-alpha, INF-gamma, and IL-10. LLLT radiation was shown to have an immunomodulating effect on DTH to OVA in Balb/C mice.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jan 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23337926

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy is improved by enhancing the HGF/Met axis and Akt and Erk pathways after low-power laser irradiation in rats.

Araujo TG, de Oliveira AG, Tobar N, Saad MJ, Moreira LR, Reis ER, Nicola EM, de Jorge GL, Dos Tartaro RR, Boin IF, Teixeira AR

Department of Internal Medicine, State University of Campinas, 13081-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

A simple, easy, and safe procedure aiming to improve liver regeneration could be of great clinical benefit in critical situations such as major hepatectomy, trauma, or hemorrhage. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has come into a wide range of use in clinical practice by inducing regeneration in healthy and injured tissues. However, the effect of LPLI on the process of liver regeneration, especially those related to the molecular mechanisms, is not fully understood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the main molecular mechanisms involved in liver regeneration of partially hepatectomized rats exposed to LPLI. We used Wistar male rats, which had their remaining liver irradiated or not with LPLI (wavelength of 632.8 nm and fluence of 65 mW/cm(2)) for 15 min after a 70 % hepatectomy. We subsequently investigated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), Met, Akt, and Erk 1/2 signaling pathways through protein expression and phosphorylation analyses along with cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67) using immunoblotting and histological studies. Our results show that LPLI can improve liver regeneration as shown by increased HGF protein expression and the phosphorylation levels of Met, Akt, and Erk 1/2 accompanied by higher levels of the PCNA and Ki-67 protein in the remnant livers. In summary, our results suggest that LPLI may play a clinical role as a simple, fast, and easy-to-perform strategy in order to enhance the liver regenerative capacity of a small liver remnant after hepatectomy.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jan 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23334786

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Photobiomodulation by helium neon and diode lasers in an excisional wound model: A single blinded trial.

Dixit S, Maiya A, Rao L, Rao MA, Shastry BA, Ramachandra L

Department of Physiotherapy, Manipal College Of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

BACKGROUND: Application of different kinds of lasers in clinical and experimental studies causes photobiomodulation that works at localized cellular and humoral level on various biological systems. Increased numbers of fibroblasts, myofibroblast, and degranulation of mast cells have been the observed benefits post-irradiation. OBJECTIVE: Was to find out the effect of irradiation with energy densities of 3.38 J/cm(2), 8 J/cm(2), and 18 J/cm(2) on animal tissue (albino wistar rats) in an excisional wound model and to assess changes in biochemical (hydroxyproline) and histopathological levels in excisional wound model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animals were divided into 4 groups, which were labeled as L1, diode laser (18 J/cm(2)), L2 Helium-neon (He-Ne, 8 J/cm(2)), L3 diode laser (3.38 J/cm(2)), and sham treatment for control was depicted by C, respectively. Histological and hydroxyproline analysis was performed on 7, 14, 21 days of post-wounding. One-way analysis of variance, ANOVA and Bonferroni’s multiple comparison tests were done for tissue hydroxyproline levels. RESULTS: There was no significant increase in the hydroxyproline content (P < 0.005) when observed in study group and compared to controls. Whereas significant epithelizations was seen in group treated with He-Ne laser of intensity of 8 J/cm(2). CONCLUSION: The experimental observations suggest that low intensity helium-neon laser of 8 J/cm(2) intensity facilitated photo stimulation by tissue repair, but failed to show significant tissue hydroxyproline levels in excisional wound model.

Adv Biomed Res 2012 1 38

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23326769

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The effects of minimally invasive laser needle system on suppression of trabecular bone loss induced by skeletal unloading.

Ko CY, Kang H, Ryu Y, Jung B, Kim H, Jeong D, Shin HI, Lim D, Kim HS

Research Team, Korea Orthopedics and Rehabilitation Engineering Center, Incheon, 403-712, Republic of Korea.

This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of trabecular bone loss induced by skeletal unloading. Twelve mice have taken denervation operation. At 2 weeks after denervation, LLLT (wavelength, 660 nm; energy density, 3 J/cm(2)) was applied to the right tibiae of six mice (LASER) for 5 days/week over 2 weeks by using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) which consists of a 100 mum optical fiber in a fine needle (diameter, 130 mum). Structural parameters and histograms of bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) were obtained before LLLT and at 2 weeks after LLLT. In addition, osteocyte, osteoblast, and osteoclast populations were counted. Two weeks after LLLT, bone volume fraction, trabeculae number, and trabeculae thickness were significantly increased and trabecular separations, trabecular bone pattern factor, and structure model index were significantly decreased in LASER than SHAM (p < 0.05). BMDD in LASER was maintained while that in SHAM was shifted to lower mineralization. Osteocyte and osteoblast populations were significantly increased but osteoclast population was significantly decreased in LASER when compared with those in SHAM (p < 0.05). The results indicate that LLLT with the MILNS may enhance bone quality and bone homeostasis associated with enhancement of bone formation and suppression of bone resorption.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jan 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23324954

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Influence of low-intensity laser therapy on the stability of orthodontic mini-implants: a study in rabbits.

Rodrigues Pinto M, Dos Santos RL, Pithon MM, de Souza Araujo MT, Braga JP, Nojima LI

Doctor in Orthodontics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess stability of different orthodontic mini-implants in the tibia of rabbits after low-intensity laser therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two mini-implants were assessed, 16 were self-threading (Titanium Fix) and 16 self-perforating (INP). These were inserted into the tibia of rabbits and immediately loaded with a horizontal force of 200g uniting 2 mini-implants in each tibia. Then they were submitted to low-intensity laser therapy for 21 days. Sixteen male New Zealand breed rabbits were used, and divided into 2 groups of 8 animals each as follows: Groups INP and TF. In both groups, mini-implants were submitted to low-intensity laser therapy (right tibia) and their respective controls (left tibia) did not undergo laser therapy. After the animals were killed, blocks of bone tissue containing the mini-implants were removed so as to perform mechanical pull-out tests. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference only between Group TF submitted to laser and all the other groups (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Low-intensity laser was capable of increasing stability of self-threading orthodontic mini-implants.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2013 Feb 115(2) e26-30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23312924

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Phototherapy and resistance training prevent sarcopenia in ovariectomized rats.

Corazza AV, Paolillo FR, Groppo FC, Bagnato VS, Caria PH

Department of Morphology, Piracicaba Dental School (FOP), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira, 901, 13414-903, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, avcorazza@gmail.com.

The aim of this study was to histologically and biochemically analyze the effects of light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) associated with resistance training to prevent sarcopenia in ovariectomized rats. Forty female Wistar rats (12 months old, 295-330 g) were bilaterally ovariectomized and divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): control-sedentary (C), resistance training (T), LEDT-sedentary (L), and LEDT plus resistance training (LT). Trained rats performed a 12-week water-jumping program (3 days per week) carrying a load equivalent to 50-80 % of their body mass strapped to their back. Depending on the group protocol, the LED device (850 nm, 100 mW, 120 J/cm(2), spot size 0.5 cm(2)) was used either as the only method or after the resistance training had been performed. The device was used in the single point contact mode (for 10 min). The irradiated region was the center of the greater trochanter of the right femur and the middle third of the rectus femoris muscle was subsequently analyzed histomorphometrically. Significant increases (p < 0.05) were noted for the muscle volume of the T (68.1 +/- 19.7 %), the L (74.1 +/- 5.1 %), and the LT (68.2 +/- 11.5 %) groups compared to the C group (60.4 +/- 5.5 %). There were also significant increases in the concentrations of IGF-1, IL-1, and TNF-alpha in the muscles of the treated groups (p < 0.05). Animals in the LT group showed a significant increase in IL-6 compared to T, L, and C groups (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that resistance training and LEDT can prevent sarcopenia in ovariectomized rats.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jan 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23307440

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy combined with platelet-rich plasma on the healing calcaneal tendon: a histological study in a rat model.

Barbosa D, de Souza RA, de Carvalho WR, Xavier M, de Carvalho PK, Cunha TC, Arisawa EA, Silveira L Jr, Villaverde AB

Biomedical Engineering Center, Camilo Castelo Branco University (UNICASTELO), Estrada Dr. Altino Bondesan, 500, Distrito de Eugenio de Melo, 12247-004, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil, danillo.barbosa@hotmail.com.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) treatment alone (lambda = 660 nm and lambda = 830 nm) or associated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). We used 54 male rats divided into six groups, with nine animals each: group 1, partial tenotomy; group 2 (GII), PRP; group 3 (GIII): lambda660 nm; group 4 (GIV), lambda830 nm; group 5 (GV), PRP + lambda660 nm; and group 6 (GVI), PRP + lambda830 nm. The protocol used was power density 0.35 W/cm(2), energy 0.2 J, energy density 7.0 J/cm(2), time 20 s per irradiated point, and number of points 3. Animals in groups GII, GV, and GVI received treatment with PRP, consisting of a single dose of 0.2 mL directly into the surgical site, on top of the tenotomy. Animals were killed on the 13th day post-tenotomy and their tendons were surgically removed for a quantitative analysis using polarization microscopy. The percentages of collagen fibers of types I and III were expressed as mean +/- SD. Higher values of collagen fibers type I were obtained for groups GV and GVI when compared with all other groups (p < 0.05), whereas groups GIII and GIV showed no significant difference between them (p > 0.05). For collagen type III, a significant difference was observed between GII and all other groups (p < 0.5), but no significant difference was found between GIII and GIV and between GV and GVI. Results showed that the deposition of collagen type I was higher when treatment with PRP and LLLT was combined, suggesting a faster regeneration of the tendon.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jan 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23307438

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

ST36 laser acupuncture reduces pain-related behavior in rats: involvement of the opioidergic and serotonergic systems.

Erthal V, da Silva MD, Cidral-Filho FJ, Santos AR, Nohama P

Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Tecnologia em Saude, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana (PUCPR), Rua Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, Curitiba, 80215-901, Parana, Brazil.

Laser acupuncture is a modality of low-level light therapy used as an alternative to needling for the past three decades. Although it has proved effective for the treatment of various conditions, the mechanisms underlying its effects are not fully understood. To contribute to this understanding, this study was designed to (1) evaluate the antinociceptive effect of ST36 laser acupuncture (830 nm, 3 J/cm(2)) in rat models of acute nociception and (2) to investigate the opioidergic and serotonergic systems involvement in this effect. Our results demonstrate that ST36 laser acupuncture inhibited (36 +/- 2 %) acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions and both neurogenic (48 +/- 7 %) and inflammatory (phase IIA 42 +/- 8 % and phase IIB 83 +/- 6 %) phases of formalin-induced nociceptive behavior. Moreover, the antinociceptive activity of laser irradiation in the acetic acid test was significantly reversed by preadministration of naloxone (1 mg/kg, nonselective opioid receptor antagonist), pindolol (1 mg/kg, subcutaneous; nonselective 5-HT 1A/B receptor antagonist), and ketanserin (1 mg/kg; selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) but not by ondansetron (1 mg/kg, selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist). Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that (1) ST36 laser acupuncture elicited significant antinociceptive effect against acetic acid- and formalin-induced behavior in rats and that (2) this effect is mediated by activation of the opioidergic and serotonergic (5-HT1 and 5-HT2A receptors) systems.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Jan 5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23291880

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Inhibition of Fibroblast Proliferation In Vitro Using Low-Level Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes.

Lev-Tov H, Brody N, Siegel D, Jagdeo J

Department of Dermatology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California; Dermatology Service, Sacramento Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Mather, California.

BACKGROUND: Scars, including hypertrophic and keloidal-type scars, may occur after burns, trauma, or surgery. Despite several treatment options available for scars, few effective, noninvasive modalities exist. Recently, a few small clinical studies revealed the possible benefit of red and infrared (IR) low-level light therapy (LLLT) in scar treatment. One of the important features of scars is proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, but in vitro data regarding the effects of light-emitting diode (LED)-generated IR light on human skin fibroblasts is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of IR LLLT generated using LEDs on fibroblast proliferation and viability in vitro. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Irradiation of normal human skin fibroblasts using IR LED panels was performed in vitro, and modulation of proliferation and viability was quantified using Trypan blue dye exclusion assay. RESULTS: Fluences of 80, 160 and 320 J/cm(2) resulted in statistically significantly less fibroblast proliferation than in controls, without statistically significantly less cellular viability. CONCLUSION: IR LLLT can effectively inhibit fibroblast proliferation in vitro without altering viability and holds promise for the treatment of scars.

Dermatol Surg 2012 Dec 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23279196

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of laser therapy on skeletal muscle repair process in diabetic rats.

Franca CM, de Loura Santana C, Takahashi CB, Alves AN, De Souza Mernick AP, Fernandes KP, de Fatima Teixeira da Silva D, Bussadori SK, Mesquita-Ferrari RA

Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 01504-001, cristiane321@gmail.com.

Skeletal muscle myopathy is a common source of disability in diabetic patients. This study evaluated whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) influences the healing morphology of injured skeletal muscle. Sixty-five male Wistar rats were divided as follows: (1) sham; (2) control; (3) diabetic; (4) diabetic sham; (5) nondiabetic cryoinjured submitted to LLLT (LLLT); (6) diabetic cryoinjured submitted to LLLT (D-LLLT); and (7) diabetic cryoinjured non-treated (D). Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin. Anterior tibialis muscle was cryoinjured and received LLLT daily (780 nm, 5 J/cm(2), 10 s per point; 0.2 J; total treatment, 1.6 J). Euthanasia occurred on day 1 in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 and on days 1, 7, and 14 in groups 5, 6, and 7. Muscle samples were processed for H&E and Picrosirius Red and photographed. Leukocytes, myonecrosis, fibrosis, and immature fibers were manually quantified using the ImageJ software. On day 1, all cryoinjured groups were in the inflammatory phase. The D group exhibited more myonecrosis than LLLT group (p < 0.05). On day 14, the LLLT group was in the remodeling phase; the D group was still in the proliferative phase, with fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and granulation tissue; and the D-LLLT group was in an intermediary state in relation to the two previous groups. Under polarized light, on day 14, the LLLT and D-LLLT groups had organized collagen bundles in the perimysium, whereas the diabetic groups exhibited fibrosis. LLLT can have a positive effect on the morphology of skeletal muscle during the tissue repair process by enhancing the reorganization of myofibers and the perimysium, reducing fibrosis.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Dec 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23262549

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The Influence of Different Power Settings of Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation, Bioglass and Combination to the Occlusion of Dentinal Tubules.

Farmakis ET, Beer F, Kozyrakis K, Pantazis N, Moritz A

1 Department of Endodontics, Dental School, University of Athens , Athens, Greece .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of bioglass, Nd:YAG laser irradiation and their combination on dentinal tubuli occlusion as a potential dentinal hypersensitivity treatment for cervical dentinal hypersensitivity (CDH). Background data: CDH affects 8-30% of adults and nearly 85% of perio-treated patients. Various treatment schemes have been applied for treating CDH, among them being fluoride application, laser irradiation, and, recently, bioglass (NovaMin((R))). In this in vitro study, we evaluated the efficacy of NovaMin((R)) paste (NM) (Denshield, Sultan, USA), Nd:YAG laser irradiation (L) at various power settings, and their combination, on dentinal orifice occlusion (DOO) as potential treatments for CDH. Methods: Forty-nine human dentin surfaces were organized into seven equal groups: groups A and B received NM followed by L (0.5 and 1 W, respectively); groups C and D received L (0.5 and 1 W, respectively) followed by NM; group E received NM; and groups F and G received L (0.5 and 1 W, respectively). Specimens were evaluated with regard to DOO under environmental scanning electron microscope. Results: Treatment modality significantly affected DOO (p=0.012). Groups B and G scored higher DOO than the rest. By ordinal logistic regression (with boostrap standard errors), the combination of NM followed by 1 W Nd:YAG laser irradiation (group B) significantly (p<0.001) contributed to DOO, compared with groups A, C, D, E, and F. Conclusions: Under the limitations of this study, Nd:YAG laser irradiation at 1 W, alone or combined with NM, is a superior method for producing DOO, and may lead to an effective treatment modality for CDH.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Feb 31(2) 54-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23240877

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Transient Repetitive Exposure to Low Level Light Therapy Enhances Collateral Blood Vessel Growth in The Ischemic Hindlimb of The Tight Skin Mouse.

Zaidi M, Krolikowki JG, Jones DW, Pritchard KA Jr, Struve J, Nandedkar SD, Lohr NL, Pagel PS, Weihrauch D

Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

The tight skin mouse (Tsk(-/+) ) is a model of scleroderma characterized by impaired vasoreactivity, increased oxidative stress, attenuated angiogenic response to VEGF and production of the angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) stimulates angiogenesis in myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced mucositis. We hypothesize that repetitive LLLT restores vessel growth in the ischemic hindlimb of Tsk(-/+) mice by attenuating angiostatin and enhancing angiomotin effects in vivo. C57Bl/6J and Tsk(-/+) mice underwent ligation of the femoral artery. Relative blood flow to the foot was measured using a laser Doppler imager. Tsk(-/+) mice received LLLT (670 nm, 50 mW cm(-2) , 30 J cm(-2) ) for 10 min per day for 14 days. Vascular density was determined using lycopersicom lectin staining. Immunofluorescent labeling, Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation were used to determine angiostatin and angiomotin expression. Recovery of blood flow to the ischemic limb was reduced in Tsk(-/+) compared with C57Bl/6 mice 2 weeks after surgery. LLLT treatment of Tsk(-/+) mice restored blood flow to levels observed in C57Bl/6 mice. Vascular density was decreased, angiostatin expression was enhanced and angiomotin depressed in the ischemic hindlimb of Tsk(-/+) mice. LLLT treatment reversed these abnormalities. LLLT stimulates angiogenesis by increasing angiomotin and decreasing angiostatin expression in the ischemic hindlimb of Tsk(-/+) mice.

Photochem Photobiol 2012 Dec 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23231468

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser Versus Ultrasound on Bone Density Recuperation After Distraction Osteogenesis-A Cone-Beam Computer Tomographic Analysis.

Andrade Gomes do Nascimento LE, Sant’anna EF, Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas A, Issamu Nojima L, Goncalves Filho AC, Antonio Pereira Freitas S

PhD Student, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: leonardeuler@hotmail.com.

PURPOSE: To assess the effects of low-level laser versus ultrasound irradiation on bone mineral density after distraction osteogenesis using cone-beam computed tomographic analysis in an experimental study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Distraction osteogenesis was performed with rapid maxillary expansion devices (Hyrax-Morelli, Sorocaba-Sao Paulo-Brazil). After a 2-day latency period, the distraction devices were activated for 10 days at a rate of 1 mm/day. Four groups of 6 animals were distributed as follows: 1) control, 2) laser irradiation on the right side, 3) ultrasound irradiation on the right side, and 4) laser irradiation on the right side and ultrasound on the left side. Cone-beam computed tomography was used to determine bone mineral density by measuring the recovery (percentage). Analysis of variance and the Tukey test (P = .05) were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The influences of low-intensity laser and ultrasound irradiation on bone mineral density were statistically significant. The analyses showed greater bone mineral density recuperation in the mandibular side with the ultrasound application. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest an acceleration of bone mineral density after laser and ultrasound irradiation. Ultrasound irradiation showed the greatest effects and the laser power positively influenced the recuperation of the bone density on the side opposite its application, causing a cross reaction or even exacerbating the inherent action of ultrasound irradiation.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013 Jan 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23351480

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of chronic passive smoking on the regeneration of rat femoral defects filled with hydroxyapatite and stimulated by laser therapy.

Franco GR, Laraia IO, Maciel AA, Miguel NM, Dos Santos GR, Fabrega-Carvalho CA, Pinto CA, Pettian MS, Cunha MR

Department of Morphology and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiai, Rua Francisco Telles, 250, Vila Arens, CEP 13202-550, Cx. Postal 1295, Jundiai, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Defects associated with bone mass loss are frequently treated by autogenous bone grafting. However, synthetic biomaterials such as calcium phosphate ceramics can substitute autologous grafts as long as they are biocompatible with bone tissue. In addition, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is used to enhance bone regeneration by stimulating the local microcirculation and increasing the synthesis of collagen by bone cells. However, bone health is fundamental for osseointegration of the graft and bone repair. In this respect, excessive tobacco consumption can compromise expected outcomes because of its deleterious effects on bone metabolism that predispose to the development of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of bone defects implanted with biomaterial and stimulated by LLLT in rats submitted to passive cigarette smoking. Porous hydroxyapatite granules were implanted into critical-size defects induced experimentally in the distal epiphysis of the right femur of 20 female Wistar rats submitted to passive smoking for 8 months in a smoking box. The defect site was irradiated with a gallium-arsenide laser at an intensity of 5.0J/cm(2). The animals were divided into four groups: control (non-smoking) rates submitted (G2) or not (G1) to laser irradiation, and smoking rats submitted (G4) or not (G3) to laser irradiation. The animals were sacrificed 8 weeks after biomaterial implantation. The right femurs were removed for photodocumentation, radiographed, and processed for routine histology. The results showed good radiopacity of the implant site and of the hydroxyapatite granules. Histologically, formation of new trabecular bone was observed adjacent to the hydroxyapatite granules in G1 and G2. In G3 and G4, the granules were surrounded mainly by connective tissue. In conclusion, passive smoking compromised bone neoformation in the defects and the LLLT protocol was not adequate to stimulate local osteogenesis.

Injury 2013 Jan 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23340234

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy on MCF-7 cells: a micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study.

Magrini TD, dos Santos NV, Milazzotto MP, Cerchiaro G, da Silva Martinho H

Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adelia 166, Bangu, Santo Andre, SP 09210-170, Brazil.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is an emerging therapeutic approach for several clinical conditions. The clinical effects induced by LLLT presumably scale from photobiostimulation/photobioinhibition at the cellular level to the molecular level. The detailed mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. This study quantifies some relevant aspects of LLLT related to molecular and cellular variations. Malignant breast cells (MCF-7) were exposed to spatially filtered light from a He-Ne laser (633 nm) with fluences of 5, 28.8, and 1000 mJ/cm(2). The cell viability was evaluated by optical microscopy using the Trypan Blue viability test. The micro-Fourier transform infrared technique was employed to obtain the vibrational spectra of each experimental group (control and irradiated) and identify the relevant biochemical alterations that occurred due to the process. It was observed that the red light influenced the RNA, phosphate, and serine/threonine/tyrosine bands. We found that light can influence cell metabolism depending on the laser fluence. For 5 mJ/cm(2), MCF-7 cells suffer bioinhibition with decreased metabolic rates. In contrast, for the 1 J/cm(2) laser fluence, cells present biostimulation accompanied by a metabolic rate elevation. Surprisingly, at the intermediate fluence, 28.8 mJ/cm(2), the metabolic rate is increased despite the absence of proliferative results. The data were interpreted within the retrograde signaling pathway mechanism activated with light irradiation.

J Biomed Opt 2012 Oct 17(10) 101516

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23223992

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Birefringence and Second Harmonic Generation on Tendon Collagen Following Red Linearly Polarized Laser Irradiation.

Silva DF, Gomes AS, de Campos Vidal B, Ribeiro MS

Post-Graduation Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP, 01504-001, Brazil, dfteixeira@uninove.br.

Regarding the importance of type I collagen in understanding the mechanical properties of a range of tissues, there is still a gap in our knowledge of how proteins perform such work. There is consensus in literature that the mechanical characteristics of a tissue are primarily determined by the organization of its molecules. The purpose of this study was to characterize the organization of non-irradiated and irradiated type I collagen. Irradiation was performed with a linearly polarized HeNe laser (lambda = 632.8 nm) and characterization was undertaken using polarized light microscopy to investigate the birefringence and second harmonic generation to analyze nonlinear susceptibility. Rats received laser irradiation (P = 6.0 mW, I = 21.2 mW/cm(2), E approximately 0.3 J, ED = 1.0 J/cm(2)) on their healthy Achilles tendons, which after were extracted to prepare the specimens. Our results show that irradiated samples present higher birefringence and greater non-linear susceptibility than non-irradiated samples. Under studied conditions, we propose that a red laser with polarization direction aligned in parallel to the tendon long axis promotes further alignment on the ordered healthy collagen fibrils towards the electric field incident. Thus, prospects for biomedical applications for laser polarized radiation on type I collagen are encouraging since it supports greater tissue organization.

Ann Biomed Eng 2012 Dec 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23247985

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser effects on simulated orthodontic tension side periodontal ligament cells.

Huang TH, Liu SL, Chen CL, Shie MY, Kao CT

1 Dental Department, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital. School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Taichung , Taiwan .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze proliferation, inflammation, and osteogenic effects on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells after low-level laser therapy (LLLT) under simulated orthodontic tension conditions. Background data: Low-level lasers affect fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis and reduce inflammation. Few studies have focused on the LLLT changes in the PDL caused by moving teeth. Materials and methods: A human PDL cell line was cultured in a -100 kPa tension incubator. The PDL cells were treated with a 670 nm low-level diode laser, output power of 500 mW (continuous wave modus) for 2.5 or 5 sec, spot area 0.25 cm(2), corresponding to 1.25 and 2.5 J at an energy density of 5 or 10 J/cm(2), respectively. PDL cell viability was assayed by detecting the ability of the cells to cleave tetrazolium salt to formazan dye. Inflammation and osteogenic markers were analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results: PDL cell viablity increased in the experimental group, based on the ability of the cells to cleave tetrazolium salt at day 7 (p<0.05). The experimental group showed no difference in PDL cellular morphology compared with the control group. The inflammation markers inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and interleukin (IL)-1 showed stronger expression in 5 and 10 J/cm(2) therapy at days 1 and 5, but decreased in expression at day 7. The osteogenic marker osteocalcin (OC) expression level was significantly higher at day 7 (p<0.05) than in the control cells. Conclusions: LLLT significantly increased PDL cell proliferation, decreased PDL cell inflammation, and increased PDL OC activity under the tension conditions used in this study.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Feb 31(2) 72-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23327633

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Tailor-made cell patterning using a near-infrared-responsive composite gel composed of agarose and carbon nanotubes.

Koga H, Sada T, Fujigaya T, Nakashima N, Nakazawa K

Department of Life and Environment Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu, 1-1 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0135, Japan. Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), 1-1 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0135, Japan.

Micropatterning is useful for regulating culture environments. We developed a highly efficient near-infrared-(NIR)-responsive gel and established a new technique that enables cell patterning by NIR irradiation. As a new culture substratum, we designed a tissue culture plate that was coated with a composite gel composed of agarose and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A culture plate coated with agarose only showed no response to NIR irradiation. In contrast, NIR laser irradiation induced heat generation by CNTs; this permitted local solation of the CNT/agarose gel, and consequently, selective cell-adhesive regions were exposed on the tissue culture plate. The solation area was controlled by the NIR intensity, magnification of the object lens and CNT concentration in the gel. Furthermore, we formed circular patterns of HeLa cells and linear patterns of 3T3 cells on the same culture plate through selective and stepwise NIR irradiation of the CNT/agarose gel, and we also demonstrated that individual 3T3 cells migrated along a linear path formed on the CNT/agarose gel by NIR irradiation. These results indicate that our technique is useful for tailor-made cell patterning of stepwise and/or complex cell patterns, which has various biological applications such as stepwise co-culture and the study of cell migration.

Biofabrication 2013 Mar 5(1) 015010

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23302183

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-Intensity Laser Irradiation at 660 nm Stimulates Transcription of Genes Involved in the Electron Transport Chain.

Masha RT, Houreld NN, Abrahamse H

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg , Doornfontein, Johannesburg, South Africa .

Abstract Background data: Low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) has been shown to stimulate cellular functions leading to increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of LILI on genes involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC, complexes I-IV) and oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthase). Methods: Four human skin fibroblast cell models were used in this study: normal non-irradiated cells were used as controls while wounded, diabetic wounded, and ischemic cells were irradiated. Cells were irradiated with a 660 nm diode laser with a fluence of 5 J/cm(2) and gene expression determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: LILI upregulated cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb polypeptide 2 (COX6B2), cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc (COX6C), and pyrophosphatase (inorganic) 1 (PPA1) in diabetic wounded cells; COX6C, ATP synthase, H+transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 (ATP5F1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 11 (NDUFA11), and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 7 (NDUFS7) in wounded cells; and ATPase, H+/K+ exchanging, beta polypeptide (ATP4B), and ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) (ATP5G2) in ischemic cells. Conclusions: LILI at 660 nm stimulates the upregulation of genes coding for subunits of enzymes involved in complexes I and IV and ATP synthase.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Feb 31(2) 47-53

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23240874

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Lack of adherence to the laser dosage recommendations from the world association for laser therapy in achilles study.

Bjordal JM, Lopes-Martins RA

Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway.

We have read with interest the study by Tumilty et al,1 which discussed patients with Achilles’ tendinopathy treated with low- level laser therapy (LLLT). Tumilty found no significant effect from LLLT, which, in our opinion, is to be expected with the doses they used. Laser parameters can be a complicated matter and may be confusing for clinicians. In this study, the authors claimed that treatment was given according to the dosage recommendations from the World Association for Laser Therapy (WALT) (www.walt.nu/dosage- recommendations.html). We disagree, but acknowledge the authors’ efforts to comply with the WALT dosage recommendations for a suitable power density (<100mW/cm2). The energy dose delivered per point is incorrectly reported as 3J in the abstract and method sections, and as .21J in the discussion section. The latter low dose explains how the modifications on the laser probe reduced power density, but unfortunately, this also reduced the laser output from 100mW to 7mW, resulting in a delivered energy dose on the skin of only .21J per point and 1.26J per session. We have made our own calculations based on the authors’ description and measured the optical laser output at the drilled hole of .07cm2 in the pipe. This confirmed that the lowest reported dose (.21J per point) is correct. The WALT recommended dosage per point in Achilles’ ten- dinopathy is 2.7 to 4.0J, when inflammation is present, and 30% less when inflammation is under control. From the general rule that a typical therapeutic window is limited by `50% of the recommended dose per point, the therapeutic window for Achilles’ tendinopathy is 1.35 to 6.0J per point. Thus, the lower WALT limit is about 6 times higher than the dose used by Tumilty. Consequently, the conclusion that no effect was found “despite adherence to recommended parameters from the WALT guide- lines”1(p738) is incorrect. In our opinion, the study was significantly underdosed and therefore did not comply with the WALT guidelines

Reference

1. Tumilty S, McDonough S, Hurley DA, Baxter GD. Clinical effective- ness of low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to eccentric exercise for the treatment of Achilles’ tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:733-9.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2012.07.034

The Authors Respond

We are pleased to be able to respond to the comments by Bjordal and Lopes-Martins on our recent article. It is clear from the level of detail provided that the comments have been carefully considered, and of course there is a debate over laser treatment parameters, which is not uncommon within the field.

This notwithstanding, it is confusing to read some of the comments leveled at our work, because we feel the points raised were well rehearsed in the discussion section of our article. In particular, it would appear that our discussion of the apparent ambiguity of the WALT treatment guidelines, and of the importance of the 100mW/cm2 irradiance limit for superficial tendinopathies, has been overlooked.

We therefore stand by our conclusion that no effect was found, despite adherence to recommended parameters. This is clearly an area where further work is required.

Steve Tumilty, PhD

Centre for Physiotherapy Research, School of Physiotherapy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Suzanne McDonough, PhD

University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Co Antrim, United Kingdom

Deirdre A. Hurley-Osing, PhD

University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Republic of Ireland

G. David Baxter, DPhil

Centre for Physiotherapy Research, School of Physiotherapy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2013 Feb 94(2) 408

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=23351679

 

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

 

About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
This entry was posted in Research. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *