LLLT Literature Watch for May 2010

34 new LLLT papers for your to review including LED nerve regeneration, post-mastectomy lymphedema, healing of mucous membrane pemphigoid, biceps muscle performance and LED attenuation of oxidative renal damage in Type I diabetic rats.

P.S. when did you last get trained?

  • How much LLLT is enough,¬†how much is to much?
  • What are joules and J/cm2?
  • Do they matter ?
  • What is the difference between laser and LED?

Attend a THOR training to find out. Details here https://www.thorlaser.com/courses/

Low Level Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: A Promising Procedure.

Yilmaz HG, Kusakci Seker B, Bayindir H, Tozum TF

Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Near East University, Mersin10, Turkey.

Background: Mucous membrane pemphigoid is a heterogeneous group of autoimmune, subepithelial blistering diseases. A combination of both topical and systemic steroid treatment is often used when managing patients with mucous membrane pemphigoid. The use of systemic steroids presents an increased risk of adverse side effects. Consequently, effective alternative modalities of therapy should be considered, such as application of low level laser therapy (LLLT). Methods: Patient suffering from mucous membrane pemphigoid who was successfully treated with the application of local corticosteroids and LLLT using an 810 nm diode laser was presented. The lesions were treated by LLLT over a period of 7 days using a continuous waveform for 40 seconds and an energy density of 5 J/cm(2). Results: Following treatment a significant improvement in tissue color and consistency was observed. The patient was followed every month for a period of 12 months, and the lesions healed uneventfully. Conclusions: The results reported in this case show that healing of mucous membrane pemphigoid can be achieved when LLLT is used as an adjunct to following local corticosteroid application.

J Periodontol 2010 May 3


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The short-term effects of low-level laser therapy in the management of breast-cancer-related lymphedema.

Dirican, A, Andacoglu, O, Johnson, R, McGuire, K, Mager, L, Soran, A

Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

BACKGROUND: Breast-cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a chronic disease, and currently there is no definitive treatment for it. There are some therapeutic interventions targeted to decrease the limb swelling and the associated problems. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in the treatment of post-mastectomy lymphedema since 2007 in the US. The aim of this study is to review our short-term experience with LLLT in the treatment of BCRL. METHOD: Seventeen BCRL patients referred to our lymphedema program between 2007 and 2009 were enrolled in this study. All patients had experienced at least one conventional treatment modality such as complex physical therapy, manual lymphatic drainage, and/or pneumatic pump therapy. LLLT was added to patients’ ongoing therapeutic regimen. All patients completed the full course of LLLT consisting of two cycles. The difference between sums of the circumferences of both affected and unaffected arms (DeltaC), pain score, scar mobility, and range of motion were measured before and after first and second cycles of LLLT sequentially. RESULTS: All patients were female with a median age of 51.8 (44-64) years. DeltaC decreased 54% (15-85%) and 73% (33-100%), after the first and second cycles of LLLT, respectively. Fourteen out of seventeen experienced decreased pain with motion by an average of 40% (0-85%) and 62.7% (0-100%) after the first and second cycle of LLLT, respectively. Three patients had no improvement in pain after LLLT. Scar mobility increased in 13 (76.4%) and shoulder range of motion improved in 14 (82.3%) patients after LLLT. One patient developed cellulitis during LLLT. CONCLUSION: Patients with BCRL received additional benefits from LLLT when used in conjunction with standard lymphedema treatment. These benefits include reduction in limb circumference, pain, increase in range of motion and scar mobility. Additionally, two cycles of LLLT were found to be superior to one in this study.

Support Care Cancer 2010 May 6


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[Cytological evaluation of laser therapy influence upon skin reparation]

Evidence on the studying of the effectiveness the low intensive laser radiation influence as complex treatment of patient with maxillofacial phlegmons with using of the cytological method were presented. Results of the laser therapeutist were in acceleration of the inflammation stage. The neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages settled down in wound earlier then in the control. This led to acceleration of the wound healing.

Stomatologiia (Mosk) 2010 89(1) 33-6


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Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in the Development of Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Fatigue and Changes in Biochemical Markers Related to Post-Exercise Recovery.

Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Frigo L, De Marchi T, Rossi RP, de Godoi V, Tomazoni SS, da Silva DP, Basso M, Filho PL, de Valls Corsetti F, Iversen VV, Bjordal JM

STUDY DESIGN: Randomized crossover double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if low level laser therapy (LLLT) can affect biceps muscle performance, fatigue development, and biochemical markers of post-exercise recovery. BACKGROUND: Cell and animal studies have suggested that LLLT can reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in muscle tissue. But it remains uncertain whether these findings can translate into humans in sport and exercise situations. METHODS: Nine healthy male volleyball players participated in the study. They received either active LLLT (cluster probe with 5 laser diodes, l=810 nm, 200 mW power output, 30 seconds of irradiation, applied in 2 locations over the biceps of the non-dominant arm, 60 J of total energy) or placebo LLLT using an identical cluster probe. The intervention or placebo were applied 3 minutes before the performance of exercise. All subjects performed voluntary elbow flexion repetitions with a workload of 75% of their maximal voluntary contraction force (MVC) until exhaustion. RESULTS: Active LLLT increased the number of repetitions by 14.5% (mean of 39.56, SD +/- 4.33 versus 34.56 +/- 5.64, p=0.037) and the elapsed time before exhaustion by 8.0% (p=0.034), when compared to the placebo treatment. The biochemical markers also indicated that recovery may be positively affected by LLLT as indicated by post-exercise blood lactate levels (p<0.01), Creatine Kinase (CK) activity (p=0.017), and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) levels (p=0.047) showing a faster recovery with LLLT application prior to the exercise. CONCLUSION: We conclude that pre-exercise irradiation of the biceps with an LLLT dose of 6 J per application location, applied in 2 locations, increased endurance for repeated elbow flexion against resistance, and decreased post-exercise levels of blood lactate, CK, and CRP. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapy, Level 1a. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 12 April 2010. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.3294.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2010 Apr 12


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Clinical and microbiologic follow-up evaluations after non-surgical periodontal treatment with erbium:YAG laser and scaling and root planing.

Lopes BM, Theodoro LH, Melo RF, Thompson GM, Marcantonio RA

Department of Periodontology, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP-Sao Paulo State University, Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

BACKGROUND: This study compared erbium-doped: yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation (100 mJ/pulse; 10 Hz; 12.9 J/cm(2)) with or without conventional scaling and root planing (SRP) to SRP only for treatment of periodontal pockets. METHODS: Nineteen patients with pockets from 5 to 9 mm were included. In a split-mouth design, each site was allocated to a treatment group: 1) SRPL, SRP and laser; 2) L, laser; 3) SRP, SRP only; and 4) C, no treatment. Clinical parameters of probing depth (PD), gingival recession, and clinical attachment level (CAL) were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Visible plaque index, gingival bleeding index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and subgingival plaque samples were also measured 12 days postoperatively, in addition to the above mentioned months. Intergroup and intragroup statistical analyses were performed (P <0.05). RESULTS: GI decreased for SRPL and increased for L, SRP, and C (P <0.05) 12 days postoperatively and decreased for SRPL and SRP (P <0.05) 3, 6, and 12 months after baseline; BOP and PD decreased for all treated groups (P <0.01) 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. CAL gain was significant for SRPL, L, and SRP (P <0.05) 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. SRPL and L presented a significant reduction in the percentage of sites with bacteria 6 and 12 months after treatment (P <0.05). CONCLUSION: Non-surgical periodontal treatment with Er:YAG laser may be an alternative treatment for reduction and control of the proliferation of microorganisms in persistent periodontitis.

J Periodontol 2010 May 81(5) 682-91


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[Effect of the photosensitizers pheophorbid a and protoporphyrin IX on skin wound healing by the action of low-intensity laser irradiation]

The effect of photosensitizer with subsequent He-Ne (632.8 nm; 3 mW/cm2) laser irradiation on experimental skin wound healing has been studied. Pheophorbid a and protoporphyrin IX were used as photosensitizers. It was found that the application of the photosensitizer and subsequent laser irradiation, first, decreased the amount and the functional activity of leukocyte in wound excudate and, second, inhibited the SOD-activity, compared to that of the control group. Moreover, pheophorbide a and protoporphyrin practically did not affect the total healing period but decreased the length of the inflammation stage. It was supposed that these effects are related to the generation of reactive oxygen species during irradiation.

Biofizika 2010 Mar-Apr 55(2) 350-5


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The evolution of transcranial laser therapy for acute ischemic stroke, including a pooled analysis of NEST-1 and NEST-2.

Stemer AB, Huisa BN, Zivin JA

University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Medical Office North, 3rd floor, Suite 3, 200 West Arbor Drive #8466, San Diego, CA 92103-8466, USA.

Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator is the only proven therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Not enough patients are eligible for treatment and additional new therapies are needed. Recently, laser technology has been applied to acute ischemic stroke. This noninvasive technique uses near-infrared wavelengths applied to the scalp within 24 h of symptom onset. The mechanism is incompletely understood but may involve increased mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate production. Animal models demonstrated safety and efficacy warranting randomized controlled trials in humans. NEST-1 (phase 2) and NEST-2 (phase 3) confirmed the safety of transcranial laser therapy, although efficacy was not found in NEST-2. Pooled analysis of NEST-1 and NEST-2 revealed a significantly improved success rate in patients treated with laser therapy. Further phase 3 testing is planned and may create a new paradigm for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2010 Jan 12(1) 29-33


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Conservative Management of Lumbar Disc Herniation With Associated Radiculopathy: A Systematic Review.

Hahne, AJ, Ford, JJ, McMeeken, JM

From the *Musculoskeletal Research Centre, School of Physiotherapy, LA Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia; and daggerFaculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Australia.

STUDY DESIGN.: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVE.: To determine the efficacy and adverse effects of conservative treatments for people who have lumbar disc herniation with associated radiculopathy (LDHR). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Although conservative management is commonly used for people who have LDHR, the efficacy and adverse effects of conservative treatments for this condition are unclear. METHODS.: We searched 10 computer databases for trials published in English between 1971 and 2008. Trials focusing on people with referred leg symptoms and radiologic confirmation of a lumbar disc herniation were included if at least 1 group received a conservative and noninjection treatment. RESULTS.: Eighteen trials involving 1671 participants were included. Seven (39%) trials were considered of high quality. Meta-analysis on 2 high-quality trials revealed that advice is less effective than microdiscectomy surgery at short-term follow-up, but equally effective at long-term follow-up. Individual high-quality trials provided moderate evidence that stabilization exercises are more effective than no treatment, that manipulation is more effective than sham manipulation for people with acute symptoms and an intact anulus, and that no difference exists among traction, laser, and ultrasound. One trial showed some additional benefit from adding mechanical traction to medication and electrotherapy methods. Adverse events were associated with traction (pain, anxiety, lower limb weakness, and fainting) and ibuprofen (gastrointestinal events). CONCLUSION.: Advice is less effective than microdiscectomy in the short term but equally effective in the long term for people who have LDHR. Moderate evidence favors stabilization exercises over no treatment, manipulation over sham manipulation, and the addition of mechanical traction to medication and electrotherapy. There was no difference among traction, laser, and ultrasound. Adverse events were associated with traction and ibuprofen. Additional high-quality trials would allow firmer conclusions regarding adverse effects and efficacy.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2010 Apr 23


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Light distribution in intravascular low level laser therapy applying mathematical simulation: a comparative study.

Li X, Cheng G, Huang N, Wang L, Liu F, Gu Y

Department of Laser Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

Intravascular low level laser therapy (ILLLT) has been applied in the treatment of many diseases for about twenty years. However, much fundamental work has not been done on its dosimetry. The study was designed to compare the difference of light distribution during ILLLT between using flat end fiber and optical fiber coupled with cylindrical light diffuser. Light distribution of He-Ne laser was processed by Monte Carlo model. The laser output was 5 mW. The diameter of both optical fibers was 400 microm. Four tissue optical parameters were chosen for simulation. The results showed that optical parameters of blood are important to determine the distribution of laser energy. The highest power density could increase to over 5000 mW/cm2 using flat end fiber. And the laser energy was absorbed by the blood cells in very small area before the tip of flat end fiber. But when using optical fiber coupled with cylindrical light diffuser, the highest power density was about 100 mW/cm2. More volume of blood cells could be irradiated by laser light. In summary, optical fiber coupled with cylindrical light diffuser is superior to flat end fiber at the aspect of increasing the volume of irradiated blood and decreasing unwanted damage to blood cells during intravascular low level laser therapy.

J Xray Sci Technol 2010 Jan 1 18(1) 47-55


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Is low-level laser therapy effective in acute or chronic low back pain?

Ay S, Dogan SK, Evcik D

Department of Physical Rehabilitation and Medicine, Ufuk University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey, saimeay@yahoo.com.

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on pain and functional capacity in patients with acute and chronic low back pain caused by lumbar disk herniation (LDH). LLLT has been used to treat acute and chronic pain of musculoskeletal system disorders. This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty patients with acute (26 females/14 males) and 40 patients with chronic (20 females/20 males) low back pain caused by LDH were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated into four groups. Group 1 (acute LDH, n = 20) received hot-pack + laser therapy; group 2 (chronic LDH, n = 20) received hot-pack + laser therapy; group 3 (acute LDH, n = 20) received hot-pack + placebo laser therapy, and group 4 (chronic LDH, n = 20) received hot-pack + placebo laser therapy, for 15 sessions during 3 weeks. Assessment parameters included pain, patients’ global assessment, physician’s global assessment, and functional capacity. Pain was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) and Likert scale. Patients’ and physician’s global assessment were also measured with VAS. Modified Schober test and flexion and lateral flexion measures were used in the evaluation of range of motion (ROM) of lumbar spine. Roland Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) and Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ) were used in the functional evaluation. Measurements were done before and after 3 weeks of treatment. After the treatment, there were statistically significant improvements in pain severity, patients’ and physician’s global assessment, ROM, RDQ scores, and MODQ scores in all groups (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were detected between four treatment groups with respect to all outcome parameters (p > 0.05). There were no differences between laser and placebo laser treatments on pain severity and functional capacity in patients with acute and chronic low back pain caused by LDH.

Clin Rheumatol 2010 Apr 23


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[Effects of low-level helium-neon laser on induced wound healing in rats]

Busnardo VL, Biondo-Simoes ML

Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brasil. vivianelucci@up.edu.br

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of low-level helium-neon (HeNe) laser on cutaneous wound healing in rats. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats were divided into control group and experimental group. A sutured longitudinal, dorsal-medial incision was made, with simple separate stitches. The experimental group was irradiated daily in three areas of the wound with HeNe laser (5mW maximum continuous power, 632.8 nm wavelength, 4 J/cm(2) energy density and 0.015 cm(2) laser beam area) for 36 seconds. The areas were evaluated on the third, seventh and fourteenth days postoperative. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine the type of inflammatory reaction according to the protocol by Vizzotto et al. (2003)* and with Picrosirius to identify types I and III collagen and the collagen maturation index (CMI). Immunohistochemical detection was employed with anti-CD45-LCA to recognize the inflammatory cells. RESULTS: Both groups had the same inflammatory pattern. The experimental group had fewer inflammatory cells at the three evaluation times (p<0.001) with faster reduction in the number of leukocytes. The experimental group had greater total collagen density on the third day (p=0.001), with more type III collagen (p=0.001) and more type I collagen (p=0.001). There was no significant difference in the CMI. CONCLUSION: Low-level laser irradiation does not change the quality of the inflammatory response, but it does reduce its intensity; it increases collagen deposition in the early stages of the healing process and does not interfere with collagen maturation.

Rev Bras Fisioter 2010 Feb 14(1) 45-51


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[The use of electrothermal and phototherapeutic methods for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review]

Ricci NA, Dias CN, Driusso P

Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brasil. natalia_ricci@hotmail.com

OBJECTIVE: To systematically investigate the scientific evidence relating to electrothermal and phototherapeutic methods for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). METHODS: The search for reports on interventions using electrothermal and phototherapy for FMS was carried out in the Pubmed, Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, ISI Web of Knowledge, PEDro and Cochrane Collaboration databases. Randomized controlled clinical trials published over the past 10 years in English, Portuguese and Spanish were selected. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Jadad scale. The analysis on the study results was done by means of critical review of the content. RESULTS: Seven studies were reviewed in full, and these identified interventions using laser (n=4), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS; n=1), interferential current (IFC) alone (n=1) and IFC combined with ultrasound (US; n=1). Only two studies showed good methodological quality according to the Jadad scale. Most of the studies (n=6) used the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for the clinical diagnosis of FMS. Pain was the most frequently evaluated FMS symptom. The intervention methods and their duration varied widely, and there was no mention of the parameters used in the electrothermal and phototherapeutic methods. Pain levels reduced significantly in all of the studies. CONCLUSION: There are still limitations on the generalization of the results, adverse reactions and doses of the FMS treatment. Further studies are needed to establish the effectiveness of electrothermal and phototherapy in treating FMS.

Rev Bras Fisioter 2010 Feb 14(1) 1-9


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Mechanism of high-power NIR laser bacteria inactivation.

Hibst R, Graser R, Udart M, Stock K

Institut fur Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Messtechnik an der Universitat Ulm, Helmholtzstrasse 12, 89081 Ulm, Germany.

Lasers are used in dentistry for a variety of indications. One of these is the disinfection of root canals or the sterilization of residual caries. Many studies have demonstrated the capacity to kill bacteria for lasers but the fundamental mechanism of the laser effect remains quite unclear. With our experiments we wanted to determine whether high-power NIR laser bacterial killing is caused by the light itself (photochemical effect) or by a photothermal process. In order to differentiate between mechanisms we heated bacteria suspensions of a nonpathogenic strain of E. coli by a water bath and by a diode laser (940 nm) with the same temporal temperature course. Furthermore, bacteria suspensions were irradiated while the temperature was fixed by ice water. Killing of bacteria was measured via fluorescence labelling. Comparison of killing rates between laser and water-based heating shows no significant differences. The most important parameter is the maximum temperature. Laser irradiation of bacteria at low temperatures does not result in killing. Our experiments show that at least for E. coli bacteria inactivation by high-power laser irradiation is solely based on a thermal process. ((c) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

J Biophotonics 2010 Apr 21


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In Vivo Low-level Light Therapy Increases Cytochrome Oxidase in Skeletal Muscle.

Hayworth, CR, Rojas, JC, Padilla, E, Holmes, GM, Sheridan, EC, Gonzalez-Lima, F

Departments of Psychology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.

Abstract Low-level light therapy (LLLT) increases survival of cultured cells, improves behavioral recovery from neurodegeneration and speeds wound healing. These beneficial effects are thought to be mediated by upregulation of mitochondrial proteins, especially the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase. However, the effects of in vivo LLLT on cytochrome oxidase in intact skeletal muscle have not been previously investigated. We used a sensitive method for enzyme histochemistry of cytochrome oxidase to examine the rat temporalis muscle 24 h after in vivo LLLT. The findings showed for the first time that in vivo LLLT induced a dose- and fiber type-dependent increase in cytochrome oxidase in muscle fibers. LLLT was particularly effective at enhancing the aerobic capacity of intermediate and red fibers. The findings suggest that LLLT may enhance the oxidative energy metabolic capacity of different types of muscle fibers, and that LLLT may be used to enhance the aerobic potential of skeletal muscle.

Photochem Photobiol 2010 Apr 16


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Effect of HeNe Laser Irradiation on Extracellular Matrix Deposition and Expression of Cytokines and Chemokines in Paracoccidioidomycotic Lesions.

Nagib PR, Gameiro J, da Costa TA, Di Gangi R, da Silva Ribeiro J, Paulino LC, Verinaud L

Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goias-UFG, Goiania, Goias, Brazil.

Abstract Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent human mycosis in Latin America. Cutaneous lesions are extremely painful and sensitive, and current treatment with antifungal drugs is lengthy and may cause side effects to patients. In this perspective, the helium-neon (HeNe) laser emerges as a novel therapy form due to its ability to heal wounds without changing cell function. In this work, we evaluate the effects of HeNe laser irradiation on extracellular matrix deposition and expression of cytokines and chemokines in cutaneous lesions caused by experimental infection of Balb/c mice. Our results showed decreased levels of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-17 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and of anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokines in lesions exposed to HeNe laser irradiation. Chemokines CCL3 and CXCL10 showed decreased levels in laser-treated lesions, but no significant difference was observed in relation to CCL5 expression. We also detected decreased density of fibronectin and laminin in HeNe laser-treated lesions. Data presented herein support the validity of our previous results suggesting positive effects of HeNe laser in accelerating wound healing in this experimental model. We believe that HeNe laser is a new nonharmful strategy that may be used as adjuvant and/or alternative therapy for improving treatment of paracoccidioidomycotic lesions.

Photochem Photobiol 2010 Apr 16


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Light therapy by blue LED improves wound healing in an excision model in rats.

Adamskaya, N, Dungel, P, Mittermayr, R, Hartinger, J, Feichtinger, G, Wassermann, K, Redl, H, van Griensven, M

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, AUVA Research Center, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Donaueschingenstrasse 13, A-1200 Vienna, Austria.

BACKGROUND: Low level light therapy (LLLT) is an attractive alternative to enhance wound healing. So far most studies are performed with red or infrared irradiation. However, we recently showed that blue light (470nm) can significantly influence biological systems, improving perfusion by release of nitric oxide from nitrosyl complexes with haemoglobin in a skin flap model in rats. Here, we compared the effects of blue and red low level light by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on in vivo wound healing in an excision wound model in rats. METHODS: Circular excision wounds were surgically created on the dorsum of each rat. Excisions on either the left or right side were illuminated post-OP and on five consecutive days for 10min by LED at 470nm or 630nm with an intensity of 50mW/cm(2), while protecting the contralateral side from exposure. In the control group, neither side was illuminated. On day 7 post-OP, we analysed planimetric and histological parameters, as well as expression of keratin-1, keratin-10 and keratin-17 on mRNA level. RESULTS: Illumination substantially influenced wound healing. Blue light significantly decreased wound size on day 7, which correlated with enhanced epithelialisation. Light also affected mRNA expression. Both wavelengths decreased keratin-1 mRNA on day 7 post-OP, while keratin-10 mRNA level was elevated in both light treated group compared to control. Keratin-17 mRNA was also elevated in the red light group, but was unchanged in the blue light group. CONCLUSION: In contrast to previous studies, we showed that also blue light significantly influences wound healing. Furthermore, our data suggest that light therapy can play an important role in normotrophic wound healing by affecting keratin expression. Illumination would provide an easily applicable, safe and cost-effective treatment of surface wounds.

Injury 2010 Apr 16


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A short-term evaluation of Nd:YAG laser as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in treatment of periodontal inflammation.

Qadri, T, Poddani, P, Javed, F, Tuner, J, Gustafsson, A

Division of Periodontology, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

Background: The aim of this split-mouth, single blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was to compare the short-term outcome of combined scaling and root planing (SRP) and Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation with SRP alone. Methods: Thirty patients were recruited. Mandibular left or right side was randomly assigned as the test- (SRP with laser treatment) and control-side (SRP alone). The water-cooled Nd:YAG laser was used at four Watt, 80 millijoule per pulse, 50 Hertz, and with a pulse width of 350 microseconds. At baseline, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were taken from the test and control sides and levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, Interleukin (IL)-1beta, -4, -6, and -8 were measured using standard techniques. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and probing pocket depth (PPD) were measured by calibrated examiners. Results: At the one week follow-up, PPD (P <0.001), PI (P <0.05) and GCF volume (P <0.001) showed significant improvement on the test-side compared to the control-side. At the three-month follow-up, PPD (P <0.01), PI (P <0.01), GI (P <0.001) and GCF volume (P <0.05) also showed significant improvement on the test-side compared to the control-side. At the one week follow up, the IL-1beta and MMP-8 levels were significantly reduced on the test-side compared to the control-side. The three-month follow-up confirmed that the improvements on the test-site had been sustained compared to the control site. Conclusions: In short-term, SRP in combination with a single application of a water cooled Nd:YAG laser significantly improves clinical signs associated with periodontal inflammation compared to treatment by SRP alone.

J Periodontol 2010 Apr 16


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Efficacy of Low-Level Laser Therapy for Body Contouring and Spot Fat Reduction.

Caruso-Davis MK, Guillot TS, Podichetty VK, Mashtalir N, Dhurandhar NV, Dubuisson O, Yu Y, Greenway FL

School of Human Ecology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA.

BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is commonly used in medical applications, but scientific studies of its efficacy and the mechanism by which it causes loss of fat from fat cells for body contouring are lacking. This study examined the effectiveness and mechanism by which 635-680 nm LLLT acts as a non-invasive body contouring intervention method. METHODS: Forty healthy men and women ages 18-65 years with a BMI <30 kg/m(2) were randomized 1:1 to laser or control treatment. Subject’s waistlines were treated 30 min twice a week for 4 weeks. Standardized waist circumference measurements and photographs were taken before and after treatments 1, 3, and 8. Subjects were asked not to change their diet or exercise habits. In vitro assays were conducted to determine cell lysis, glycerol, and triglyceride release. RESULTS: Data were analyzed for those with body weight fluctuations within 1.5 kg during 4 weeks of the study. Each treatment gave a 0.4-0.5 cm loss in waist girth. Cumulative girth loss after 4 weeks was -2.15 cm (-0.78 +/- 2.82 vs. 1.35 +/- 2.64 cm for the control group, p < 0.05). A blinded evaluation of standardized pictures showed statistically significant cosmetic improvement after 4 weeks of laser treatment. In vitro studies suggested that laser treatment increases fat loss from adipocytes by release of triglycerides, without inducing lipolysis or cell lysis. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT achieved safe and significant girth loss sustained over repeated treatments and cumulative over 4 weeks of eight treatments. The girth loss from the waist gave clinically and statistically significant cosmetic improvement.

Obes Surg 2010 Apr 15


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Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) attenuates RhoA mRNA expression in the rat bronchi smooth muscle exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

de Lima FM, Bjordal JM, Albertini R, Santos FV, Aimbire F

Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, IP&D, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, CEP: 12244-000, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been found to produce anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of disorders. Bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) hyperreactivity is associated with increased Ca(+2) sensitivity and increased RhoA mRNA expression. In the current study, we investigated if LLLT could reduce BSM contraction force and RhoA mRNA expression in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced BSM hyperreactivity. In the study, 112 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into 16 groups, and BSM was harvested and suspended in TNF-alpha baths for 6 and 24 h, respectively. Irradiation with LLLT was performed with a wavelength of 660 nm for 42 s with a dose of 1.3 J/cm(2). This LLLT dose was administered once in the 6-h group and twice in the 24-h group. LLLT significantly decreased contraction force in BSM at 6 h (TNF-alpha + LLLT: 11.65 +/- 1.10 g/100 mg of tissue) (F = 3115) and at 24 h (TNF-alpha + LLLT: 14.15 +/- 1.1 g/100 mg of tissue) (F = 3245, p < 0.05) after TNF-alpha, respectively, when compared to vehicle-bathed groups (control). LLLT also significantly decreased the expression of RhoA mRNA in BSM segments at 6 h (1.22 +/- 0.20) (F = 2820, p < 0.05) and 24 h (2.13 +/- 0.20) (F = 3324, p < 0.05) when compared to BSM segments incubated with TNF-alpha without LLLT irradiation. We conclude that LLLT administered with this protocol, reduces RhoA mRNA expression and BSM contraction force in TNF-alpha-induced BSM hyperreactivity.

Lasers Med Sci 2010 Apr 15


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Mechanical evaluation of the influence of low-level laser therapy in secondary stability of implants in mice shinbones.

Maluf AP, Maluf RP, da Rocha Brito C, Franca FM, de Brito RB Jr

Sao Leopoldo Mandic Dental Research Institute, Campinas, SP, Brazil, alemaluf@terra.com.br.

The present work evaluates mechanically the bone-implant attachment submitted or not to low-level laser therapy, with wavelength of 795 nm, in a continuous way, with power of 120 mW. The implant was placed in one of the shinbones of 24 mice, randomly distributed into two groups. The experimental group was submitted to six laser applications, divided into four points previously established, two lateral and two longitudinal, six times 8 J/cm(2) with an interval of 2 days, totaling the dose of 48 J/cm(2). The control group did not receive laser therapy. The interval between applications was 48 h and the irradiations began immediately after the end of the implant surgeries. The two groups were killed on the 14th day and a bone block of the area was removed where the implant was inserted. A torque machine was used to measure the torque needed for loosening the implants. A statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups. The experimental group presented larger difficulty for breaking up the implant interface with the bone block than the control group. It can be concluded that with the animal model and the protocol of irradiation present in this study, the laser therapy demonstrated capacity to increase the attachment bone implant.

Lasers Med Sci 2010 Apr 15


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Development of compression-controlled low-level laser probe system: towards clinical application.

Yeo C, Son T, Park J, Lee YH, Kwon K, Nelson JS, Jung B

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, 234 Maeji-Ri, Heungup-Myeon, Wonju-Si, Gangwon-Do, 220-710, Korea.

Various physico-chemical tissue optical clearing (TOC) methods have been suggested to maximize photon density in tissue. In order to enhance photon density, a compression-controlled low-level laser probe (CCLLP) system was developed by utilizing the principle of mechanical tissue compression. Negative compression (NC) was applied to the laser probes built in various diameters and simultaneously the laser was irradiated into ex-vivo porcine skin samples. Laser photon density (LPD) was evaluated as a function of NC and probe diameter by analyzing 2D diffusion images of the laser exposures. The CCLLP system resulted in a concentrated laser beam profile, which means enhancement of the LPD. As indicators of LPD, the laser peak intensity increased and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) decreased as a function of NC. The peak intensity at -30 kPa increased 2.74, 3.22, and 3.64 fold at laser probe diameters of 20, 30, and 40 mm, respectively. In addition, sample temperature was measured with a thermal camera and increased 0.4 K at -30 kPa after 60 s of laser irradiation as a result of enhanced LPD. The CCLLP system effectively demonstrated enhancement of the LPD in tissue and potentially its clinical feasibility.

Lasers Med Sci 2010 Apr 15


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Seeing the Light – The Truth about Soft Tissue Lasers and Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy.

Matthews DC

Although laser treatment has generated considerable interest among dentists and the public, there is no evidence that any laser system adds clinical value over and above scaling and root planing and conventional surgical treatment for periodontitis. Following a brief explanation of the mechanism behind soft tissue lasers, the evidence on the use of laser therapy in addition to traditional nonsurgical periodontal treatment in the management of periodontal diseases is reviewed.

J Can Dent Assoc 2010 Apr 76(2) 10702


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Mitochondrial mechanisms of photobiomodulation in context of new data about multiple roles of ATP.

Karu T

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Apr 28(2) 159-60


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Use of laser technology in orthodontics: hard and soft tissue laser treatments.

Genovese, MD, Olivi, G

AIM: Modern technology has perfected a new instrument that has become almost indispensable in modern dentistry, in accordance with the philosophy of minimally invasive therapy: the laser. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness and efficacy of laser technology to solve mucogingival problems associated with orthodontic treatment. Some laser wavelengths work both on hard and soft tissues (2780 nm, 2940 nm), other lasers, such as the 810 nm diode, have a very good surgical and haemostatic action on soft tissues and an important analgesic and biostimulating effect that can help the healing of both TMJ painful symptoms as well as the pain following active orthodontic treatment. Several cases connected to orthodontic therapy are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different laser systems (diode laser at 810 nm; Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 2780 nm; Erbium:YAG laser at 2940 nm) were used, both for soft tissue surgery and enamel etching, and for biostimulating effect. These wavelengths were used with different parameters for each case, according to international current studies in view of minimally invasive therapy. RESULTS: The cases reported showed very quick and good healing of the laser treated tissues. These treatments, necessary for the orthodontic therapy or for its completion, become extremely simple, safe and rapid and the orthodontic specialist can perform them himself. CONCLUSION: The laser technique is very effective in many operative and surgical procedures during orthodontic therapy. Further studies are however necessary to set the treatment protocols in orthodontic biostimulation.

Eur J Paediatr Dent 2010 Mar 11(1) 44-8


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Oral mucositis. Review of literature.

Scardina, GA, Pisano, T, Messina, P

Department of Oral Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy. scardina@odonto.unipa.it

The standard treatment for malignant neoplasia of the cervicofacial area is surgery in association with radio- and/or chemotherapy. These therapies can cause local and systemic complications. Mucositis is the most common dose-correlated complication to the oral cavity. It is particularly difficult to treat in patients who are already physically and psychologically exhausted by the tumoral pathology. This study illustrates, through a review of the literature, the attack rate, the pathogenesis and the clinical course of the mucositis, as well as the correct dental approach and clinical-therapeutic management of these patients, with the aim of improving the quality of their lives.

N Y State Dent J 2010 Jan 76(1) 34-8


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Effect of near-infrared light-emitting diodes on nerve regeneration.

Ishiguro, M, Ikeda, K, Tomita, K

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8641, Japan.

BACKGROUND: Photobiomodulation by red to near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been reported to accelerate wound healing, attenuate degeneration of an injured optic nerve, and promote tissue growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of LEDs on nerve regeneration. A histological study as well as a measurement of antioxidation levels in the nerve regeneration chamber fluid was performed. METHODS: For the histological study, the bilateral sciatic nerves were transected, and the left proximal stump and the right distal stump were inserted into the opposite ends of a silicone chamber, leaving a 10-mm gap. Light from an LED device (660 nm, 7.5 mW/cm(2)) was irradiated for 1 h per day. At 3 weeks after surgery, regenerated tissue was fixed and examined by light microscopy. For the antioxidation assay of chamber fluid, the left sciatic nerve and a 2-mm piece of nerve from the proximal stump were transected and inserted into opposite sides of a silicone chamber leaving a 10-mm gap. LEDs were irradiated using the same parameters as those described in the histological study. At 1, 3, and 7 days after surgery, antioxidation of the chamber fluid was measured using an OXY absorbent test. RESULTS: Nerve regeneration was promoted in the LED group. Antioxidation of the chamber fluid significantly decreased from 3 days to 7 days in the control group. In the LED group, antioxidation levels did not decrease until 7 days. CONCLUSIONS: Chamber fluid is produced from nerve stumps after nerve injury. This fluid contains neurotrophic factors that may accelerate axonal growth. Red to near-infrared LEDs have been shown to promote mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. In this study, LED irradiation improved nerve regeneration and increased antioxidation levels in the chamber fluid. Therefore, we propose that antioxidation induced by LEDs may be conducive to nerve regeneration.

J Orthop Sci 2010 Mar 15(2) 233-9


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Effects of low-level light therapy on streptozotocin-induced diabetic kidney.

Lim J, Sanders RA, Snyder AC, Eells JT, Henshel DS, Watkins JB 3rd

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, 1315 East Tenth Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States.

Hyperglycemia causes oxidative damage in tissues prone to complications in diabetes. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) in the red to near infrared range (630-1000nm) has been shown to accelerate diabetic wound healing. To test the hypothesis that LLLT would attenuate oxidative renal damage in Type I diabetic rats, male Wistar rats were made diabetic with streptozotocin (50mg/kg, ip), and then exposed to 670nm light at a dose of 9J/cm(2) once per day for 14weeks. The activity and expression of catalase and the activity of Na K-ATPase increased in kidneys of light-treated diabetic rats, whereas the activity and expression of glutathione peroxidase and the expression of Na K-ATPase were unchanged. LLLT lowered the values of serum BUN, serum creatinine, and BUN/creatinine ratio. In addition, LLLT augmented the activity and expression of cytochrome c oxidase, a primary photoacceptor molecule in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and reduced the formation of the DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in kidney. LLLT improved renal function and antioxidant defense capabilities in the kidney of Type I diabetic rats. Thus, 670nm LLLT may be broadly applicable to the amelioration of renal complications induced by diabetes that disrupt antioxidant defense mechanisms.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2010 May 3 99(2) 105-10


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The influence of baseline characteristics on response to a laser acupuncture intervention: an exploratory analysis.

Glazov G

School of Primary, Aboriginal and Rural Health Care, University of Western Australia, 328 Stirling Hwy Claremont WA 6010, Australia. glazog01@student.uwa.edu.au

OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice it is known that subjects vary in their response to acupuncture, but there is little data on what predicts the outcome. The aim of this study was to identify such predictors. METHOD: A secondary analysis was performed on data from 100 participants in a trial of laser and sham laser acupuncture for chronic non-specific low back pain. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify which baseline characteristics predicted pain change in the immediate, short and intermediate term. An analysis of covariance was performed based on these results to re-examine the primary result of the trial. RESULTS: Strong predictors of poor response were receipt of disability support pension, headache, the regular use of analgesics or previous failed back surgery. Higher pain scores or exacerbation of pain at baseline predicted a greater proportionate pain relief after the intervention. Adjusted analysis suggested a clinically important effect of laser compared to sham (p<0.05), at short term follow-up only. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest which characteristics of patients with chronic low back pain are more likely to respond to laser acupuncture treatment, but require replication in other studies. The findings may not apply in other acupuncture interventions and treatment of different conditions. They may also be used to set selection criteria for future studies, and to aid interpreting the effect of baseline imbalances on trial results.

Acupunct Med 2010 Mar 28(1) 6-11


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The effects of low-level diode laser treatment and dental pulp-capping materials on the proliferation of L-929 fibroblasts.

Ferriello V, Faria MR, Cavalcanti BN

Biodentistry Postgraduate Program, Ibirapuera University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been reported to improve tissue healing and might therefore be useful in dental pulp capping after trauma. We evaluated the effects of a low-level diode laser (lambda = 680 nm) and dental pulp-capping substances on cell proliferation. Calcium hydroxide and adhesive resin were applied as conditioned media to cultures. Half of the samples received irradiation with the diode laser at a fluence of 4 J/cm(2) for 60 s. Using a hemocytometer, cells were counted at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days, and the data were analyzed by ANOVA. All cultures exhibited continuous growth, except those treated with adhesive resin. As compared to the other two groups, cell proliferation was significantly lower in cultures treated with adhesive resin; it was also significantly lower in cultures treated with calcium hydroxide, as compared to the control group. When combined with dental pulp-capping materials, LLLT had no effect on L-929 cell proliferation.

J Oral Sci 2010 52(1) 33-8


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LPLI inhibits apoptosis upstream of Bax translocation via a GSK-3beta-inactivation mechanism.

Zhang L, Zhang Y, Xing D

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science & Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI), a non-damage physical therapy, which has been used clinically for decades of years, is shown to promote cell proliferation and prevent apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms that LPLI prevents cell apoptosis remain undefined. In this study, based on real-time single-cell analysis, we demonstrated for the first time that LPLI inhibits staurosporine (STS)-induced cell apoptosis by inactivating the GSK-3beta/Bax pathway. LPLI could inhibit the activation of GSK-3beta, Bax, and caspase-3 induced by STS. In the searching for the mechanism, we found that, LPLI can activate Akt, which was consistence with our former research, even in the presence of STS. In this anti-apoptotic process, the interaction between Akt and GSK-3beta increased gradually, indicating Akt interacts with and inactivates GSK-3beta directly. Conversely, LPLI decreased the interaction between GSK-3beta and Bax, with the suppression of Bax translocation to mitochondria, suggesting LPLI inhibits Bax translocation through inactivating GSK-3beta. These results were further confirmed by the experiments of co-immunoprecipitation. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3′-OH kinase (PI3K), potently suppressed the activation of Akt and subsequent anti-apoptotic processes induced by LPLI. Taken together, we conclude that LPLI protects against STS-induced apoptosis upstream of Bax translocation via the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3beta pathway. These findings raise the possibility of LPLI as a promising therapy for neuron-degeneration disease induced by GSK-3beta.

J Cell Physiol 2010 Jul 224(1) 218-28


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The light revival: does phototherapy promote wound healing? A review.

Whinfield AL, Aitkenhead I

Department of General Practice and Primary Care, Kings College London School of Medicine, 5 Lambeth Walk, London, UK. annewhin@googlemail.com

BACKGROUND: Throughout history, light has been recognised as a potential source of healing. The introduction of lasers made it possible to modify and control light for optimum therapeutic use. AIM: This paper reviews recent clinical trials that test phototherapy on human models in order to assess the value of phototherapy in routine wound care. METHOD: A literature search was undertaken using a variety of sources including online databases. RESULTS: The results of numerous in vitro and animal investigations suggest that phototherapy may stimulate cell activity and promote tissue repair. Reports of human clinical trials are relatively few. There is inconsistency of selected treatment parameters amongst studies testing the effect of phototherapy on wound healing. Clinical trials using human models do not provide sufficient evidence to establish the usefulness of phototherapy as an effective tool in wound care regimes. CONCLUSION: Further well designed research trials are required to determine the true value of phototherapy in routine wound care.

Foot (Edinb) 2009 Jun 19(2) 117-24


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Laser acupuncture for myofascial pain of the masticatory muscles. A controlled pilot study.

Katsoulis J, Ausfeld-Hafter B, Windecker-Getaz I, Katsoulis K, Blagojevic N, Mericske-Stern R

Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. joannis.katsoulis@zmk.unibe.ch

PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of laser acupuncture within the scope of a pilot study. METHODS: 108 adult patients were examined and of those eleven patients were included in the prospective pilot study. These patients took part voluntarily and were diagnosed with tendomyopathy of the masticatory musculature with maximum face and jaw pain on a visual analogous scale VAS > or = 30 in the last 14 days. Four patients wanted to be sure not to be assigned to the placebo group and were treated with the laser (group1, verum open, N = 4). The remaining seven were split by means of block randomisation into groups 2 (verum blind, N = 3) and 3 (placebo blind, N = 4). Two local points (ST 6, SI 18) and two distant points (SI 3, LI 4) on both sides of the body were stimulated (groups 1 and 2) or placebo-stimulated (group 3) with the LASERneedle machine for 15 minutes twice a week for three weeks (6 sessions). After three months a clinical follow-up was carried out, which included a standardised questionnaire as to the maximum pain intensity (VAS and verbal scale) and on the need for further treatment. A pain reduction (VAS) of about 50% was evaluated as a success. RESULTS: Pain decreased on average 40 VAS points for ten of eleven patients. The pain reduction on the VAS in group 1 (verum open) was more than 50% for all four patients, in group 3 (placebo blind) for three of four patients, and in group 2 (verum blind) all remained under 50%. The evaluation on the verbal scale showed a pain reduction from moderate to very strong pains initially, to moderate, light and no pain after three months for all three groups. DISCUSSION: The range of application of the laser was limited by the narrow inclusion criteria of the pilot study. The laser acupuncture (open and blinded) did not show a negative effect in any group. The pain reduction was strongest with the blinded patients of the placebo group. The worst performance was in the blinded group with laser acupuncture. CONCLUSION: Due to the low number of participants, no clear conclusion can be drawn. Laser needle acupuncture may be a treatment option for patients with an interest in a noninvasive, complementary therapy. But clarification and treatment planning on an individual basis must take place first.

Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 2010 120(3) 213-25


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Laser biomodulation on L 929 cell culture.

Pires-Oliveira DA, Oliveira RF, Machado AH, Zangaro RA, Pacheco-Soares C

Universidade Camilo Castelo Branca, Unicastelo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of photobiomodulation using a 904-nm diode laser at two energy densities (6 J/cm(2) and 50 mJ/cm(2)) on L929 fibroblast cells. BACKGROUND: Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) is a non-pharmacological resource that induces important in vitro photobiomodulation on cell cultures and tissues. METHODS: Irradiation was performed for three days at 24-h intervals. After each interval, the cells were stained with MitoTracker Orange and DioC6 dyes to assess the photobiomodulatory effects of irradiation on mitochondrial activity and changes in the endoplasmic reticulum. The MTT assay [3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide] was used to evaluate cell proliferation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The fluorescence microscopy assessment of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in cells irradiated with 6 J/cm(2) and 50 mJ/cm(2) demonstrated intense mitochondrial activity, which was confirmed by DioC6 staining. Reticular activity was observed stemming from increased protein synthesis. Photobiomodulation with 50 mJ/cm(2) was slightly higher than with 6 J/cm(2), as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy results. Photobiomodulation was also time-dependent, with better results 72-h after irradiation.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Apr 28(2) 167-71


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Phototherapy: the challenge to accurately measure irradiance.

Vreman HJ

Indian Pediatr 2010 Feb 7 47(2) 127-8


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Effects of CO2 laser irradiation of the gingiva during tooth movement.

Seiryu, M, Deguchi, T, Fujiyama, K, Sakai, Y, Daimaruya, T, Takano-Yamamoto, T

Division of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, 4-1, Seiryomachi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8574, Japan.

Patients often feel pain or discomfort in response to orthodontic force. It was hypothesized that CO(2) laser irradiation may reduce the early responses to nociceptive stimuli during tooth movement. The distribution of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-IR) neurons in the medullary dorsal horn of rats was evaluated. Two hrs after tooth movement, Fos-IR neurons in the ipsilateral part of the medullary dorsal horn increased significantly. CO(2) laser irradiation to the gingiva just after tooth movement caused a significant decrease of Fos-IR neurons. PGP 9.5- and CGRP-positive nerve fibers were observed in the PDL of all study groups. The maximum temperature below the mucosa during CO(2) laser irradiation was less than 40 degrees C. It was suggested that CO(2) laser irradiation reduced the early responses to nociceptive stimuli during tooth movement and might not have adverse effects on periodontal tissue.

J Dent Res 2010 May 89(5) 537-42


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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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