Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / Cold Laser Literature watch for April 2012

32 LLLT papers for you this month including: Another RCT for chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis showing reduced severity and duration, another RCT showing how IR LEDs increase microcirculation in healthy subjects, and this surprised me; Laser-assisted nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus including MRSA. de Sousa explores which wavelengths change bacterial morphology, Cepera et al show faster bone regeneration with LLLT after rapid maxillary expansion, LLLT gets a mention for onychomycosis which I am yet to be convinced about (though anecdotal reports are enthusiastic), and a tendinopathy trial gone wrong. Click here to see my comment “When the right dose goes wrong”

Low Level Helium Neon Laser therapy for chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in oral cancer patients – A randomized controlled trial.

Gautam AP, Fernandes DJ, Vidyasagar MS, Maiya GA

Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Manipal University, Manipal, Udupi, Karnataka 576 104, India; Department of Physiotherapy, Manipal College of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Udupi, Karnataka 576 104, India.

BACKGROUND: Patients receiving chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for oral cancer (OC) often develop oral mucositis (OM). OM associated pain severely affects oral functions and nutrition of the patient, resulting in narcotic analgesic use and CRT interruption. Laser therapy has shown some promising results in preventing and treating OM caused by cancer therapies. So in this trial we used prophylactic Low Level Helium Neon (He-Ne) Laser for the prevention and treatment of CRT induced OM in OC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This double blinded trial block randomized 121primary OC patients scheduled to undergo CRT [RT dosage=66Gray/33fractions for 5days/week and chemotherapy (3 weekly Cisplatin)] into laser (n=60) and placebo (n=61) group. Laser group received He-Ne Laser (lambda=632.8nm, P=24mW, ED=3.5J/cm(2)) while placebo received sham treatment just before radiation for 6.5weeks. OM (RTOG/EORTC Scale), its associated pain, and total parenteral nutrition (TPN), were assessed on every week by a blinded assessor. Also opioid analgesic use, weight loss and any CRT break were recorded. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and Man Whitney U test. Level of significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Incidence of severe OM (29% vs. 89%, p<0.001) and its associated pain (18% vs. 71%, p<0.001), opioid analgesic use (7% vs. 21%, p<0.001)and TPN (30% vs. 39% p=0.039) was significantly less in laser than placebo group patients. Also duration of severe OM and pain experienced was less in laser than placebo group. CRT break required only for placebo group (9%) patients. CONCLUSION: Low Level He-Ne Laser decreased the incidence of CRT induced severe OM and its associated pain, opioid analgesics use and TPN.

Oral Oncol 2012 Apr 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22502814

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Effect of a low-level laser on bone regeneration after rapid maxillary expansion.

Cepera F, Torres FC, Scanavini MA, Paranhos LR, Capelozza Filho L, Cardoso MA, Siqueira DC, Siqueira DF

Methodist University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the effects of a low-level laser on bone regeneration in rapid maxillary expansion procedures. METHODS: Twenty-seven children, aged 8 to 12 years, took part in the experiment, with a mean age of 10.2 years, divided into 2 groups: the laser group (n = 14), in which rapid maxillary expansion was performed in conjunction with laser use, and the no-laser group (n = 13), with rapid maxillary expansion only. The activation protocol of the expansion screw was 1 full turn on the first day and a half turn daily until achieving overcorrection. The laser type used was a laser diode (TWIN Laser; MMOptics, Sao Carlos, Brazil), according to the following protocol: 780 nm wavelength, 40 mW power, and 10 J/cm(2) density at 10 points located around the midpalatal suture. The application stages were 1 (days 1-5 of activation), 2 (at screw locking, on 3 consecutive days), 3, 4, and 5 (7, 14, and 21 days after stage 2). Occlusal radiographs of the maxilla were taken with the aid of an aluminum scale ruler as a densitometry reference at different times: T1 (initial), T2 (day of locking), T3 (3-5 days after T2), T4 (30 days after T3), and T5 (60 days after T4). The radiographs were digitized and submitted to imaging software (Image Tool; UTHSCSA, San Antonio, Tex) to measure the optic density of the previously selected areas. To perform the statistical test, analysis of covariance was used, with the time for the evaluated stage as the covariable. In all tests, a significance level of 5% (P <0.05) was adopted. RESULTS: From the evaluation of bone density, the results showed that the laser improved the opening of the midpalatal suture and accelerated the bone regeneration process. CONCLUSIONS: The low-level laser, associated with rapid maxillary expansion, provided efficient opening of the midpalatal suture and influenced the bone regeneration process of the suture, accelerating healing.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012 Apr 141(4) 444-50

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22464526

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Immediate effects of monochromatic infrared energy on microcirculation in healthy subjects.

Mak MC, Cheing GL

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of monochromatic infrared energy (MIRE) on the microcirculation of the skin surface of the feet in healthy subjects. BACKGROUND DATA: Near-infrared energy was shown to increase microcirculation in an animal study. In humans, only one case study demonstrated that MIRE increases microcirculation in the skin of the lower limbs. METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited and randomly allocated into three groups to receive either: (1) active MIRE; (2) sham MIRE (placebo group); or (3) warm packs (control group) on the feet. The MIRE device comprised an array of 60 x 890 nm LEDs attached to flexible pads (3×7.5 cm). Each diode spot size was 0.2 cm(2), and each LED power was 12 mW with a power density of 60 mW/cm(2). The arrays were placed in direct contact with the skin for 30 min delivering a total fluence of 108 J/cm(2) over an area of 22.5 cm(2). Capillary blood cell velocity (CBV) and superficial skin blood flow (flux) were recorded before and after intervention. Results: Significant differences among the three groups were recorded in both CBV and flux (both p<0.05). Post-hoc comparisons indicated that a significantly greater increase in both CBV and flux occurred in the active MIRE group than in the placebo group and control group (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A 30-min MIRE produced a significantly greater increase in the CBV and flux of the feet in the active MIRE group than in the placebo and control groups.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Apr 30(4) 193-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22220935

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Laser-assisted nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Krespi YP, Kizhner V

Lennox Hill Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

OBJECTIVES: Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) contribute to 25% of nosocomial infections, increasing complications, health care cost, and growing antibiotic resistance. Nasal decolonization (ND) can reduce the staphylococcal infection rate. A new method of laser therapy (LT) MRSA ND was tested. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective, nonrandomized study. METHODS: Following institutional review board approvals, 25 patients colonized with MSSA/MRSA were allocated to 4 treatment arms; low-power, dual-wavelength 870-/930-nm laser alone (GR1); low-power, dual-wavelength laser followed by erythromycin (E-mycin) cream (GR2); low-power, dual-wavelength laser followed by peroxide irrigation (GR3); and high-power 940-nm laser alone (GR4). Quantitative cultures were obtained before and after in all arms. Laser therapy was performed via a laser fiber diffuser, delivering 200 to 600 J/cm(2) to each naris circumferentially. Patient’s distribution was 3 in GR1, 14 in GR2, 4 in GR3, and 4 in GR4 (last 10 recruited to GR4). RESULTS: Nasal decolonization for GR1, GR2, GR3, and GR4 was 1 of 3, 13 of 14, 2 of 4, and 4 of 4, respectively. Because LT + E-mycin cleared all first 3 patients of MRSA and MSSA, all remaining patients were treated with LT + Er with over 90% of patients clearing. No adverse events or discomfort were reported. CONCLUSIONS: First human study using LT and topical E-mycin in ND is presented. Laser therapy can eradicate MRSA and potentially resensitization of bacteria to the antimicrobial effect of erythromycin. Although decolonization was maintained at 4 weeks posttreatment, further studies can determine the LT long-term effect.

Am J Otolaryngol 2012 Apr 12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22503099

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Clinical effectiveness of low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to eccentric exercise for the treatment of achilles’ tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial.

Tumilty S, McDonough S, Hurley DA, Baxter GD

Centre for Physiotherapy Research, School of Physiotherapy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Tumilty S, McDonough S, Hurley DA, Baxter GD. Clinical effectiveness of low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to eccentric exercise for the treatment of Achilles’ tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct to a program of eccentric exercises for the treatment of Achilles’ tendinopathy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with evaluations at baseline and 4, 12, and 52 weeks. SETTING: Primary care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Participants with midportion Achilles’ tendinopathy were randomly assigned to 2 groups (LLLT n=20: mean age +/- SD, 45.6+/-9.1y; placebo n=20: mean age +/- SD, 46.5+/-6.4y). The 12-week evaluation was completed by 36 participants (90%), and 33 participants (82.5%) completed the 52-week evaluation. INTERVENTION: Both groups of participants performed eccentric exercises over a 3-month period. In addition, they received either an active or placebo application of LLLT 3 times per week for the first 4 weeks; the dose was 3J per point. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles’ questionnaire (VISA-A) score at 12 weeks; secondary outcome was a visual analog scale for pain. Outcomes were measured at baseline and 4, 12, and 52 weeks. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics exhibited no differences between groups. At the primary outcome point, there was no statistically significant difference in VISA-A scores between groups (P>.05). The difference in VISA-A scores at the 4-week point significantly favored the placebo group (F(1)=6.411, sum of squares 783.839; P=.016); all other outcome scores showed no significant difference between the groups at any time point. Observers were blinded to groupings. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical effectiveness of adding LLLT to eccentric exercises for the treatment of Achilles’ tendinopathy has not been demonstrated using the parameters in this study. ¬†Click to see my comment “When the right dose goes wrong”

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012 May 93(5) 733-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22541305

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Cyanoacrylate Versus Laser in the Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity: Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind and Non-Inferiority Clinical Trial.

Flecha OD, Azevedo CG, Matos FR, Barbosa NM, Ramos-Jorge ML, Goncalves PF, Silva EM

Specialist, Post Graduate, Adjunct Professor, Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valley (UFVJM), Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background: Dentin Hypersensitivity (DH) is a painful exaggerated response to normal stimuli such as cold, sweetness and brushing. Objective: The aim of the present controlled, randomized, double-blind non-inferiority clinical trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of cyanoacrylate (Super Bonder((R)) glue*) in the treatment of DH, when compared with the application of low intensity laser. Methods: The study included 434 sensitive teeth of 62 patients. Two-hundred and sixteen teeth were treated with laser and 218 with Super Bonder((R)). A Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) was used to record the parameters of pain related to the stimuli at baseline and after the treatment at intervals of 24 hours, 30, 90 and 180 days. Results: Both groups had significant reductions in DH. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups up to 6 months. Intragroup analysis showed that the effect of cyanoacrylate obtained at 24 hours remained for 90 days in response to air-jet test and 30 days for cold spray test. There was statistically significant difference between all other intragroup comparisons of the time-intervals (p<0.001). Conclusion: It was concluded that cyanoacrylate (Super Bonder((R))) is as effective as low intensity laser in reducing dentin hypersensitivity, in addition it is a more accessible and low cost procedure and can be safely used in the treatment of DH.

J Periodontol 2012 Apr 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22524329

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Laser GaAlAs (lambda860 nm) Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Bisphosphonate-Induced Osteonecrosis of the Jaw.

da Guarda MG, Paraguassu GM, Cerqueira NS, Cury PR, Farias JG, Ramalho LM

1 School of Dentistry, Graduation Program, Federal University of Bahia , Salvador, Bahia, Brazil .

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this article is to report a case of bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis (ONJ-BP) of the jaw treated by curettage of the necrotic bone, low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and antibiotic therapy. Background data: ONJ-BP is characterized by painful ulcerations of the oral mucosa, is prone to bone necrosis that does not heal within 8 weeks after diagnosis, and is often difficult to treat. No definitive standard of care has been established for ONJ-BP. LLLT improves wound healing, relieves pain, and appears to be a promising treatment modality for patients with ONJ-BP. Materials and methods: An 82-year-old man taking intravenous bisphosphonate presented with ONJ-BP after tooth extraction. The patient was treated by LLLT using a GaAlAs diode laser with the following settings: wavelength, 860 nm; 70 mW; continuous wave; and spot size 4 mm(2). An energy density of 4.2 J/cm(2) per point was applied in a punctual contact manner every 48 h for 10 days, in association with antibiotic therapy and curettage of the necrotic bone. Reduction in painful symptoms was reported after the second irradiation session, and tissue healing was complete at the end of the third week following oral curettage. The patient was followed up for 12 months and exhibited good oral healt and quality of life. Conclusions: The therapeutic protocol used in this study had a positive effect on tissue healing and remission of painful symptoms, resulting in better oral health and quality of life for the patient.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 May 30(5) 293-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22509722

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Efficacy of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in Oral Mucositis: What Have We Learned from Randomized Studies and Meta-Analyses?

Bensadoun RJ, Nair RG

1 Radiation Oncology Department, CHU de Poitiers , Poitiers Cedex, France .

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 Apr 30(4) 191-2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22486724

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Interferential laser therapy in the treatment of shoulder pain and disability from musculoskeletal pathologies: a randomised comparative study.

Montes-Molina R, Prieto-Baquero A, Martinez-Rodriguez ME, Romojaro-Rodriguez AB, Gallego-Mendez V, Martinez-Ruiz F

Unit of Physiotherapy, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, IRYCIS, Ctra. de Colmenar, 28034 Madrid, Spain.

BACKGROUND: Interference is an important feature of the waves. When two or more in phase light waves meet, a new and reinforced wave is generated. Shoulder pain is a common clinical problem and laser is one of the treatments frequently used to relieve it. OBJECTIVE: To test the safety of interferential laser therapy generated by two independent low level lasers and compare its effectiveness with conventional single laser therapy in the reduction of shoulder musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. DESIGN: Randomised and single-blind controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Physiotherapy Unit and Rehabilitation Department of Ramon y Cajal University Hospital (Madrid). PARTICIPANTS: 200 patients with shoulder musculoskeletal pain were randomly assigned in two groups, 100 people each. INTERVENTIONS: Group I, experimental (n=100) received interferential laser, placing two probes opposite each other over the shoulder joint. Group II, control (n=100) received conventional laser therapy, using a single probe along with a second inactive dummy probe. Lasers used were GaAlAs diode (810 nm, 100 mW), in continuous emission. Laser was applied in contact mode through ten sessions, on 5 shoulder points (7 Joules/point) per session. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and Shoulder Pain Disability index (SPADI), recorded before and after laser treatment. RESULTS: There were no differences between both groups in the reduction of pain, either assessed by VAS scale (median difference=0, 95% CI of the difference =-.6 to .5, p=0.81) or SPADI index (median difference = .4, 95% CI of the difference =-2.9 to 3.8, p=0.80), using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Comparison between the scores recorded before and after the treatment, within each group, showed significant differences for VAS during movement (median difference=3, 95% CI of the difference =2.07 to 4, p<0.001) and SPADI index (median difference=3.5, 95% CI of the difference =2.67 to 3.85, Wilcoxon test, p<0.001), for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the application of two low level lasers in order to generate interference inside the irradiated tissue showed to be a safe therapy. Both interferential and conventional laser therapy reduced shoulder pain and disability. Nevertheless, differences between them were not detected. Future research in this field could include applying this technique with other laser parameters or application forms.

Physiotherapy 2012 Jun 98(2) 143-50

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22507365

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Limb blood flow after class 4 laser therapy.

Larkin KA, Martin JS, Zeanah EH, True JM, Braith RW, Borsa PA

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, PO Box 118205, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. klarkin@hhp.ufl.edu.

CONTEXT: Laser therapy is purported to improve blood flow in soft tissues. Modulating circulation would promote healing by controlling postinjury ischemia, hypoxia, edema, and secondary tissue damage. However, no studies have quantified these responses to laser therapy. OBJECTIVE: To determine a therapeutic dose range for laser therapy for increasing blood flow to the forearm. DESIGN: Crossover study. SETTING: Controlled laboratory setting. Patients or Other Participants: Ten healthy, collegeaged men (age = 20.80 +/- 2.16 years, height = 177.93 +/- 3.38 cm, weight = 73.64 +/- 9.10 kg) with no current history of injury to the upper extremity or cardiovascular conditions. Intervention(s): A class 4 laser device was used to treat the biceps brachii muscle. Each grid point was treated for 3 to 4 seconds, for a total of 4 minutes. Each participant received 4 doses of laser therapy: sham, 1 W, 3 W, and 6 W. Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variables were changes in blood flow, measured using venous occlusion plethysmography. We used a repeated-measures analysis of variance to analyze changes in blood flow for each dose at 2, 3, and 4 minutes and at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes after treatment. The Huynh-Feldt test was conducted to examine differences over time. RESULTS: Compared with baseline, blood flow increased over time with the 3-W treatment (F(3,9) = 3.468, P < .011) at minute 4 of treatment (2.417 +/- 0.342 versus 2.794 +/- 0.351 mL/min per 100 mL tissue, P = .032), and at 1 minute (2.767 +/- 0.358 mL/min per 100 mL tissue, P < .01) and 2 minutes (2.657 +/- 0.369 mL/min per 100 mL tissue, P = .022) after treatment. The sham, 1-W, and 6-W treatment doses did not change blood flow from baseline at any time point. CONCLUSIONS: Laser therapy at the 3-W (360-J) dose level was an effective treatment modality to increase blood flow in the soft tissues.

J Athl Train 2012 47(2) 178-83

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22488283

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In Vitro Analysis of Bacterial Morphology by Atomic Force Microscopy of Low Level Laser Therapy 660, 830 and 904 nm.

de Sousa NT, Guirro RR, Santana HF, Silva CC

1 Department of Physical Therapy, FAMINAS – School of Minas , Minas Gerais, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the bacterial morphology by atomic force microscopy (AFM) after the application of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in in vitro culture of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Background data: Infections caused by S. aureus are among the highest occurring in hospitals and can often colonize pressure ulcers. LLLT is among the methods used to accelerate the healing of ulcers. However, there is no consensus on its effect on bacteria. Materials and methods: After being cultivated and seeded, the cultures were irradiated using wavelengths of 660, 830, and 904 nm at fluences of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 16 J/cm(2). Viable cells of S. aureus strain were counted after 24 h incubation. To analyze the occurrence of morphological changes, the topographical measurement of bacterial cells was analyzed using the AFM. Results: The overall assessment revealed that the laser irradiation reduced the S. aureus growth using 830 and 904 nm wavelengths; the latter with the greatest inhibition of the colony-forming units (CFU/mL) (331.1+/-38.19 and 137.38+/-21.72). Specifically with 660 nm, the statistical difference occurred only at a fluence of 3 J/cm(2). Topographical analysis showed small changes in morphological conformity of the samples tested. Conclusions: LLLT reduced the growth of S. aureus with 830 and 904 nm wavelengths, particularly with 904 nm at a fluence of 3 J/cm(2), where the greatest topographical changes of the cell structure occurred.

Photomed Laser Surg 2012 May 30(5) 281-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22509721

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Effect of 635nm Low-level Laser Therapy on Upper Arm Circumference Reduction: A Double-blind, Randomized, Sham-controlled Trial.

Nestor MS, Zarraga MB, Park H

Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of low-level laser therapy as a noninvasive method for reducing upper arm circumference. Design: Randomized, double-blind study whereby healthy subjects (N=40) with a body mass index of 20 to 35kg/m(2) received three 20-minute low-level laser therapy (N=20) or sham treatments (N=20) each week for two weeks. Measurements: Upper arm circumference was measured after three and six treatments and two weeks post-treatment. Primary success criterion was the proportion of subjects achieving a combined reduction in arm circumference of >/=1.25cm measured at three equally spaced points between the elbow and the shoulder. Secondary outcomes included total measurement change at each time point and subjective satisfaction ratings. Results: After six treatments, the low-level laser therapy group showed a combined reduction in arm circumference of 3.7cm versus 0.2cm in the sham treatment group (p<0.0001). Significantly more subjects in the low-level laser therapy group (N=12; 60%) achieved >/=1.5cm total decrease in upper arm circumference versus sham-treated subjects (N=0; 0%) (p<0.0005). Low-level laser therapy treatment resulted in a combined reduction in arm circumference of 2.2cm after three treatments and 3.7cm after six treatments (for each, p<0.0001) indicating a progressive and cumulative treatment effect. Body mass index remained unchanged for all subjects. A significantly greater number of subjects in the low-level laser therapy treatment group were satisfied with their results (p<0.05), believed their upper arm appearance improved (p<0.0005), and indicated the results exceeded expectations (p<0.05). The treatments were painless and no adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Noninvasive low-level laser therapy is safe, painless, and effective in reducing upper arm circumference and is associated with a high degree of subject satisfaction.

J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2012 Feb 5(2) 42-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22468172

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Physiotherapy in the management of disorders of the temporomandibular joint-perceived effectiveness and access to services: a national United Kingdom survey.

Rashid A, Matthews NS, Cowgill H

King’s College Hospital NHS Trust, Bessemer Road, Camberwell, London, SE5 9RS, United Kingdom.

Up to a quarter of the general population has experienced temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) at some point in time. Physiotherapy has been used in the management of TMD for many years, but evidence supporting its clinical effectiveness is limited. We investigated the perceived effectiveness of physiotherapy for patients with TMD among consultants in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) and the accessibility of these services in the United Kingdom (UK). Information was gathered from a postal or electronic questionnaire sent to the 356 OMFS consultants listed on the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons’ website. A total of 208 responded (58%) and 72% considered physiotherapy to be effective. Amongst these respondents, jaw exercises (79%), ultrasound (52%), manual therapy (48%), acupuncture (41%) and laser therapy (15%) were considered to be effective. Twenty-eight percent of respondents did not consider physiotherapy to be effective. Reasons for this included lack of knowledge or expertise of the physiotherapist (41%) and lack of awareness of the benefits of physiotherapy (28%). In relation to access to physiotherapy services, 10% of respondents had a designated physiotherapist for patients with TMD, 89% could refer directly to physiotherapy and 7% worked in an environment that provided training for physiotherapists. Patients were prescribed jaw exercises by 69% of respondents. Despite limited evidence to support its effectiveness, approximately three-quarters of OMFS consultants in the UK regard physiotherapy to be beneficial in the management of TMD.

Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012 Apr 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22541647

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Low-level laser therapy on the treatment of oral and cutaneous pemphigus vulgaris: case report.

Minicucci EM, Miot HA, Barraviera SR, Almeida-Lopes L

Department of Dermatology and Radiotherapy, Botucatu School of Medicine of Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, Distrito de Rubiao Junior s/n, 18 618-000, Botucatu, SP, Brazil, eminicucci@hotmail.com.

Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease that initially is manifested by painful intraoral erosions and ulcers which spread to other mucosa and the skin, generally more than 5 months after oral lesion manifestation. The treatment consists of prednisone alone or in combination with an immunosuppressive agent, and the clinical response is perceived within 2 to 4 weeks. Low-level laser therapy has been effective in accelerating the healing of injured tissue, thus inducing cell proliferation and increasing ATP, nucleic acid, and collagen synthesis. We reported two cases of pemphigus vulgaris that received systemic treatment associated with low-level laser therapy for oral and cutaneous lesions. We observed prompt analgesic effect in oral lesions and accelerated healing of oral and cutaneous wounds. Therefore, the present report suggests LLLT as a noninvasive technique that should be considered as an adjuvant therapy in oral and skin disorders in patients with PV.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Apr 27

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22538841

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New therapeutic options for onychomycosis.

Gupta AK, Simpson FC

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto , Ontario , Canada +1 519 657 4222 ext. 277 ; +1 519 657 4233 ; agupta@execulink.com.

Introduction: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail apparatus that affects 10 – 30% of the global population. Current therapeutic options for onychomycosis have a low to moderate efficacy and result in a 20 – 25% rate of relapse and reinfection. New therapeutic options are needed to broaden the spectrum of treatment options and improve the efficacy of treatment. Areas covered: This review discusses the emerging pharmacotherapeutics; including topical reformulations of terbinafine, new azole molecules for systemic and topical administration, topical benzoxaboroles and topical polymer barriers. The paper also discusses device-based options, which may be designed to activate a drug or to improve drug delivery, such as photodynamic therapy and iontophoresis; laser device systems have also begun to receive regulatory approval for onychomycosis. Expert opinion: Device-based therapeutic options for onychomycosis are expanding more rapidly than pharmacotherapy. Systemic azoles are the only class of pharmacotherapy that has shown a comparable efficacy to systemic terbinafine; however terbinafine remains the gold standard. The most notable new topical drugs are tavaborole, efinaconazole and luliconazole, which belong to the benzoxaborole and azole classes of drugs. Photodynamic therapy, iontophoresis and laser therapy have shown positive initial results, but randomized controlled trials are necessary to determine the long-term success of these devices.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2012 Apr 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22533461

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Re: Endonasal phototherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/hay fever.

White S, Leong SC

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK. E-mail: lcheel@doctors.org.uk.

Clin Otolaryngol 2012 Apr 37(2) 163-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22515718

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Effective Transmission of Light for Media Culture, Plates and Tubes.

Silva DF, Mesquita-Ferrari RA, Fernandes KP, Raele MP, Wetter NU, Deana AM

Nove de Julho University, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Center of Lasers and Applications, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The results of many investigations on Low Level Laser Therapy are contradictory and this is due to the large number of illumination parameters as well as the inability to measure the possible effects after irradiation with the necessary objectivity and the fact that the light needs to pass thorough barriers (usually the plastic of the culture dish/plate and culture medium) to reach the cells. In this manner, the objective of this study was to determine the absorption coefficient, penetration depth and effective transmission in materials commonly used in cell cultures. Among the most commonly used wavelengths in Low Level Laser Therapy, the lowest absorption coefficients were reached by DMEM and RPMI (alpha= 0.03 cm(-1) ), from 633 to 690 nm, which reach an effective transmission of 93% of incident radiation and penetration depth of 33 cm. Among the solid materials in the same range of the electromagnetic spectrum, the lowest absorption coefficient was obtained for the polystyrene (Petri dish and well plate), with alpha= 1.31 cm(-1) , 78% of effective transmission and 0.76 cm of penetration depth. This paper also presents a simple equation for estimating the amount of energy that will actually reach the sample. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology (c) 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

Photochem Photobiol 2012 Apr 27

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Low-level laser therapy in different stages of rheumatoid arthritis: a histological study.

Alves AC, de Carvalho PD, Parente M, Xavier M, Frigo L, Aimbire F, Leal Junior EC, Albertini R

Post Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Rua Vergueiro, 235, 01504-001, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Treatment of RA is very complex, and in the past years, some studies have investigated the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in treatment of RA. However, it remains unknown if LLLT can modulate early and late stages of RA. With this perspective in mind, we evaluated histological aspects of LLLT effects in different RA progression stages in the knee. It was performed a collagen-induced RA model, and 20 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: a non-injured and non-treated control group, a RA non-treated group, a group treated with LLLT (780 nm, 22 mW, 0.10 W/cm(2), spot area of 0.214 cm(2), 7.7 J/cm(2), 75 s, 1.65 J per point, continuous mode) from 12th hour after collagen-induced RA, and a group treated with LLLT from 7th day after RA induction with same LLLT parameters. LLLT treatments were performed once per day. All animals were sacrificed at the 14th day from RA induction and articular tissue was collected in order to perform histological analyses related to inflammatory process. We observed that LLLT both at early and late RA progression stages significantly improved mononuclear inflammatory cells, exudate protein, medullary hemorrhage, hyperemia, necrosis, distribution of fibrocartilage, and chondroblasts and osteoblasts compared to RA group (p < 0.05). We can conclude that LLLT is able to modulate inflammatory response both in early as well as in late progression stages of RA.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Apr 27

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A Simulation Study of the Combined Thermoelectric Extracellular Stimulation of the Sciatic Nerve of the Xenopus Laevis: the Localized Transient Heat Block.

Mou Z, Triantis I, Woods V, Toumazou C, Nikolic K

The electrical behavior of the Xenopus laevis nerve fibers were studied when combined electrical (cuff electrodes) and optical (infrared laser, low power sub-5mW) stimulations are applied. Assuming that the main effect of the laser irradiation on the nerve tissue is the localized temperature increase, this paper analyzes and gives new insights into the function of the combined thermoelectric stimulation on both excitation and blocking of the nerve action potentials (AP). The calculations involve a finite-element model (COMSOL) to represent the electrical properties of the nerve and cuff. Electric field distribution along the nerve was computed for the given stimulation current profile and imported into a NEURON model, which was built to simulate the electrical behavior of myelinated nerve fiber under extracellular stimulation. The main result of this study of combined thermoelectric stimulation showed that local temperature increase, for the given electric field, can create a transient block of both the generation and propagation of the APs. Some preliminary experimental data in support of this conclusion are also shown.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2012 Apr 9

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Low-intensity laser irradiation at 660 nm stimulates cytochrome c oxidase in stressed fibroblast cells.

Houreld NN, Masha RT, Abrahamse H

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa. nhoureld@uj.ac.za.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) has been used to modulate a variety of biological processes, including diabetic wound healing. The mechanism of action is thought to exist primarily with the mitochondria. This study aimed to determine the effect of irradiation on normal, diabetic, and ischemic mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Normal, diabetic and ischemic human skin fibroblast mitochondria were irradiated in vitro at a wavelength of 660 nm and a fluence of either 5 or 15 J/cm(2) . Non-irradiated mitochondria served as controls. Enzyme activities of mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and IV were determined immediately post-irradiation. Normal, diabetic, and ischemic cells were irradiated and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and active mitochondria were determined by luminescence and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. RESULTS: Irradiated diabetic mitochondria at a fluence of 15 J/cm(2) showed a significant decrease in complex III activity (P < 0.05). Normal (P < 0.01) and diabetic (P < 0.05) mitochondria irradiated at either 5 or 15 J/cm(2) showed a significant increase in complex IV activity. ATP results showed a significant increase in irradiated normal cells (5 J/cm(2) ; P < 0.05) and diabetic cells (15 J/cm(2) ; P < 0.01). There was a higher accumulation of active mitochondria in irradiated cells than non-irradiated cells. CONCLUSION: Irradiation at 660 nm has the ability to influence mitochondrial enzyme activity, in particular cytochrome c oxidase. This leads to increased mitochondrial activity and ATP synthesis.

Lasers Surg Med 2012 Apr 5

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Anti-hypercholesterolemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects of polarized-light therapy in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

Park D, Kyung J, Kim D, Hwang SY, Choi EK, Kim YB

College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea.

The effects of polarized-light therapy (PLT) on high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were investigated in comparison with that of lovastatin in rabbits. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding male New Zealand white rabbits with 1% cholesterol in diet for 2 weeks and maintained with 0.5% cholesterol for 6 weeks, followed by normal diet for 2 weeks for recovery. Lovastatin (0.002% in diet) or daily 5-min or 20-min PLT on the outside surface of ears was started 2 weeks after induction of hypercholesterolemia. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits exhibited great increases in serum cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) levels, and finally severe atheromatous plaques formation covering 57.5% of the arterial walls. Lovastatin markedly reduced both the cholesterol and LDL, but the reducing effect (47.5%) on atheroma formation was relatively low. By comparison, 5-min PLT preferentially decreased LDL, rather than cholesterol, and thereby potentially reduced the atheroma area to 42.2%. Notably, 20-min PLT was superior to lovastatin in reducing both the cholesterol and LDL levels as well as the atheromatous plaque formation (26.4%). In contrast to the increases in blood alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase following lovastatin treatment, PLT did not cause hepatotoxicity. In addition, PLT decreased platelets and hematocrit level. The results indicate that PLT attenuates atherosclerosis not only by lowering blood cholesterol and LDL levels, but also by improving blood flow without adverse effects. Therefore, it is suggested that PLT could be a safe alternative therapy for the improvement of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

Lab Anim Res 2012 Mar 28(1) 39-46

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Effects of a low level laser on the acceleration of wound healing in rabbits.

Hussein AJ, Alfars AA, Falih MA, Hassan AN

Department of Anatomy & Histology, College of Veterinary, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq.

BACKGROUND: Tissue healing is a complex process that involves local and systemic responses. The use of low level laser therapy for wound healing has been shown to be effective in modulating both local and systemic response. AIM: The aim of this study was to accelerate and facilitate wound healing and reduce scar formation and wound contraction of an open wound by a low level laser. MATERIALS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; METHODS: Twenty adult male rabbits, lepus cuniculus demostica, were brought from a Basrah local market and raised under proper management conditions in Basrah Veterinary Medicine College. The age of these rabbits ranged between 8-10 months and their body weight was 1.5-2 Kg. The rabbits were divided into two groups, group I (Control) and group II (Treated). General anesthesia was provided by a mixture of Xylazine and Ketamine at a ratio of 1:0.5m intramuscularly. Selected sites were shaved, cleaned and disinfected. A wound of 4-cm length and 3-cm depth was made on the gluteal region; six hours later, the wound was treated with gallium aluminum and an arsenide diode laser with a power output of 10m at a wavelength of 890nm in pulsed nods, with a frequency of 20 KLTZ. The wound exposure to the laser was once a day at 890 nm wavelength for 5 minutes over a 7-day period. Histopathological study was obtained regarding the wound depth and edge of the skin on the 3(rd), 7(th) and 14(th) days. RESULTS: The histopathological finding of group I at three days postoperative showed hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration, mainly neutrophils as well as congested blood vessels in the gap. At seven days, the gap contained necrotized neutrophils together with hemolysis and granulation tissue under the dermis tissue. Hemolysis was seen between the muscle fibers. At 14 days, there was irregular fibrous connective tissue proliferation with congested blood vessels seen in the gap with mononuclear cell infiltration. In group II at three days postoperative, severe inflammatory cell infiltration was observed, mainly neutrophils with proliferation of fibroblasts from a few fibrous connective tissues. On the 7(th) day, the main lesion was characterized by severe granulation tissue that consisted of proliferation of fibrous connective tissue and congested blood vessels in the gap of the incision with mononuclear cell infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that low level laser therapy (II) was effective in open wounds, which showed better regeneration and faster restoration of structural and functional integrity as compared to the control group.

N Am J Med Sci 2011 Apr 3(4) 193-7

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Treatment of experimental periodontitis in rats using repeated adjunctive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

Garcia VG, Longo M, Fernandes LA, Junior EC, Dos Santos Santinoni C, Bosco AF, Nagata MJ, Theodoro LH

GEPLO-Group of Study and Research of Lasers in Dentistry, Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic, Division of Periodontics, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Aracatuba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, vg.garcia@uol.com.br.

The aim of this study was to histologically and histometrically evaluate the influence of repeated adjunctive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) on bone loss (BL) in furcation areas in rats. Periodontitis was induced by placing a ligature around the mandibular molar in 75 rats. The animals were divided into five groups: the SS group was treated with saline solution (SS); the SRP group received scaling and root planing (SRP); the aPDT1 group received SRP as well as toluidine blue (TBO) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT; InGaAlP, 660 nm; 4.94 J/cm(2)/point) postoperatively at 0 h; the aPDT2 group received SRP as well as TBO and LLLT postoperatively at 0, 24, 28, and 72 h; and the aPDT3 group received SRP, TBO, and LLLT postoperatively at 0, 48, 96, and 144 h. The area of BL in the furcation region of the molar was histometrically analyzed. Data were analyzed statistically (P < 0.05). Animals treated with a single episode of aPDT showed less BL at days 7 and 30 than those who received only SRP treatment. No significant differences were found among the aPDT groups (P > 0.05). Repeated aPDT did not improve BL reduction when compared to a single episode of aPDT.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Apr 24

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The efficacy of the use of IR laser phototherapy associated to biphasic ceramic graft and guided bone regeneration on surgical fractures treated with miniplates: a Raman spectral study on rabbits.

Pinheiro AL, Santos NR, Oliveira PC, Aciole GT, Ramos TA, Gonzalez TA, da Silva LN, Barbosa AF, Junior LS

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, Salvador, Bahia, CEP:40110-150, Brazil, albp@ufba.br.

The aim of the present study was to assess, by Raman spectroscopy, the repair of surgical fractures fixed with internal rigid fixation (IRF) treated or not with IR laser (lambda780 nm, 50 mW, 4 x 4 J/cm(2) = 16 J/cm(2), varphi = 0.5 cm(2), CW) associated or not to the use of hydroxyapatite and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Surgical tibial fractures were created under general anesthesia on 15 rabbits that were divided into five groups, maintained on individual cages, at day/night cycle, fed with solid laboratory pelted diet and had water ad libitum. The fractures in groups II, III, IV and V were fixed with miniplates. Animals in groups III and V were grafted with hydroxyapatite and GBR technique used. Animals in groups IV and V were irradiated at every other day during 2 weeks (4 x 4 J/cm(2), 16 J/cm(2) = 112 J/cm(2)). Observation time was that of 30 days. After animal death, specimens were taken and kept in liquid nitrogen and used for Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy showed significant differences between groups (p < 0.001). Basal readings showed mean value of 1,234 +/- 220.1. Group internal rigid fixation + biomaterial + laser showed higher readings (3,521 +/- 2,670) and group internal rigid fixation + biomaterial the lowest (212.2 +/- 119.8). In conclusion, the results of the present investigation are important clinically as spectral analysis of bone component evidenced increased levels of CHA on fractured sites by using the association of laser light to a ceramic graft.

Lasers Med Sci 2012 Apr 24

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Dual role of cyclooxygenase 2 during tissue repair induced by low level laser therapy: an intriguing issue.

Ribeiro DA, Paiotti AP, Medalha CC

Abstract Tissue repair is an excellent example of pathophysiological model for studying the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) on eukaryotic cells. It has been established that two COX isoforms are expressed in human tissues: constitutive or induced. COX-1 activity is constitutive, present in nearly all cell types at a constant level; COX-2 activity is normally absent from cells, and when induced, the protein levels increase and decrease in a matter of hours after a single stimulus. Thus, the purpose of this review was to describe the role of COX-2 during tissue repair induced by low level laser therapy (LLLT) in humans and experimental models. COX-2 expression has been implicated in the onset or the exacerbation of inflammation during tissue repair induced by LLLT in a number of studies, Many studies are conducted to investigate the role of COX-2 during tissue repair induced by LLLT using different experimental protocols and dosages.Therefore, this is an area that warrants investigation, since the estimation of COX-2 expression from using such important techniques in therapeutics with respect to tissure repair, will be added to those already established in the literature as a way to improve health status and prevention of side effects.

J Cosmet Laser Ther 2012 Apr 16

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Application of laser-induced bone therapy by carbon dioxide laser irradiation in implant therapy.

Naka T, Yokose S

Division of Operative Dentistry, Department of Conservative Dentistry, Ohu University School of Dentistry, Ohu University School of Dentistry, 31-1 Misumido, Tomita machi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611, Japan.

This study evaluated the application of laser-induced bone therapy (LIBT) to reduce implant healing time in rat tibia. Twenty 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawlay rats were used. The rats received laser irradiation (laser group) or sham operation (control group) on either side of the tibia. Five days after invasion, titanium implants were inserted in proximal tibia. Five, 10, and 20 days after implant placement, tibiae were collected. After taking micro-CT and performing a torque test, the tibiae were decalcified and 8-mum-thick sections were prepared. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results. Micro-CT images, removal torque values, and histomorphometric analysis data demonstrated a significantly accelerated bone formation in the laser group earlier in the healing process. Conclusion. The use of laser irradiation was effective in promoting bone formation and acquiring osseointegration of titanium implants inserted in rat tibia. LIBT may be suitable for use in implant therapy.

Int J Dent 2012 2012 409496

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An investigation of the transmission and attenuation of intense pulsed light on samples of human Achilles tendon and surrounding tissue.

Hutchison AM, Beard DJ, Bishop J, Pallister I, Davies W

Orthopaedic Department, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Swansea, Wales, UK; The School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, UK. anne-marie.hutchison@wales.nhs.uk.

BACKGROUND: Light therapy is a common mode of treatment for musculoskeletal injuries but the depth of penetration of light radiation is controversial. Evidence exists for the efficacy of intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment for the rejuvenation of skin (superficial tissue) but it is not known if the IPL can penetrate deeper. If the IPL can penetrate to the depth of the Achilles tendon it may provide a potential management options in the treatment of a chronic mid-body Achilles tendinopathy. OBJECTIVES: To examine if any optical radiation produced by an IPL transmits to the depth of the Achilles tendon when applied cutaneously to excised samples of human Achilles tissue. A secondary aim was to establish the relative amount of optical radiation that was attenuated within the tendon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three samples of human Achilles tendon and surrounding tissue were harvested following elective lower limb amputation operations. Each sample was irradiated 2-6 cm above the insertion into the calcaneus (area of an Achilles tendinopathy) with IPL (model iPulse; Cyden Ltd, Wales, UK) set at a single pulse of 25 millisecond, wavelength range 530-1,110 nm and fluence of 13 J/cm(2) . The transmission of light radiation was evaluated using (a) standard SLR digital camera, (b) spectrometer, and (c) an external energy meter. RESULTS: Light radiation was found to have transmitted through each of the three tissue samples by all three instruments. There were observable differences in the color of light detected for the control photo and the IPL irradiated tissue samples photographs. The percentage of fluence that was detected to have transmitted through the tissue samples by the energy meter was 4-8.1% and wavelengths between 645 and 843 nm were detected to have transmitted through the tissue by the spectrometer. In addition, the percentage of light radiation that attenuated with the tendon was 10.2-17.32%. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provides evidence that IPL penetrates to the depth of the Achilles tendon and attenuates with the tendon. IPL has potential to produce physiological effects in the treatment of patients with a chronic mid-body Achilles tendinopathy.

Lasers Surg Med 2012 Apr 13

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on intramembranous and endochondral autogenous bone grafts healing.

Biguetti CC, Filho EJ, de Andrade Holgado L, Caviquioli G, Moreschi E, Comparin E, Matsumoto MA

School of Dentistry, Sagrado Coracao University-USC, Rua Irma Arminda 7-33, CEP 17011-160 Jardim Brasil, Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process of intramembranous (IM) and endochondral (EC) bone grafts under low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Male rabbits underwent onlay autogenous bone grafts (1 cm in diameter) retrieved from the calvaria and iliac crest and fixed on parietal bones, divided into four groups: Calvaria (C), Iliac (I), Calvaria + LLLT (C+L), and Iliac + LLLT (I+L). Animals from C+L and I+L Groups had their grafts exposed to LLLT (AlGaAs-808 nm, CW, 30 mW, 0.028 cm(2) average laser beam area), 15 s irradiation time (16 J/cm(2) per point-total of 64 J/cm(2) per session). After 7, 14, 30, and 60 days, grafts were retrieved and resorption pattern analyzed by means of morphometry and TRAP-positive osteoclasts detection. Differences in the resorption levels of iliac grafts were observed, presenting 40% in I group against 8% in I+L grafts at the 14th day of evaluation (P < 0.05). After 30 days, resorption was maintained at 41% in I group, whereas I+L presented 15% in the same period (P = 0.0591). No significant differences were noted in the rates of calvaria grafts resorption in all periods. A significant higher number of osteoclasts on the grafts’ surface was observed in C+L Group at day 30, in comparison with C group. In I+L Group, prevalence of osteoclasts was marked at day 7 (P < 0.05) in comparison to I Group. In general, it was concluded that biomodulative effects of LLLT did not significantly affect healing and resorption processes of autogenous bone grafts from EC and IM origins.

Microsc Res Tech 2012 Apr 14

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[The electrophysiological properties of voltage-gated potassium channels on cultivated porcine retinal ganglion cells irradiated with continuous near-infrared laser].

Xu K, Shao Y, Sun CS, Liang SS, Hao S, Li XY

Department of Ophthalmology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of continuous near-infrared (CNI) laser to potassium ion channels on retinal ganglion cell (RGC). METHODS: Experiment study. Porcine RGC was cultured with enzymatic digestion method in vitro by taking off the retina from the piglets. Whole-cell patch clamp mode recordings were obtained from primary cultured porcine RGC. Whole-cell currents of porcine RGC irradiated with a single-mode CNI laser of 845 nm wavelength and 30 mW power were also recorded. The primary cultured porcine RGC were divided into laser irradiation group and control group according to whether they accepted CNI laser of 845 nm wavelength. t test was used to analyze the average peak amplitude between the two groups. RESULTS: The cells had the morphological characteristics of typical neurons after one week cultured observed by inverted phase contrast microscope. The body and bumps with yellow-green fluorescence was positive cell which observed by immune cell fluorescence chemical testing. CNI laser had a regulation on outward potassium current of porcine RGC in a voltage-dependent manner. There was significant difference on the average peak amplitude of potassium current between the laser irradiation group [(634.4 +/- 86.8) Pa] and the control group [(580.5 +/- 116.4) Pa], respectively (n = 30, t = 7.923, P = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: CNI laser can change the properties of outward K(+) channel. Therefore, formation and releasing of action potential is affected. Further, physiological functions of RGC are regulated, which might contribute to the protection and restoration of injured RGC. It can be provided a new scholar direction for the protection of the RGC, which are injured by glaucoma.

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2012 Feb 48(2) 153-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22490952

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Effect of 710-nm Visible Light Irradiation on Neuroprotection and Immune Function after Stroke.

Choi DH, Lim JH, Lee KH, Kim MY, Kim HY, Shin CY, Han SH, Lee J

Center for Neuroscience Research, SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The phototherapeutic effects of low level infrared laser irradiation (808 nm) on brain neuronal cell protection after stroke have been presented recently. We previously reported that 710-nm wavelength visible light (VIS) increases total lymphocyte counts in vivo, especially CD4(+) T lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of 710-nm VIS irradiation on neuronal protection and recovery correlating with cellular immunity in stroke rats. Methods: Rats were subjected to 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion and were divided into two groups: irradiation and no irradiation. The irradiation group had been exposed to 710-nm VIS for 3 weeks after MCAO establishment or sham operation. The helper T cell (CD4(+)) count in the whole blood and infarct volume were measured. Messenger RNA expression levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured, a histologic study including microglia activation and regulatory T (Treg) cell markers, neurological severity scoring and a parallel bar walking test were all performed. Results: CD4(+) cell count was reduced after MCAO but was significantly increased by 710-nm VIS irradiation. The infarct sizes were decreased in the MCAO + irradiation group compared with the MCAO control group. IL-10 mRNA expression and the immunoreactivity of Treg cells were increased in the MCAO + irradiation group compared with the MCAO control group. Increased microglia activation after MCAO was reduced by 710-nm VIS irradiation. The irradiation group also showed improved neurological severity score levels and step fault scores after MCAO. Conclusions: Our data suggest that 710-nm VIS irradiation may activate cellular immunity, reduce brain infarction and ultimately induce functional recovery in a stroke animal model.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2012 Mar 30 19(5) 267-276

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Effects of pulsed infra-red low level-laser irradiation on open skin wound healing of healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by biomechanical evaluation.

Dadpay M, Sharifian Z, Bayat M, Bayat M, Dabbagh A

Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Army University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Diabetes is one of the most common causes of delayed wound healing. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) are one of the therapeutic modalities used for the treatment of wounds. The aim of present study is to evaluate the effect of LLLT in experimentally-induced diabetic rats. Two full thickness skin incisions were made on dorsal regions of each rat. The wounds were randomly divided into laser-treated and placebo. Laser-treated wounds of the healthy (non-diabetic) animals were submitted to a pulsed-infrared 890nm laser with an 80Hz frequency and 0.03J/cm(2) for each wound point in the first healthy group and 0.2J/cm(2) in the second healthy group. Laser-treated wounds of the diabetic animals received the same pulsed-infrared laser treatments as the second group for each wound point. On day 15, a sample from each wound was extracted and submitted for tensile strength evaluation. Laser irradiation with 0.03J/cm(2) significantly decreased the maximum load for wound repair in healthy rats (p=0.015). Laser irradiation with 0.2J/cm(2) significantly increased the maximum load in wounds from the healthy control (p=0.021) and diabetic (p<001) groups. Laser treatments with a pulsed infrared laser at 0.2J/cm(2) significantly accelerated wound healing in both healthy and diabetic rats.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2012 Jun 4 111 1-8

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Laser irradiation did not increase the proliferation or the differentiation of stem cells from normal and inflamed dental pulp.

Pereira LO, Longo JP, Azevedo RB

Laboratory of Nanobiotechnolgy, Department of Genetics and Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported to be responsible for promoting photostimulatory and photobiomodulatory effects in vivo and in vitro, stimulating cell growth, increasing cell metabolism, improving cell regeneration and invoking an anti-inflammatory response. This study was performed in order to investigate whether low-level laser therapy could increase the proliferation and differentiation potentials of hDPSC isolated from healthy dental pulps and from inflamed pulps. DESIGN: Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSC) were isolated from normal and inflamed dental pulps from different patients. STRO-1-positive cells were isolated and irradiated with a red low-level laser (660nm) in four different energy fluences (0.05, 0.30, 7 and 42J/cm(2)); the authors hypothesized that the first three fluences would promote biostimulatory effects, whereas the highest dose would induce antiproliferative effects. The two lower fluences were produced by irradiating the two higher fluences through a dentine disc, which was used to simulate a clinical condition. The proliferation and the cell odonto-osteogenic differentiation competence were compared. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were observed between the proliferation rates and the relative productions of mineralized nodules compared to the respective controls, either for hDPSC from normal or inflamed dental pulps. CONCLUSIONS: The irradiation with low-level InGaAlP red low-level laser (660nm) in four different energy fluences (0.05, 0.30, 7 and 42J/cm(2)) potentiated neither proliferation nor odonto-osteogenic differentiation of hDPSC isolated from patients with normal and inflamed pulps.

Arch Oral Biol 2012 Mar 31

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22469390

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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