Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / Cold Laser Literature watch for August 2012

Here is the rather late August LLLT / cold laser literature watch and its another juicy one. 42 papers for you to review including a triple blind oral mucositis study on 221 patients, acute low back pain dose response study, a systematic review on breast cancer-related lymphedema, periodontal LLLT in patients with diabetes, and a study of the safety of red light phototherapy of tissues harboring cancer.

Low level laser therapy for concurrent chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients – A triple blinded randomized controlled trial.

Gautam AP, Fernandes DJ, Vidyasagar MS, Maiya AG, Vadhiraja BM

Manipal University, Udupi, India.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oral mucositis (OM) is most cumbersome acute side effect of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). OM associated pain affects oral functions and nutrition of the patient that may result in discontinuity of treatment. Several modalities have been tried to prevent and treat OM, but none proved completely successful until date. We used prophylactic low level laser therapy (LLLT) for the prevention and treatment of CCRT induced OM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this triple blinded study, 221 HNC patients scheduled to undergo CCRT (Cisplatin (1, 22, 43day)+RT=66 Grays (2Gy/fraction), 33 fractions, 5 fractions/week, for 45days) were block randomized into laser (n=111) and placebo (n=110) group. Laser group received LLLT (HeNe, lambda=632.8nm, power-density=24mW, dosage=3.0J/point, total dosage/session=36-40J, spot-size=1cm(2), 5 sessions/week) while placebo received sham treatment daily prior to radiation. OM (RTOG/EORTC Scale), oral pain (VAS), dysphagia (FIS), weight loss and CCRT break were assessed. Data were analyzed using frequencies and percentage, generalized estimating equations (GEE) and odds ratio. RESULTS: There was significant reduction in incidence of severe OM (F=16.64, df=8876, p
Radiother Oncol 2012 Aug 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22884841

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Clinical and functional evaluation of patients with acute low back pain and radiculopathy treated with different energy doses of low level laser therapy.

Jovicic M, Konstantinovic L, Lazovic M, Jovicic V

Institute for Rehabilitation, Belgrade, Serbia. medi@eunet.rs

BACKGROUND/AIM: The main clinical phenomena in acute low back pain (LBP) with radiculopathy are pain and neurological disorders. Although some studies show that low level laser therapy (LLLT) has the ability to modulate inflammatory processes and relieve acute pain condition, the laser therapy dose protocol has not been yet completely established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three different energy doses of LLLT in patients with acute LBP and radiculopathy. METHODS: The study included 66 patients with acute LBP and radiculopathy who had been randomly divided into three groups (22 patients each) received three different doses of LLLT. The patients were treated 5 times weekly, for a total of 10 treatments, with the following parameters: wave length 904 nm, frequency 3,000 Hz, average diode power 25 mW; energy dose of 0.1 J per point in the first group, 1 J per point in the second and 4 J per point in the third group; daily treatment time and accumulated energy were 16 s and 0.4 J in the first group, 160 s and 4J in the second group and 640 s and 16 J in the third group, respectively. The parameters of assessment before and after the therapy were: lumbar and leg pain measured by visual analogue scale (VAS), local and general functional changes (Schober test, manual muscle test, straight leg raise test and the modified North American Spine Society-Low Back Pain Outcome Instrument-NASS LBP). RESULTS: Highly significant improvements (p < 0.01) were noted in all the groups after LLLT with respect to all the investigated parameters. The VAS scores were significantly lower in all the groups without a difference between the groups (p > 0,05). Functional improvements were better in the third group treated with the dose of 4 J per point than in other two groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Three different energy doses of LLLT were equally effective in alleviating lumbar and leg pain without side effects, but the dose of 4 J per point seemed to be more effective in improving the activities of daily living and lumbar mobility.

Vojnosanit Pregl 2012 Aug 69(8) 656-62

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22924260

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A systematic review of the effect of low-level laser therapy in the management of breast cancer-related lymphedema.

Omar MT, Shaheen AA, Zafar H

Physical Therapy Department for Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, 7 Ahmed Elziat Street, Giza, Egypt, Dr.taher_m@yahoo.com.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the management of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). METHODS: A systematic review of seven databases for clinical trials for LLLT in the management of BCRL published between 1990 and 2011 was performed. RESULTS: A total of eight studies on 230 patients were found. The methodological qualities of the selected studies were assessed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale, and the studies were categorized according to Sackett’s levels of evidence. Five studies were graded at evidence level II. Two studies were graded at evidence level III, and the remaining study was graded at evidence level V. CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate to strong evidence for the effectiveness of LLLT for the management of BCRL from five small studies of acceptable methodological quality. A dose of 1-2 J/cm(2) per point applied to several points covering the fibrotic area can reduce limb volume following BCRL. Further well-designed, large-scale studies are required to determine more precisely how effective LLLT may be in BCRL.

Support Care Cancer 2012 Aug 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22875413

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Low-level lasers as an adjunct in periodontal therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Obradovic R, Kesic L, Mihailovic D, Jovanovic G, Antic S, Brkic Z

1 Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, University of Nis , Nis, Serbia .

Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of periodontitis, and severe periodontitis often coexists with severe DM. The proposed dual pathway of tissue destruction suggests that control of chronic periodontal infection and gingival inflammation is essential for achieving long-term control of DM. The purpose this study is to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) by exfoliative cytology in patients with DM and gingival inflammation. Subjects and Methods: Three hundred patients were divided in three equal groups: Group 1 consisted of patients with periodontitis and type 1 DM, Group 2 of patients with periodontitis and type 2 DM, and Group 3 of patients with periodontitis (control group). After oral examination, smears were taken from gingival tissue, and afterward all of the patients received oral hygiene instructions, removal of dental plaque, and full-mouth scaling and root planing. A split-mouth design was applied; on the right side of jaws GaAlAs LLLT (670 nm, 5 mW, 14 min/day) (model Mils 94; Optica Laser, Sofia, Bulgaria) was applied for five consecutive days. After the therapy was completed, smears from both sides of jaws were taken. The morphometric analysis was done using the National Institutes of Health Image software program and a model NU2 microscope (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany). Results: Investigated parameters were significantly lower after therapy compared with values before therapy. After therapy on the side subjected to LLLT, there was no significantly difference between patients with DM and the control group. Conclusions: It can be concluded that LLLT as an adjunct in periodontal therapy reduces gingival inflammation in patients with DM and periodontitis.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2012 Sep 14(9) 799-803

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22928615

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A preliminary study of the safety of red light phototherapy of tissues harboring cancer.

Myakishev-Rempel M, Stadler I, Brondon P, Axe DR, Friedman M, Nardia FB, Lanzafame R

1 Department of Dermatology, University of Rochester , Rochester, New York.

Abstract Objective: Red light phototherapy is known to stimulate cell proliferation in wound healing. This study investigated whether low-level light therapy (LLLT) would promote tumor growth when pre-existing malignancy is present. Background data: LLLT has been increasingly used for numerous conditions, but its use in cancer patients, including the treatment of lymphedema or various unrelated comorbidities, has been withheld by practitioners because of the fear that LLLT might result in initiation or promotion of metastatic lesions or new primary tumors. There has been little scientific study of oncologic outcomes after use of LLLT in cancer patients. Methods: A standard SKH mouse nonmelanoma UV-induced skin cancer model was used after visible squamous cell carcinomas were present, to study the effects of LLLT on tumor growth. The red light group (n=8) received automated full body 670 nm LLLT delivered twice a day at 5 J/cm(2) using an LED source. The control group (n=8) was handled similarly, but did not receive LLLT. Measurements on 330 tumors were conducted for 37 consecutive days, while the animals received daily LLLT. Results: Daily tumor measurements demonstrated no measurable effect of LLLT on tumor growth. Conclusions: This experiment suggests that LLLT at these parameters may be safe even when malignant lesions are present. Further studies on the effects of photoirradiation on neoplasms are warranted.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Sep 30(9) 551-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22853435

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Treatment of mild, moderate, and severe onychomycosis using 870- and 930-nm light exposure: some follow-up observations at 270 days.

Landsman AS, Robbins AH

Division of Podiatric Surgery, Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA, USA. alandsman@cha.harvard.edu

We have previously reported the results of a clinical trial in which the Noveon laser was used to treat onychomycosis. In the 180-day follow-up therein it was noted that positive clinical impact was demonstrable by a clearly measurable decrease in positive fungal culture and a concomitant decrease in positive microscopy with periodic acid-Schiff-stained nail scrapings. Review of 270-day mycological data, which are now available, confirmed that there was further decrease in both measures. Indeed, 38% of the treated population had negative culture and microscopy, qualifying as “mycological cures.” These mycological cures occurred in cases categorized as mild, moderate, and even severe disease.

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2012 Mar-Apr 102(2) 169-71

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22461276

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Laser treatment of onychomycosis: an in vitro pilot study.

Hees H, Raulin C, Baumler W

Laser Clinic, Karlsruhe, Germany Department of Dermatology, Hiedelberg University Hospital, Germany Department of Dermatology, Regensburg University Hospital, Germany.

Background: Laser treatment of onychomycosis is the object of considerable interest. Laser therapy could be a safe and cost-effective treatment modality without the disadvantages of drugs. Some studies have described the inhibitory effects of lasers on the growth of fungal colonies. We therefore examined the effects of various laser wavelengths, which have previously shown inhibitory potential, on the fungal isolate Trichophyton rubrum. Patients and Methods: Isolates of fungal colonies were placed clockwise on culture plates. Each culture plate was irradiated on one half with one of the following treatment regimens: 1064 nm-Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 4 J/cm(2) and 8 J/cm(2) ; 532 nm-Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 8 J/cm(2) ; 1064 nm-long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 45 J/cm(2) or 100 J/cm(2) . The other half remained untreated. Standardized photographs were taken and areas of treated and untreated colonies were compared for growth inhibition. Results: There was no inhibition of fungal growth in any of the treated plates. Differences in size between treated and untreated colonies were not significant (p > 0.10). Conclusions: In this in vitro study Nd:YAG laser treatment of Trichophyton rubrum colonies failed to inhibit fungal growth. Nevertheless there might be an effectiveness in vivo which has to be clarified by clinical studies.

J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2012 Aug 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22897199

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Low intensity laser therapy speeds wound healing in hemophilia by enhancing platelet procoagulant activity.

Hoffman M, Monroe DM

Department of Pathology, Duke University and Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, Durham, North Carolina; Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Our group has previously shown that cutaneous wound healing is delayed and histologically abnormal in a mouse model of hemophilia. Hemostasis is not only required to stop bleeding at the time of wounding, but also produces bioactive substances that promote appropriate inflammatory and proliferative responses during healing. Low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been reported to enhance impaired wound healing in a variety of animal and human studies. The current studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that LILT can improve healing in a hemophilia B mouse model. Three daily treatments with 12 J/sq cm of 650 nm laser illumination reduced the time to closure of a 3-mm cutaneous punch biopsy wound in the hemophilic mice. All wounds were closed at 13 days in the sham-treated hemophilic mice, compared with 10 days in the LILT-treated hemophilic mice, and 9 days in wild-type mice. While LILT can speed healing by enhancing proliferation of cutaneous cells, we found that an additional mechanism likely contributes to the efficacy of LILT in the hemophilic mice. LILT enhanced the mechanical rigidity and platelet activity of clots formed from human platelet-rich plasma. Illumination of isolated platelets increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and enhanced binding of coagulation factors to the surface of activated platelets. Thus, while LILT can directly promote proliferative responses during healing, it also appears to enhance hemostasis in an animal model with impaired coagulation. These data suggest that trials of LILT as an adjunct to the usual hemostatic therapies in hemophilia are warranted.

Wound Repair Regen 2012 Aug 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22882528

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Therapeutic effects of low-level laser therapy after premolar extraction in adolescents: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

Paschoal MA, Santos-Pinto L

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP- University Estadual Paulista , Sao Paulo, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing process and pain levels after premolar extraction in adolescents. Background data: The advantage of using LLLT in oral surgeries is the reduction of inflammation and postoperative discomfort; however, the optimal dosing parameters and treatment effects in surgical procedures are inconclusive. Methods: A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted with 14 patients who were to undergo surgical removal of premolars. Patients were randomly allocated to the LLLT (test) group and placebo (control) group. Patients in the test group received 5.1 J (60 J/cm(2)) of energy density of a gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser (wavelength, 830 nm; output power, 0.1 W) at three different points intraorally, 1 cm from the target tissue immediately and at 48 and 72 h after the surgical procedure. For patients in the placebo group, the laser device was applied to the same points without activating the hand piece. The wound healing process was evaluated by an independent examiner by visual inspection with the support of digital photographs at baseline and 2, 7, and 15 days postoperatively. Patients recorded the degree of pain using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Compared with the placebo group, the test group showed a lower intensity of pain, but this difference was not statistically significant at any time point. The wound healing process was similar in both groups. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the LLLT parameters used neither increased the wound healing process nor significantly decreased pain intensity after premolar extraction in adolescents.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Sep 30(9) 559-64

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22870960

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Laser acupuncture for the treatment of asthma in children: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Zhang J, Li X, Xu J, Ernst E

Evidence-Based Medicine Center, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Tianjin , PR China.

Background and objectives. Laser acupuncture has often been recommended as a treatment of asthma. The technique is noninvasive, and seems particularly suitable for children. However, the results from several clinical trials are contradictory. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of laser acupuncture in the treatment of childhood asthma. Methods. Literature searches of electronic database were conducted in The Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, and two Chinese literature databases (CNKI and VIP) up to February 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing laser acupuncture for asthma in children were included. No language restrictions were applied. Three authors independently selected articles, extracted data, and assessed trial quality. Results. Our searches identified 13 potential eligible studies, of which three with a total number of 176 patients met our inclusion criteria. The quality of included RCTs were low. One RCT with a parallel group design showed positive results, while two crossover RCTs generated negative results. There was variation in the type of patients, the interventions, and outcome measures. Because of the significant clinical and methodological heterogeneity, no meta-analysis was performed. Conclusions. The number of RCTs and their total sample sizes are small; and their methodological quality is low. Therefore, no compelling evidence exists to suggest that laser acupuncture is not an effective treatment for childhood asthma. Further rigorous studies are warranted.

J Asthma 2012 Sep 49(7) 773-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22873427

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Low-level laser therapy improves the inflammatory profile of rats with heart failure.

Hentschke VS, Jaenisch RB, Schmeing LA, Cavinato PR, Xavier LL, Dal Lago P

Laboratorio de Fisiologia, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Following heart failure (HF), immune activation leads to an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used as an anti-inflammatory treatment in several disease conditions. However, the effect of LLLT on the skeletal muscle of rats with HF remains unclear. The present report aimed to evaluate the influence of LLLT on the inflammatory profile of rats with HF. The left coronary artery was ligated to induce HF and a sham operation was performed in the control groups. Male Wistar rats (n = 49) were assigned to one of six groups: placebo sham rats (P-Sham; n = 8), LLLT at a dose of 3 J/cm(2) sham rats (3 J/cm(2)-Sham; n = 8), LLLT at a dose of 21 J/cm(2) sham rats (21 J/cm(2)-Sham; n = 8), placebo HF rats (P-HF; n = 9), LLLT at a dose of 3 J/cm(2) HF rats (3 J/cm(2)-HF; n = 8), and LLLT at a dose of 21 J/cm(2) HF rats (21 J/cm(2)-HF; n = 8). Four weeks after myocardial infarction or sham surgery, rats were subjected to LLLT (InGaAlP 660 nm, spot size 0.035 cm(2), output power 20 mW, power density 0.571 W/cm(2), energy density 3 or 21 J/cm(2), exposure time 5.25 s and 36.75 s) on the right gastrocnemius for 10 consecutive days. LLLT reduced plasma IL-6 levels (61.3 %; P < 0.01), TNF-alpha/IL-10 (61.0 %; P < 0.01) and IL-6/IL-10 ratios (77.3 %; P < 0.001) and increased IL-10 levels (103 %; P < 0.05) in the 21 J/cm(2)-HF group. Moreover, LLLT reduced the TNF-alpha (20.1 % and 21.3 %; both P < 0.05) and IL-6 levels (54.3 % and 37.8 %; P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (59.7 % and 42.2 %; P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) and increased IL-10 levels (81.0 % and 85.1 %; both P < 0.05) and the IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio (171.5 % and 119.8 %; P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) in the gastrocnemius in the 3 J/cm(2)-HF and 21 J/cm(2)-HF groups. LLLT showed systemic and skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory effects in rats with HF.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Aug 31

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22936461

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Photobiostimulation and Tissue Engineering process on wound healing treatment by ClAlPc-nanoemulsion from a multiple-wavelength portable light source on a 3D-human stem cell dermal equivalent.

Primo FL, de Paula LB, de Siqueira Moura MP, Tedesco AC

Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Fotobiologia e Fotomedicina, Centro de Nanotecnologia e Engenharia Tecidual, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto-SP, Brazil. atedesco@usp.br.

This research evaluated the effect of multiple-wave lasertherapy on the healing process of surgical wounds based on in vitro models denominated stem-dermal equivalents. These human skin models were obtained from a co-culture of dermal cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The experimental tests were carried out using a LED portable to multiple waves (operating at 660 nm and 810 nm) at different doses to induce photobiostimulation (10 to 70 mJ.cm-2). What is more, a photosensitizer drug was employed as a new advanced designed nanomaterial, being a nanoemulsion with biopolymers to obtain an efficient drug delivery system to release lipophilic compounds. The studies were performed considering the light combination application monitoring the kinetic contraction of the dermal equivalent model and the quantification of important macromolecules (as metaloproteases derivatives), related directly with wound healing process. Results showed that an appropriate photomodulation using the combination of both wavelengths (in the red and infrared range) is possible, such that it can contribute to wound healing therapy and/or other pathological skin disease treatment.

Curr Med Chem 2012 Aug 16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22934760

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Low-level laser therapy in experimental model of collagenase-induced tendinitis in rats: effects in acute and chronic inflammatory phases.

Casalechi HL, Leal-Junior EC, Xavier M, Silva JA Jr, de Carvalho PD, Aimbire F, Albertini R

Post Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Rua Vergueiro, 235, 01504-001, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

A variety of treatments for tendinopathies is currently used or has been trialed. However, in fact, there is a remarkably little evidence that any conventional therapies are effective. In the last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been showing interesting results in inflammatory modulation in different musculoskeletal disorders, but the optimal parameters and mechanisms behind these effects are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate if the LLLT modulates the acute and chronic phase of collagenase-induced tendinitis in rat by interfering in mRNA expression for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP13 and MMP1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and anti-inflammatory mediator (interleukin (IL)-10). For such, tendinitis was induced by collagenase injection in male Wistar rats. Animals were treated with LLLT (780 nm, potency of 22 mW, 107 mW/cm(2), energy density of 7.5 J/cm(2), and energy delivered of 1.54 J) with different number of treatments in accordance with the inflammatory phase analyzed. LLLT was able to modulate mRNA gene expression of IL-10, VGEF, MMP1, and MMP13 both in acute than in chronic inflammatory phase (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that LLLT with parameters employed in the present study was able to modulate IL-10, VEGF, MMP1, and MMP13 mRNA gene expression both in acute than in chronic tendon inflammation. However, further studies are needed to establish optimal parameters for LLLT.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Aug 28

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22926534

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Laser and LED phototherapies on angiogenesis.

de Sousa AP, Paraguassu GM, Silveira NT, de Souza J, Cangussu MC, Dos Santos JN, Pinheiro AL

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, 62 Araujo Pinho Ave, Canela, Salvador, BA, CEP 40140-110, Brazil, paula_canti@hotmail.com.

Angiogenesis is a key process for wound healing. There are few reports of LED phototherapy on angiogenesis, mainly in vivo. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate histologically the angiogenesis on dorsal cutaneous wounds treated with laser (660 and 790 nm) or LEDs (700, 530, and 460 nm) in a rodent model. Twenty-four young adult male Wistar rats weighting between 200 and 250 g were used on the present study. Under general anesthesia, one excisional wound was created on the dorsum of each animal that were then randomly distributed into six groups with four animals each: G0-control; G1-laser lambda660 nm (60 mW, varphi approximately 2 mm, 10 J/cm(2)); G2-laser lambda790 nm (50 mW, varphi approximately 2 mm, 10 J/cm(2)); G3-LED lambda700 +/- 20 nm (15 mW, varphi approximately 16 mm, 10 J/cm(2)); G4-LED lambda530 +/- 20 nm (8 mW, varphi approximately 16 mm, 10 J/cm(2)); G5-LED lambda460 +/- 20 nm (22 mW, varphi approximately 16 mm, 10 J/cm(2)). Irradiation started immediately after surgery and was repeated every other day for 7 days. Animal death occurred at the eighth day after surgery. The specimens were removed, routinely processed to wax, cut and stained with HE. Angiogenesis was scored by blood vessel counting in the wounded area. Quantitative results showed that green LED (lambda530 +/- 20 nm), red LED (lambda700 +/- 20 nm), lambda790 nm laser and lambda660 nm laser caused significant increased angiogenesis when compared to the control group. It is concluded that both laser and LED light are capable of stimulating angiogenesis in vivo on cutaneous wounds and that coherence was not decisive on the outcome of the treatment.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Aug 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22923269

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Photobiomodulation by low-power laser irradiation attenuates Abeta-induced cell apoptosis through the Akt/GSK3beta/beta-catenin pathway.

Liang J, Liu L, Xing D

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science & Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China.

Apoptosis induced by amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is thought to associate with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Accumulating evidence shows that low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) is capable of reducing Abeta-induced apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we report a novel molecular mechanism by which LPLI attenuates Abeta(25-35)-induced apoptosis through the Akt/GSK3beta/beta-catenin pathway. We found that Akt activated by LPLI interacted with GSK3beta and phosphorylated it on Ser9 in the presence of Abeta(25-35), which resulted in the inhibition of GSK3beta. Furthermore, LPLI increased the nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and enhanced its T cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer factor-dependent transcriptional activity via the Akt/GSK3beta pathway to promote cell survival upon treatment with Abeta(25-35.) Our data demonstrate that LPLI has a prosurvival effect on Abeta-induced apoptosis and may be an effective therapeutic strategy in treating AD by targeting GSK3beta.

Free Radic Biol Med 2012 Aug 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22917976

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Prevention and treatment of mice paw edema by near-infrared low-level laser therapy on lymph nodes.

Meneguzzo DT, Lopes LA, Pallota R, Soares-Ferreira L, Lopes-Martins RA, Ribeiro MS

Center for Lasers and Applications, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Rua da Lagoa 541/15, Campinas, Sao Paulo, 13104-118, Brazil, daitm@uol.com.br.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to modulate inflammatory processes and immunological responses. The aim of this work was to investigate the hypothesis that near infrared LLLT (830 nm) over lymph nodes may reduce paw edema and contribute to the modulation of inflammation. The edema was induced by carrageenan inoculation (CGN) into the plantar surface of 100 male mice left hind paw. Animals were divided into five groups: CGN (control), no treatment; Diclo, sodium diclofenac; Paw, LLLT on the paw; Ly, LLLT on the inguinal lymph nodes; and Paw+Ly, LLLT in both paw and lymph nodes, and subdivided according to moment of irradiation: A-1 h and 2 h before CGN, B-1 h and immediately before CGN, C-1 and 2 h after CGN, and D-3.5 and 4.5 h after CGN. The parameters used were: energy = 1 J, fluence = 35 J/cm(2), power = 100 mW during 10 s. Paw volume was measured before and 1 to 6 h after CGN, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was analyzed. Edema prevention was obtained by the irradiation of Paw+Ly at moment A and at Ly at moment B, inhibition of edema formation was achieved by either Paw or Ly at moment C, and edema treatment was obtained by Paw or Ly at moment D (p < 0.05). MPO activity was significantly reduced on Paw at moment A, Paw and Ly on C, and in all irradiated groups on B and D. Our results suggest that LLLT was able to produce both anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory effects depending on to the site and moment of irradiation.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Aug 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22915167

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Low level laser arrests abdominal aortic aneurysm by collagen matrix reinforcement in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice.

Gavish L, Rubinstein C, Berlatzky Y, Gavish LY, Beeri R, Gilon D, Bulut A, Harlev M, Reissman P, Gertz SD

Institute for Medical Research-IMRIC, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. lilachg@ekmd.huji.ac.il.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent in vitro studies by our group indicated that low level laser irradiation (LLLI) modifies cellular processes essential to the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Using high-frequency ultrasonography (HF-u/s) in the angiotensin-II (Ang-II)-infused, apolipoprotein-E-deficient (Apo-E(-/-) ) mouse model of AAA, we found that LLLI markedly inhibited aneurysm formation and preserved arterial wall elasticity. We now report, using quantitative histopathology, the likely mechanism underlying the preventative effect of LLLI on aneurysm formation in this model. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed on 32 Apo-E(-/-) mice of which 10 were Ang-II-infused and LLL-irradiated (780 nm, 2 J/cm(2) , 9-minutes), 12 were Ang-II-infused but not irradiated, and 10 were saline infused. The aortas were excised at 28d, sectioned at 250 microm intervals, and stained with H + E, Movat-pentachrome and picrosirius-red for histomorphometry, and immunostained with Mac-2 and alpha-actin for detection of macrophages and SMCs, respectively. RESULTS: Transmural disruptions of the aorta occurred with distinct predilection for branch orifices. In the LLLI-treated animals, the frequency of these disruptions was lower (#branches with break points: 17 of 40 vs. 32 of 48, P = 0.023 by Chi-squared), their size smaller (length [mm]: 0.48 +/- 0.26 vs. 0.98 +/- 1.42, P = 0.044 by ANOVA with FPLSD), and the number of Mac-2-positive macrophages in the intramural areas of these disruptions lower than in the non-treated control (#Macrophages/0.01 mm(2) at break points: 11.6 +/- 7.2 vs. 26.0 +/- 15.7, P = 0.016 by Kruskal-Wallis). The average size of the medial SMCs was larger reflecting a heightened synthetic state (SMC size [microm(2) ]: 463.9 +/- 61.4 vs. 354.9 +/- 71.7, P = 0.001 by ANOVA with FPLSD). Furthermore, at sites of transmural disruption, the %area occupied by collagen of the overall area of attempted repair (%Col/WO) was significantly greater in the LLLI-treated animals versus control (%Col/WO: 41 +/- 13 vs. 32 +/- 16, P = 0.009 by ANOVA with FPLSD). CONCLUSION: Enhanced matrix reinforcement and modification of the inflammatory response at sites of transmural injury are prominent mechanisms by which LLLI reduces AAA progression in this model. Lasers Surg. Med. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2012 Aug 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22911625

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Low-Level Laser Therapy Restores the Oxidative Stress Balance in Acute Lung Injury Induced by Gut Ischemia and Reperfusion.

de Lima FM, Albertini R, Dantas Y, Maia-Filho A, Castro-Faria-Neto HC, Franca C, Villaverde AB, Aimbire F

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho – UNINOVE. Rua Vergueiro, 235, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

It is unknown if the oxidative stress can be regulated by low- level laser therapy (LLLT) in lung inflammation induced by intestinal reperfusion (i-I/R). A study was developed in which rats were irradiated (660 nm, 30 mW, 5.4 J) on the skin over the bronchus and euthanized 2 h after the initial of intestinal reperfusion. Lung edema and BALF neutrophils were measured by the Evans blue extravasation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, respectively. Lung histology was used for analyzing the injury score. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by fluorescence. Both expression adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-y (PPARy) were measured by RT-PCR. The lung immunohistochemical localization of ICAM-1 was visualized as a brown stain. Both lung HSP 70 and glutathione protein were evaluated by ELISA. LLLT reduced neatly the edema, neutrophils influx, MPO activity and ICAM-1 mRNA expression. LLLT also reduced the ROS formation and oppositely increased GSH concentration in lung from i-I/R groups. Both HSP 70 and PPARy expression also were elevated after laser irradiation. Results indicate that laser effect in attenuating the acute lung inflammation is driven to restore the balance between the pro- and anti-oxidants mediators rising of PPARy expression and consequently the HSP 70 production. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology (c) 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

Photochem Photobiol 2012 Aug 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22882462

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Laser irradiation affects enzymatic antioxidant system of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Ibuki FK, Simoes A, Nicolau J, Nogueira FN

Departamento de Biomateriais e Biologia Oral, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, Brazil, 05508-000.

The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of low-power laser irradiation in the antioxidant enzymatic system of submandibular (SMG) and parotid (PG) salivary glands of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The animals were randomly divided into six groups: three diabetic groups (D0, D5, and D20) and three non-diabetic groups (C0, C5, and C20), according to laser dose received (0, 5, and 20 J/cm(2), respectively). Areas of approximately 1 cm(2) were demarcated in the salivary glands (each parotid and both submandibular glands) and after irradiated according to Simoes et.al. (Lasers Med Sci 24:202-208, 2009). A diode laser (660 nm/100 mW) was used, with laser beam spot of 0.0177 cm2. The group treated with 5 J/cm(2) laser dose was subjected to irradiation for 1 min and 4 s (total irradiation time) and the group treated with 20 J/cm(2) laser dose was subjected to irradiation for 4 min and 16 s. Twenty-four hours after irradiation the animals were euthanized and the salivary glands were removed for biochemical analysis. The total antioxidant values (TA), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase enzymes were determined. SOD and CAT activities, as well as TA were higher in SMG of irradiated diabetic rats. However, in SMG of non-diabetic rats, laser irradiation decreased TA values and led to an increase in the CAT activity. In addition, there was a decrease in the activity of CAT in PG of diabetic and non-diabetic animals after laser irradiation. According to the results of the present study, low-power laser irradiation can affect the enzymatic antioxidant system of salivary glands of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Aug 7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22869159

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Low-Level Light Therapy Improves Cortical Metabolic Capacity and Memory Retention.

Rojas JC, Bruchey AK, Gonzalez-Lima F

Department of Psychology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Cerebral hypometabolism characterizes mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) enhances the metabolic capacity of neurons in culture through photostimulation of cytochrome oxidase, the mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes oxygen consumption in cellular respiration. Growing evidence supports that neuronal metabolic enhancement by LLLT positively impacts neuronal function in vitro and in vivo. Based on its effects on energy metabolism, it is proposed that LLLT will also affect the cerebral cortex in vivo and modulate higher-order cognitive functions such as memory. In vivo effects of LLLT on brain and behavior are poorly characterized. We tested the hypothesis that in vivo LLLT facilitates cortical oxygenation and metabolic energy capacity and thereby improves memory retention. Specifically, we tested this hypothesis in rats using fear extinction memory, a form of memory modulated by prefrontal cortex activation. Effects of LLLT on brain metabolism were determined through measurement of prefrontal cortex oxygen concentration with fluorescent quenching oximetry and by quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. Experiment 1 verified that LLLT increased the rate of oxygen consumption in the prefrontal cortex in vivo. Experiment 2 showed that LLLT-treated rats had an enhanced extinction memory as compared to controls. Experiment 3 showed that LLLT reduced fear renewal and prevented the reemergence of extinguished conditioned fear responses. Experiment 4 showed that LLLT induced hormetic dose-response effects on the metabolic capacity of the prefrontal cortex. These data suggest that LLLT can enhance cortical metabolic capacity and retention of extinction memories, and implicate LLLT as a novel intervention to improve memory.

J Alzheimers Dis 2012 Jul 31

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22850314

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Low-level laser therapy (808 nm) contributes to muscle regeneration and prevents fibrosis in rat tibialis anterior muscle after cryolesion.

Assis L, Moretti AI, Abrahao TB, de Souza HP, Hamblin MR, Parizotto NA

Laboratory of Electrothermophototherapy, Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil.

Muscle regeneration is a complex phenomenon, involving replacement of damaged fibers by new muscle fibers. During this process, there is a tendency to form scar tissue or fibrosis by deposition of collagen that could be detrimental to muscle function. New therapies that could regulate fibrosis and favor muscle regeneration would be important for physical therapy. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been studied for clinical treatment of skeletal muscle injuries and disorders, even though the molecular and cellular mechanisms have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LLLT on molecular markers involved in muscle fibrosis and regeneration after cryolesion of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in rats. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, injured TA muscle without LLLT, injured TA muscle treated with LLLT. The injured region was irradiated daily for four consecutive days, starting immediately after the lesion using an AlGaAs laser (808 nm, 30 mW, 180 J/cm(2); 3.8 W/cm(2), 1.4 J). The animals were sacrificed on the fourth day after injury. LLLT significantly reduced the lesion percentage area in the injured muscle (p < 0.05), increased mRNA levels of the transcription factors MyoD and myogenin (p < 0.01) and the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (p < 0.01). Moreover, LLLT decreased the expression of the profibrotic transforming growth factor TGF-beta mRNA (p < 0.01) and reduced type I collagen deposition (p < 0.01). These results suggest that LLLT could be an effective therapeutic approach for promoting skeletal muscle regeneration while preventing tissue fibrosis after muscle injury.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Aug 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22898787

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In vitro assessment of the bactericidal effect of low-power arsenium-gallium (AsGa) laser treatment.

Costa AF, Assis JC

Bachelor’s Degree Program in Physiotherapy, Santa Maria College, Cajazeiras, PB, Brazil.

The objective of the present study was to perform an in vitro evaluation of the bactericidal action of a low-power arsenium-gallium (AsGa) laser at a wavelength of 904nm and energy density of 6 J/cm(2). Ten petri dishes were seeded with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another ten with Staphylococcus aureus. The dishes were then randomly divided into four groups with five plates in each group. Two groups were treated with AsGa laser once a day for 5 days, while the other two groups received no treatment. No halo of growth inhibition was found in any of the groups. It was therefore concluded that laser treatment (AsGa, 904nm, 6J/cm(2)) had no bactericidal effect.

An Bras Dermatol 2012 Aug 87(4) 654-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22892791

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Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappaB signaling pathway by 635 nm irradiation via heat shock protein 27 in human gingival fibroblast cells.

Lim W, Kim J, Kim S, Karna S, Won J, Jeon SM, Kim SY, Choi Y, Choi H, Kim O

Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Bug-Gu, Gwangju, Korea.

Heat Shock Protein-27 (HSP27) is a member of the small HSP family which has been linked to the Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway regulating inflammatory responses. Clinical reports have suggested that low level light therapy/laser irradiation (LLLT) could be an effective alternative treatment to relieve inflammation during bacterial infection associated with periodontal disease. However, it is unclear how light irradiation can modulate the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. We examined whether 635 nm irradiation could lead to a modulation of the NF-kB signaling pathway in HSP27-silenced cells and analyzed the functional cross-talk between these factors in NF-kappaB activation. The results showed that 635 nm irradiation led to a decrease in the HSP27 phosphorylation, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, I-kappaB kinase (IKK)/Inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB)/NF-kappaB phosphorylation, NF-kappaB p65 translocation and a subsequent decrease in the COX-1/2 expression and PGE(2) release in LPS-induced human gingival fibroblast cells (hGFs). However, in HSP27-silenced hGFs, no obvious changes were observed in ROS generation, IKK/IkappaB/NF-kappaB phosphorylation, NF-kappaB p65 translocation, nor in COX-1/2 expression, or PGE(2) release. This could be a mechanism by which 635 nm irradiation modulates LPS-induced NF-kappaB signaling pathway via HSP27 in inflammation. Thus, HSP27 may play a role in regulating the anti-inflammatory response of LLLT. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology (c) 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

Photochem Photobiol 2012 Aug 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22892019

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Effects of Intravascular Laser Irradiation of Blood in Mitochondria Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Adults with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

Huang SF, Tsai YA, Wu SB, Wei YH, Tsai PY, Chuang TY

1 Department of Neuroregeneration and Neurosurgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital , Taipei, Taiwan.

Abstract Objective: This study investigated the clinical effects of intravascular laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) therapy on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting from trauma. Background data: Little is known about how ILIB may generate antioxidant defenses in humans, and there is still a lack of randomized, sham-control studies to indicate its influence on different metabolic pathways. Methods: Twenty-four chronic SCI subjects (assigned to a sham and a study group), and 12 normal subjects were recruited. The study group underwent 1 h daily of ILIB for 15 days over 3 weeks. The sham group underwent ILIB with no laser power. Results: Baseline measurements established higher oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the SCI subjects than in the normal subjects. At day 15 of therapy, the study group revealed a significantly higher mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, white blood cell adenosine triphosphate (WBC ATP) synthesis, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), than did the sham group. The study group intragroup comparison revealed significantly increased mtDNA copy numbers, WBC ATP synthesis, and TAC, with significantly reduced MDA, compared with its baseline measurements. The sham group intragroup comparisons demonstrated no statistical differences. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the study group was significantly reduced at days 10 and 15, with significantly higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) at day 45. Conclusions: Our study results contribute to the knowledge about the effectiveness of ILIB in alleviating oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic SCI patients.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Aug 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22891782

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Effect of laser acupuncture on disuse osteoarthritis: an ultrasound biomicroscopic study of patellar articular cartilage in rats.

Wang Q, Guo X, Liu MQ, Wang XY, Zheng YP

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

To investigate the effect of laser acupuncture (LA) on disuse changes in articular cartilage using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), Eighteen rats were randomly divided into the control group (C), the tail-suspended group (T), and the tail-suspended with LA treatment group (L). During 28-day suspension period, group L were treated with LA at acupoints on the left hindlimb while group T had a sham treatment. Ultrasound roughness index (URI), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC), cartilage thickness, and ultrasonographic score (US) of articular cartilage at patella were measured by using an ultrasound biomicroscopy system (UBS). Compared with the group C, URI significantly (P < 0.01) increased by 60.9% in group T, increased by 38.1% in group L. In addition, unloading induced a significant cartilage thinning (P < 0.05) in group T, whereas cartilage thickness in group L was 140.22 +/- 19.61 mum reaching the level of the control group (147.00 +/- 23.99 mum). There was no significant difference in IRC, IBC, and US among the three groups. LA therapy could help to retain the quality of articular cartilage which was subjected to unloading. LA would be a simple and safe nonpharmacological countermeasure for unloading-induced osteoarthritis. The UBM system has potential to be a sensitive, specific tool for quantitative assessment of articular cartilage.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 2012 838420

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22888368

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Effects of large-area irradiated laser phototherapy on peripheral nerve regeneration across a large gap in a biomaterial conduit.

Shen CC, Yang YC, Liu BS

Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; Department of Neurosurgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

This paper proposes a novel biodegradable nerve conduit comprising 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) cross-linked gelatin, annexed with beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramic particles (EDC-Gelatin-TCP, EGT). In this study, the EGT-implant site in rats was irradiated using a large-area 660 nm AlGaInP diode laser (50 mW) to investigate the feasibility of laser stimulation in the regeneration of a 15-mm transected sciatic nerve. The animals were divided into three groups: a sham-irradiated group (EGT/sham); an experimental group undergoing low-level laser (LLL) therapy (EGT/laser); a control group undergoing autologous nerve grafts (autografts). Twelve weeks after implantation, walking track analysis showed a significantly higher sciatic functional index (p < 0.05) and improved toe spreading development in the EGT/laser and autograft groups than in the EGT/sham group. In electrophysiological measurement, both the mean peak amplitude and the area under the compound muscle action potential curves in the EGT/laser and autograft groups showed significantly improved functional recovery than the EGT/sham group (p < 0.05). Compared with the EGT/sham group, the EGT/laser and autograft groups displayed a reduction in muscular atrophy. Histomorphometric assessments revealed that the EGT/laser group had undergone more rapid nerve regeneration than the EGT/sham group. The laser-treated group also presented greater neural tissue area as well as larger axon diameter and thicker myelin sheath than the tube group without the laser treatment, indicating improved nerve regeneration. Thus, these assessments demonstrate that LLL therapy can accelerate the repair of a transected peripheral nerve in rats after being bridged with EGT conduit. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A:, 2012.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2012 Aug 10

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The effects of low-level laser therapy in a rat model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Kirkby KA, Freeman DE, Morton AJ, Ellison GW, Alleman AR, Borsa PA, Reinhard MK, Robertson SA

Seattle Veterinary Specialists, Kirkland, Washington 98034. kakirkby@hotmail.com.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy applied to the serosal surface of the rat jejunum following ischemia and reperfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 15 groups and anesthetized. Small intestinal ischemia was induced by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 60 minutes. A laser diode (70 mW, 650 nm) was applied to the serosal surface of the jejunum at a dose of 0.5 J/cm(2) either immediately before or following initiation of reperfusion. Animals were maintained under anesthesia and sacrificed at 0, 1, and 6 hours following reperfusion. Intestinal, lung, and liver samples were evaluated histologically. RESULTS: Intestinal injury was significantly worse (P < 0.0001) in animals treated with laser and no ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) compared to sham. Intestinal injury was significantly worse in animals that underwent IRI and laser treatment at all time points compared to sham (P < 0.001). In animals that underwent IRI, those treated with laser had significantly worse intestinal injury compared to those that did not have laser treatment at 0 (P = 0.0104) and 1 (P = 0.0015) hour of reperfusion. After 6 hours of reperfusion there was no significant difference in injury between these two groups. Lung injury was significantly decreased following IRI in laser-treatment groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: At the dose and parameters used, low-level laser did not protect against intestinal IRI in the acute phase of injury. However, laser did provide protection against distant organ injury. Failure to observe a therapeutic response in the intestine may be due to inappropriate dosing parameters. Furthermore, the model was designed to detect the histologic response within the first 6 hours of injury, whereas the beneficial effects of laser, if they occur, may not be observed until the later phases of healing. The finding of secondary organ protection is important, as lung injury following IRI is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Lasers Surg. Med. 44: 580-587, 2012. (c) Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2012 Sep 44(7) 580-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22886545

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Low-level laser therapy vs. pulsed electromagnetic field on neonatal rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells.

Emes Y, Akca K, Aybar B, Yalcin S, Cavusoglu Y, Baysal U, Issever H, Atalay B, Vural P, Erguven M, Cehreli MC, Bilir A

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

To compare the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on osteoblast cells in a cell culture model. Fifty thousand neonatal rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells per milliliter were seeded and 0.06 mT PEMF, 0.2 mT PEMF, and LLLT at 808 nm were applied for 24 and 96 h on the cells. To evaluate cellular proliferation and differentiation, specimens were examined for DNA synthesis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, cell numbers, and viability of the cells. Morphological appearances of the cells were observed using scanning electron microcopy after 24 and 96 h of incubation. At 24 and 96 h, the control group had a higher cell proliferation than 0.06 and 0.2 mT PEMF groups (p = 0.001). At 96 h, 0.2 mT PEMF group had higher cell proliferation rate than 0.06 mT PEMF and LLLT groups (p = 0.001). The cell count and cell viability in 0.2 mT PEMF group were higher than the 0.06-mT PEMF and LLLT groups, although these differences were not statistically significant at 96 h (p > 0.05). At 24 and 96 h, cell viability in the control group was higher than the test groups. Alkaline phosphatase levels of the groups were comparable in both time intervals (p > 0.05). 0.2 mT PEMF application on osteoblast-like cells led to cell proliferation and differentiation better than 0.06 mT PEMF and LLLT at 808 nm, although a remarkable effect of both PEMF and LLLT could not be detected. The ALP activity of 0.2 and 0.06 mT PEMF and LLLT were comparable.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Aug 5

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Low-power laser therapy for repairing acute and chronic-phase bone lesions.

Mota FC, Belo MA, Beletti ME, Okubo R, Prado EJ, Casale RV

College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlandia, MG, Brazil.

To evaluate the therapeutic activity of low-power laser (InGaAlP: 670nm/30mW), at doses of 90J/cm(2), on the process of acute and chronic-phase repair of bone lesions of Wistar rats. Sixty-three adult males were divided into nine groups subjected to bone injury, in order to form the following treatments: T1 (control); T2 (acute-phase); T3 (chronic-phase) which were subdivided into three subgroups (n=7), analyzed on the 9th, 17th and 28th days post-surgery, after a period of daily treatment with laser. The animals with acute-phase treatment presented a more extensive endochondral ossification process. Laser-treated animals showed significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase levels and had an effect on biomechanical property, resulting in a gradual increase in bone stiffness. Laser therapy aided the bone consolidation process and favored the physiopathologic mechanisms involved in bone tissue repair, and its effects were more prominent when treatment started during the acute phase of the injury.

Res Vet Sci 2012 Jul 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22850224

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Laser technology: its role in treating and managing periodontal disease.

LeBeau J

Pacific Dental Services, Inc., Irvine, California, USA.

Compend Contin Educ Dent 2012 May 33(5) 370-1

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22616220

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Home laser treatments: acne, aging, and unwanted hair.

Chapas A, Bergstrom KG

J Drugs Dermatol 2012 May 11(5) 666

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22527442

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[Does intraoral low-level laser therapy decrease mucositis during head and neck cancer radiotherapy?]

Bootz F

Klinik und Poliklinik fur Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde/Chirurgie, Universitatsklinikum Bonn (AoR), Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127, Bonn, Deutschland, friedrich.bootz@ukb.uni-bonn.de.

Strahlenther Onkol 2012 Aug 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22907571

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Low level diode laser accelerates wound healing.

Dawood MS, Salman SD

Medical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq, monkithsdz51@yahoo.com.

The effect of wound illumination time by pulsed diode laser on the wound healing process was studied in this paper. For this purpose, the original electronic drive circuit of a 650-nm wavelength CW diode laser was reconstructed to give pulsed output laser of 50 % duty cycle and 1 MHz pulse repetition frequency. Twenty male mice, 3 months old were used to follow up the laser photobiostimulation effect on the wound healing progress. They were subdivided into two groups and then the wounds were made on the bilateral back sides of each mouse. Two sessions of pulsed laser therapy were carried along 15 days. Each mice group wounds were illuminated by this pulsed laser for 12 or 18 min per session during these 12 days. The results of this study were compared with the results of our previous wound healing therapy study by using the same type of laser. The mice wounds in that study received only 5 min of illumination time therapy in the first and second days of healing process. In this study, we found that the wounds, which were illuminated for 12 min/session healed in about 3 days earlier than those which were illuminated for 18 min/session. Both of them were healed earlier in about 10-11 days than the control group did.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Aug 16

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[Low-level laser therapy in the treatment of diabetic ulcers: an evidence problem].

Camoes Barbosa A, Simoes H, Lorga S, Mendes M

Servico de Medicina Fisica e de Reabilitacao. Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central. Lisboa. Portugal.

Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is the leading cause of lower limb amputation, representing a significant economic cost for health services. The development of diabetic ulcers is a main risk factor for amputations, which have a high mortality rate at five years. The ischemia caused by macrovascular disease is a key pathophysiological factor in the development of ischemic ulcers. Existing treatments are prolonged and associated with high rates of failure and relapse, requiring the combination of multiple therapeutic modalities. Lowlevel laser therapy has been used as an adjuvant therapy for diabetic foot ulcers, since the 1960’s, due to its hypothetical stimulating effects over microcirculation and tissue repair. Material and Methods: Identification of published scientific studies through a literature search on PubMed, The Cochrane Library and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Discussion and Conclusions: Existing evidence is favourable for in vitro cell models, but conflicting in animal models and human populations. There is significant methodological heterogeneity, which may be responsible for discordant results. Guidelines are proposed for future studies in this area, including the detailed characterization of ulcers and the parameters of laser treatment. Well-controlled studies, randomized and double-blind are needed. Accordingly to the primum non nocere, laser therapy can and should be used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot, because it isn’t invasive, has low costs and is a fast therapy without significant adverse effects.

Acta Med Port 2011 Dec 24 Suppl 4 875-80

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22863495

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Management of chronic Achilles tendinopathy.

Tendons transmit force between muscles and bones and, when stretched, store elastic energy that contributes to movement.(1) The tendinous portion of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles merge to form the Achilles tendon, which is the largest and strongest in the body, but one of the most frequently injured.(2,3) Conservative management options for chronic Achilles tendinopathy include eccentric (lengthening) exercises, extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT), topical nitroglycerin, low level laser therapy, orthoses, splints or injections (e.g. corticosteroids, hyperosmolar dextrose, polidocanol, platelet-rich plasma), while a minority of patients require surgery (using open, percutaneous or endoscopic methods).(4-8) Here we assess the management options for patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy (lasting over 6 weeks).

Drug Ther Bull 2012 Aug 50(8) 93-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22875366

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[Pain treatment with low reactive level laser (LLLT)].

Hosokawa T, Kawabata Y

Department of Pain Management & Palliative Care Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto.

Noninvasive and low reactive level laser (LLLT) is used as one of the light therapies without giving pain to the patient. Therefore, it is used often clinically in pain treatment, orthopedics, plastic surgery, dermatology, and dentistry. In the pain clinic field, it is one of the procedures indispensable to treatment of various pain including postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy or myofascial pain. In recent years the mechanism has been gradually elucidated by basic study. The action is on sensory nerve, sympathetic nerve, blood vessel, immunity, inflammation and central nervous system, and is thought to contribute to analgesia. Also, many reports such as action to inhibit “itch”, a promotor action of the bone metabolism, and the follicular maturation acceleration action have tested and elucidated these mechanisms, and will add further adaptation that will be new in future. Furthermore, development and downsizing of the free electron laser will promote elucidation of the low response level laser therapy. We expect much in the future of the LLLT.

Masui 2012 Jul 61(7) 718-27

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22860300

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[Present and future of LLLT in the area of orthopedics].

Saito A, Morimoto Y, Yoshimatsu T, Yamamoto T, Tamira K, Iriuchishima T, Masaki S, Horaguchi T

Department of Orthopedics Surgery, Surugadai Hospital, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo.

The biological tissue is irradiated with laser light, and carbonization, incineration, evaporation, blood coagulation, protein denaturation, and photoactivation will arise in order of the strength of the reaction. LLLT is the application of those photoactivated biological effects. In this paper, effective pain relief, photoactivation effect on chondrocytes, and, PDT (photodynamic therapy) using photosensitizer are introduced.

Masui 2012 Jul 61(7) 706-17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22860299

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[Phototherapy in rehabilitation medicine].

Okuni I

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo.

Rehabilitation can be classified into four types: medical, vocational, educational, and social rehabilitation. The goal of medical rehabilitation is to maintain and improve a patient’s physical and mental capabilities. Phototherapy is an important means of treatment in rehabilitation medicine and is usually performed with ultraviolet, infrared, or laser light. Among them, laser light has been shown to have various biological effects, such as increasing blood flow, promoting wound healing, reducing inflammation, and improving immune function. Laser therapy is as important a treatment option as exercise therapy in rehabilitation medicine, and is considered to be worth evaluating as a therapeutic means to relieve pain in musculoskeletal disorders, promote healing in peripheral neuropathy, and alleviate muscle spasticity.

Masui 2012 Jul 61(7) 700-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22860298

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[Xenon light therapy].

Kanai A

Department of Anesthesiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara.

The xenon light, generated by high-intensity electrical stimulation of xenon gas, is used to sterilize wounds, aid tissue repair, and relieve pain as a low-level light therapy. The light produced consists of non-coherent beams of multiple wavelengths in the ultraviolet to infrared spectrum. This broad-band light can be emitted in a continuous wave or pulsed mode, with the wave band chosen and the energy distribution controlled for the purpose. Specifically, wavelengths in the 500-700 nm range are suitable for treating superficial tissue, and wavelengths between 800 and 1,000 nm are suitable for deeper-seated tissues, due to longer optical penetration distances through tissue. One of the most common benefits in the xenon light therapy is considered to be the wide and deep irradiation of optimal rays to living tissue. Research into the use of xenon light for tissue repair and pain reduction is restricted within open-label studies and case reports. The present review expounded the effects of xenon light therapy on the basis of the available evidence in vitro and in vivo studies using a laser beam of single wavelength.

Masui 2012 Jul 61(7) 693-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22860297

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[Low reactive laser therapy].

Saeki S

Department of Anesthesiology, Nihon University School of Medicine (Surugadai Nihon University Hospital), Tokyo.

The type, characteristics and effect of low reactive laser equipment used for pain treatment in Japan are described in this section. Currently, low reactive laser therapy equipments marketed and used in Japan include diode laser therapeutic device with semiconductor as a medium consisting of aluminum, gallium and arsenic. Low reactive laser equipment comes in three models, the first type has a capacity of generating 1,000 mW output, and the second type has a capacity of generating 10 W output. The third type has four channels of output, 60, 100, 140 and 180 mW and we can select one channel out of the four channels. This model is also used as a portable device because of its light weight, and we can carry it to wards and to the outside of the hospital. Semiconductor laser has the capacity of deepest penetration and the effect tends to increase proportionally to the increasing output. Low reactive laser therapy is less invasive and lower incidence of complications. Although low reactive laser therapy might be effective for various pain disorders, the effect is different depending on the type of pain. We should keep in mind that this therapy will not give good pain relief equally in all patients with pain.

Masui 2012 Jul 61(7) 678-86

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22860295

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[Usefulness and clinical application of phototherapy: preface and comments].

Hanaoka K

JR Tokyo General Hospital, Tokyo.

The following articles describe topics of phototherapy including low reactive laser therapy by diode laser device, semiconductor as a medium consisting of aluminum, gallium and arsenic, near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp, and xenon light by high-intensity electrical stimulation of xenon gas. In addition, the applications of phototherapy in the clinical medicine such as rehabilitation, orthopedics and pain clinic are described. Phototherapy is a useful and safe method for pain relief.

Masui 2012 Jul 61(7) 676-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22860294

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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