LLLT / Cold Laser Literature watch for May 2011

This month we have 25 new Low Level Laser Therapy papers for your review including: Laser and exercise for subacromial impingement syndrome, yet more on radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis (when will the oncologists catch on?) and a study on how LLLT affects differentiation (and proliferation) of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neurons and osteoblasts.

Not all LLLT research is a success as a paper on third molar extraction below shows. Suitable wavelength,  power density, treatment time, pulses (?), locations and treatment intervals are essential for success. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if there was somewhere you could learn about LLLT parameters? Good news! There are training courses you can attend all over the world (almost) look here. Today I am in Australia having delivered courses in Sydney and Melbourne, last week I was in Washington DC and Atalanta GA (USA).  Next week I will be in Boston MA and Chicago IL (USA) then next month in Leeds (UK),  Toronto (Canada) and Philadelphia. Click here to find your nearest training course.

Additive effects of low-level laser therapy with exercise on subacromial syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

Abrisham SM, Kermani-Alghoraishi M, Ghahramani R, Jabbari L, Jomeh H, Zare M

Orthopedics Department, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran, smj_abrisham@ssu.ac.ir.

The subacromial syndrome is the most common source of shoulder pain. The mainstays of conservative treatment are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and exercise therapy. Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been popularized in the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the additive effects of LLLT with exercise in comparison with exercise therapy alone in treatment of the subacromial syndrome. We conducted a randomised clinical study of 80 patients who presented to clinic with subacromial syndrome (rotator cuff and biceps tendinitis). Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (n = 40), patients were given laser treatment (pulsed infrared laser) and exercise therapy for ten sessions during a period of 2 weeks. In group II (n = 40), placebo laser and the same exercise therapy were given for the same period. Patients were evaluated for the pain with visual analogue scale (VAS) and shoulder range of motion (ROM) in an active and passive movement of flexion, abduction and external rotation before and after treatment. In both groups, significant post-treatment improvements were achieved in all parameters (P = 0.00). In comparison between the two groups, a significant improvement was noted in all movements in group I (P = 0.00). Also, there was a substantial difference between the groups in VAS scores (P = 0.00) which showed significant pain reduction in group I. This study indicates that LLLT combined exercise is more effective than exercise therapy alone in relieving pain and in improving the shoulder ROM in patients with subacromial syndrome.

Clin Rheumatol 2011 May 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21538218

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Laser phototherapy as a treatment for radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis.

Lino MD, Carvalho FB, Oliveira LR, Magalhaes EB, Pinheiro AL, Ramalho LM

Center of Biophotonics, Dental School, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil.

Oral mucositis is a harmful side effect of radiotherapy (RT) on the head and neck region. There are encouraging reports on the beneficial aspects of the use of laser light on the treatment of oral mucositis. This paper reports the efficacy of laser phototherapy (LPT) on the treatment of oral mucositis in a patient undergoing RT after surgical removal of a squamous cell carcinoma with osseous invasion of the maxilla. Palatal and commissural lesions were treated with lambda660 nm, 40 mW, slashed circle=4 mm(2), in contact mode, 5 x 2.4 J/cm(2) per point, 14.4 J/cm(2) per session. For treating the lesion on the patient’s nasal mucosa, LPT (slashed circle=4 mm(2), lambda780 nm, 70 mW, 3 x 2.1 J/cm(2) per point, 6.3 J/cm(2) per session, contact mode) was used on the external area of the nose. A single dose (2.4 J/cm(2)) with the lambda660 nm laser, as described before, was applied on the entrance of each nostril. LPT was used 3 times/week during 4 weeks. Treatment results indicate that the use of LPT on oral mucositis was effective and allowed the patient to carry on the RT without interruption. However, long-term and controlled clinical trials are necessary to establish both preventive and curative protocols using LPT.

Braz Dent J 2011 22(2) 162-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21537592

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The effects of low-level laser irradiation on differentiation and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neurons and osteoblasts-an in vitro study.

Soleimani M, Abbasnia E, Fathi M, Sahraei H, Fathi Y, Kaka G

Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, soleim_m@modares.ac.ir.

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are promising for use in regenerative medicine. Several studies have shown that low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) could affect the differentiation and proliferation of MSCs. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of LLLI at different energy densities on BMSCs differentiation into neuron and osteoblast. Human BMSCs were cultured and induced to differentiate to either neuron or osteoblast in the absence or presence of LLLI. Gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) laser irradiation (810 nm) was applied at days 1, 3, and 5 of differentiation process at energy densities of 3 or 6 J/cm(2) for BMSCs being induced to neurons, and 2 or 4 J/cm(2) for BMSCs being induced to osteoblasts. BMSCs proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay on the seventh day of differentiation. BMSCs differentiation to neurons was assessed by immunocytochemical analysis of neuron-specific enolase on the seventh day of differentiation. BMSCs differentiation to osteoblast was tested on the second, fifth, seventh, and tenth day of differentiation via analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. LLLI promoted BMSCs proliferation significantly at all energy densities except for 6 J/cm(2) in comparison to control groups on the seventh day of differentiation. LLLI at energy densities of 3 and 6 J/cm(2) dramatically facilitated the differentiation of BMSCs into neurons (p < 0.001). Also, ALP activity was significantly enhanced in irradiated BMSCs differentiated to osteoblast on the second, fifth, seventh, and tenth day of differentiation (p < 0.001 except for the second day). Using LLLI at 810 nm wavelength enhances BMSCs differentiation into neuron and osteoblast in the range of 2-6 J/cm(2), and at the same time increases BMSCs proliferation (except for 6 J/cm(2)). The effect of LLLI on differentiation and proliferation of BMSCs is dose-dependent. Considering these findings, LLLI could improve current in vitro methods of differentiating BMSCs prior to transplantation.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 May 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21597948

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Three-dimensional holographic photostimulation of the dendritic arbor.

Yang S, Papagiakoumou E, Guillon M, de Sars V, Tang CM, Emiliani V

Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Baltimore VAMC, 10 N. Greene St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Digital holography is an emerging technology that can generate complex light patterns for controlling the excitability of neurons and neural circuits. The strengths of this technique include a high efficiency with which available light can be effectively utilized and the ability to deliver highly focused light to multiple locations simultaneously. Here we demonstrate another strength of digital holography: the ability to generate instantaneous three-dimensional light patterns. This capability is demonstrated with the photolysis of caged glutamate on the dendritic arbor of hippocampal neurons, to study the nature of the integration of inputs arriving on multiple dendritic branches.

J Neural Eng 2011 May 27 8(4) 046002

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21623008

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Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of pain, facial swelling, and postoperative trismus after a lower third molar extraction. A preliminary study.

Lopez-Ramirez M, Vilchez-Perez MA, Gargallo-Albiol J, Arnabat-Dominguez J, Gay-Escoda C

Barcelona University Dental School, Barcelona, Spain.

Pain, swelling, and trismus are the most common complications after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a low-level laser therapy (Laser Smile, Biolase(R), San Clemente, USA) applied to the wound appeared after the surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. A prospective, randomized, and double-blind study was undertaken in 20 healthy patients with two symmetrically impacted lower third molars. The application of a low-level laser was made randomly on one of the two sides after surgery. The experimental side received 5 J/cm(2) of energy density, a wavelength of 810 nm, and an output power of 0.5 W. On the control side, a handpiece was applied intraorally, but the laser was not activated. Evaluations of postoperative pain, trismus, and swelling were made. The sample consisted of 11 women and nine men, and mean age was 23.35 years (18-37). The pain level in the first hours after surgery was lower in the experimental side than in the placebo side, although without statistically significant differences (p = 0.258). Swelling and trismus at the 2nd and 7th postoperative days were slightly higher in the control side, although not statistically significant differences were detected (p > 0.05). The application of a low-level laser with the parameters used in this study did not show beneficial affects in reducing pain, swelling, and trismus after removal of impacted lower third molars.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 May 27

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21617973

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Histomorphometric analysis of inflammatory response and necrosis in re-implanted central incisor of rats treated with low-level laser therapy.

Vilela RG, Gjerde K, Frigo L, Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Kleine BM, Prokopowitsch I

School of Dentistry, Cruzeiro do Sul University (UNICSUL), Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Low-level laser therapy is a tool employed in the management of post-operative inflammation process and in the enhancement of reparative process. The aim of the study was to perform histological evaluation of dental and periodontal ligament of rats central upper-left incisor teeth re-implanted and irradiated with low-level laser (InGaAl, 685 nm, 50 J/cm(2)) 15, 30, and 60 days after re-implantation. Seventy-two male rats had the central upper left incisor removed and kept for 15 min on dry gauze before replantation. Laser was irradiated over the root surface and empty alveolus prior replantation and over surrounding mucosa after the re-implantation. After histological procedures, all slices were analyzed regarding external resorption area and histological aspects. We observed an increase of root resorption (p < 0.05) in the control group compared to the laser group at 15, 30, and 60 days. These results showed that the laser groups developed less root resorption areas than the control group in all experimental periods. Additionally, histological analysis revealed less inflammatory cells and necrotic areas in laser groups.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 May 27

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21617972

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on experimental wounds of hard palate mucosa in mice.

Fahimipour F, Nouruzian M, Anvari M, Tafti MA, Yazdi M, Khosravi M, Dehghannayeri Z, Sabounchi SS, Bayat M

Shahid Beheshti University MC, Tehran, Iran.

Under general anesthesia and sterile conditions, incision wound was induced in the hard palate mucosa of adult male mice. The wounds of groups 1 and 2 were irradiated daily with He-Ne laser at 3 and 7.5 J/cm2 for 120 and 300 s, respectively, while the incision wound of group 3 not exposed served as controls. On day 3 of injury, the laser-treated wounds contained significantly lower neutrophils than the wounds in the control group. By day 7 after injury, the laser-treated wounds contained significantly more fibroblasts and at the same time contained significantly fewer macrophages. In conclusion, an acceleration of the wound healing process of experimental wounds in the hard palate mucosa of mice at low-level laser therapy with a He-Ne laser at energy densities of 3 and 7.5 J/cm2 was observed.

Indian J Exp Biol 2011 May 49(5) 357-61

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21615060

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Stimulatory effect of low-level laser therapy on root development of rat molars: a preliminary study.

Toomarian L, Fekrazad R, Tadayon N, Ramezani J, Tuner J

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Evin, Tehran, Iran, ltoomarian@yahoo.com.

Several studies suggest a biomodulatory influence of low-level laser irradiation in the inflammatory and reparative processes of dental tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the stimulatory effect of 808-nm laser irradiation on root development of rat molars and also to evaluate the histological reaction of pulp and periapical tissues. Twenty-four 30-day-old Wistar male rats were randomly assigned to three-time and five-time laser therapy groups. After initial x-ray, using mammography equipment, laser energy was applied at a wavelength of 808 nm (2 J/cm(2), 100 mW, 20 s) to the midroot area of the lower molars of one side of mouth at repeated intervals of the 48 h. The animals were killed 1 day after the final treatment, and root length development of the experimental samples was compared to contra-lateral non-irradiated molars using mammography. The histological reaction of the pulp and periapical tissue was evaluated under light microscopy. Root development was more advanced in irradiated groups than in the non-irradiated controls (p < 0.001). No significant differences, however, could be found between the root development changes in the three-time and five-time laser therapy groups (p > 0.05). Histological findings showed that the occurrence of secondary cement formation was significantly higher in the irradiation groups compared to the controls (p = 0.003). However, there were no statistically significant differences for the frequencies of pulp hyperemia, periodontal ligament fiber organization, or lamina dura remodeling between the groups (p > 0.05). Under the conditions used in this study, 808-nm low-level laser accelerates the rat molar root development in the presence of favorable histological reactions.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 May 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21614480

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Letter: light-emitting diode photomodulation and radiation dermatitis.

Weiss RA, Deland MM, Geronemus RG, McDaniel DH

MD Laser Skin and Vein Institute, Hunt Valley, Maryland OncoLogics Women Centre, Lafayette, Louisiana Laser and Skin Surgery Center of New York, New York City, New York Laser and Cosmetic Center, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia Hampton University Skin of Color Research Institute, Hampton, Virginia School of Science, Hampton University, Virginia Beach, Virginia.

Dermatol Surg 2011 Jun 37(6) 885-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21605258

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Combined use of low level laser therapy and cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibition on skin incisional wound reepithelialization in mice: a preclinical study.

Santuzzi CH, Buss HF, Pedrosa DF, Freire MO, Nogueira BV, Goncalves WL

Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo.

BACKGROUND: Low level laser therapy and cyclooxygenase-2 (ICOX2) selective inhibitors have been widely used to modulate inflammatory response; however, their effect on wound reepithelialization are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the isolated and combined effects of low level laser therapy and ICOX2 in the reepithelization of skin incisional wounds in mice. METHODS: We induced a 1-cm wound on the back of each mouse, which were divided into four groups (N = 20): control, laser therapy, treated with celecoxib and combined therapy. The animals in the celecoxib and combined therapy groups were treated with celecoxib for 10 days before skin incision. The experimental wounds were irradiated with He-Ne low power laser (632nm, dose: 4J/cm2) in scanning for 12 seconds during three consecutive days in the laser therapy and combined therapy groups. The animals were sacrificed 3 days after surgery. Samples of the wounds were collected and stained (Masson’s Trichrome) for histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: Both the laser therapy group and the celecoxib group showed an increase in skin reepithelialization compared to the control group; however, the combined therapy group showed no differences. As for keratinization, the laser therapy and combined therapy groups showed a reduction in keratinocytes compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The results show that the use of low level laser therapy and ICOX2 in isolation increases epithelial cells, but only low level laser therapy reduced skin keratinocytes. The combined treatment restores innate epithelialization and decreases keratinization in spite of accelerating wound contraction with improvement in the organization of the wound in the skin of mice.

An Bras Dermatol 2011 Apr 86(2) 278-283

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21603811

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Treatment of bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaws with Nd:YAG laser biostimulation.

Luomanen M, Alaluusua S

Institute of Biomedicine/Anatomy, University of Helsinki, PO Box 63, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00014, Helsinki, Finland, marita.luomanen@helsinki.fi.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 May 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21597949

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Effect of LED Phototherapy (lambda700 +/- 20 nm) on TGF-beta Expression During Wound Healing: An Immunohistochemical Study in a Rodent Model.

de Sousa AP, de Aguiar Valenca Neto AD, Marchionni AM, de Araujo Ramos M, Dos Reis Junior JA, Pereira MC, Cangussu MC, de Almeida Reis SR, Pinheiro AL

1 Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia , Salvador, Bahia, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) expression on cutaneous wounds in rodents treated or not treated with LED light. Background: TGF-beta is a multifunctional cytokine that presents a central action during tissue repair. Although several studies both in vitro and in vivo have shown that LED phototherapy influences tissue repair, a full understanding of the mechanisms involved in its usage, such as in the modulation of some growth factors, remains unclear. Materials and Methods: Under general anesthesia, 24 young adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g had one excisional wound created on the dorsum of each, and were randomly distributed into two groups: G0 (Control) and G1 (LED, lambda700 +/- 20 nm, 16 mW, SAEF = 5 J/cm(2), Illuminated Area = 2 cm(2), 8 mWcm(2), 626 s) Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to the animal death timing (2, 4, and 6 days). LED phototherapy started immediately after surgery and was repeated every other day during the experimental time. Following animal death, specimens were removed, routinely processed to wax, cut and immunomarked with polyclonal anti-TGF-beta, and underwent histological analysis by light microscopy. The mean area of expression of each group was calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The area of the expression of TGF-beta on LED-irradiated animals was significantly smaller than on controls at day 2 (p = 0.013). No significant difference was found at later times. It is concluded that the use of LED light, at these specific parameters, caused an inhibition of the expression of TGF-beta at an early stage of the healing process.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 May 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21595552

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[The influence of low-intensity laser radiation on the function of vascular endothelium and the cytokine system in patients presenting with chronic viral hepatitis].

The objective of the present work was to study the influence of low-intensity laser therapy on the cytokine system and the function of vascular endothelium in patients presenting with chronic viral hepatitis. The measurement of blood cytokine levels by an immunoenzyme assay revealed a decrease in the levels of anti-inflammatory IL-1-beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha and a rise in proinflammatory IL-4 in the treated patients compared with the untreated ones. Medicamental therapy of chronic viral hepatitis did not cause a significant reduction in the plasma nitric oxide level whereas inclusion of low-intense laser irradiation in the combined treatment resulted in its normalization. It is concluded that the use of low-intense laser irradiation as a component of combined therapy of patients presenting with chronic viral hepatitis has marked beneficial effect on the cytokine system. Moreover, various methods of such laser therapy improve the functional activity of vascular endothelium and its NO-producing capacity.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2011 Mar-Apr (2) 30-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21574295

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Low-level infrared laser effect on plasmid DNA.

Fonseca AS, Geller M, Filho MB, Santos Valenca S, de Paoli F

Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Instituto Biomedico, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Frei Caneca, 94, Rio de Janeiro, 20211040, Brazil, adnfonseca@ig.com.br.

Low-level laser therapy is used in the treatment of many diseases based on its biostimulative effect. However, the photobiological basis for its mechanism of action and adverse effects are not well understood. The aim of this study, using experimental models, was to evaluate the effects of laser on bacterial plasmids in alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis and Escherichia coli cultures. The electrophoretic profile of bacterial plasmids in alkaline agarose gels were used for studying lesions in DNA exposed to infrared laser. Transformation efficiency and survival of Escherichia coli AB1157 (wild-type), BH20 (fpg/mutM ( – )), BW9091 (xth(-)), and DH5alphaF’Iq (recA ( – )) cells harboring pBSK plasmids were used as experimental models to assess the effect of laser on plasmid DNA outside and inside of cells. Data indicate low-level laser: (1) altered the electrophoretic profile of plasmids in alkaline gels at 2,500-Hz pulsed-emission mode but did not alter at continuous wave, 2.5- and 250-Hz pulsed-emission mode; (2) altered the transformation efficiency of plasmids in wild-type and fpg/mutM(-) E. coli cells; (3) altered the survival fpg/mutM(-), xthA(-) and recA(-) E. coli cultures harboring pBSK plasmids. Low-level infrared laser with therapeutic fluencies at high frequency in pulsed-emission modes have effects on bacterial plasmids. Infrared laser action can differently affect the survival of plasmids in E. coli cells proficient and deficient in DNA repair mechanisms, therefore, laser therapy protocol should take into account fluencies, frequencies and wavelength of laser, as well as tissue conditions and genetic characteristics of cells before beginning treatment.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 May 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21556926

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Light microscopic description of the effects of laser phototherapy on bone defects grafted with mineral trioxide aggregate, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration in a rodent model.

Pinheiro AL, Soares LG, Aciole GT, Correia NA, Barbosa AF, Ramalho LM, Dos Santos JN

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA 40110-150, Brazil; Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Camilo Castelo Branco University, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12245-230, Brazil; National Institute of Optics and Photonics, Physics Institute, University of Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP 13560-970, Brazil. albp@ufba.br.

We carried out a histological analysis on bone defects grafted with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) treated or not with laser, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and guided bone regeneration (GBR). Benefits of the use of MTA, laser, BMPs, and GBR on bone repair are well known, but there is no report on their association with laser light. Ninety rats were divided into 10 groups each subdivided into 3. Defects on G II and I were filled with the blood clot. G II was further irradiated with LED. G III and IV were filled with MTA; G IV was further irradiated with laser. G V and VI, the defects filled with MTA and covered with a membrane (GBR). G VI was further irradiated with laser. G VII and VIII, BMPs were added to the MTA and group VIII further irradiated with laser. G IX and X, the MTA + BMP graft was covered with a membrane (GBR). G X was further irradiated with laser. Laser light (lambda = 850 nm, 150 mW, 4 J/cm(2) ) was applied over the defect at 48-h intervals and repeated for 15 days. Specimens were processed, cut and stained with H&E and Sirius red and underwent histological analysis. Subjects on group X were irradiated. The results showed different tissue response on all groups during the experimental time. Major changes were seen on irradiated subjects and included marked deposition of new bone in advanced maturation. It is concluded that near infrared laser phototherapy improved the results of the use of the MTA on bone defects. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: , 2011.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2011 May 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21548072

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Effects of 940 nm light-emitting diode (led) on sciatic nerve regeneration in rats.

Serafim KG, Ramos SD, de Lima FM, Carandina M, Ferrari O, Dias IF, Toginho Filho DD, Siqueira CP

Department of Physiotherapy, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, PR, Brazil, karlaguivserafim@hotmail.com.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 940 nm wavelength light emitting diode (LED) phototherapy on nerve regeneration in rats. Forty male Wistar rats weighing approximately 300 g each were divided into four groups: control (C); control submitted to LED phototherapy (CLed); Sciatic Nerve Lesion without LED phototherapy (L); Sciatic Nerve Lesion with LED phototherapy (LLed). The lesion was caused by crushing the right sciatic nerve. A dose of 4 J/cm(2) was used for ten consecutive days beginning on the first postoperative day. Groups C and L were submitted to the same procedure as the LLed group, but the equipment was turned off. The LED phototherapy with 940 nm wavelength reduced the areas of edema, the number of mononuclear cells present in the inflammatory infiltration, and increased functional recovery scores at 7, 14 and 21 days. The results suggest that the use of phototherapy at 940 nm after nerve damage improves morphofunctional recovery and nerve regeneration.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 May 6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21547474

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An experimental study of low-level laser therapy in rat Achilles tendon injury.

Joensen J, Gjerdet NR, Hummelsund S, Iversen V, Lopes-Martins RA, Bjordal JM

Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health and Social Science, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway, jon.joensen@hib.no.

The aim of this controlled animal study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) administered 30 min after injury to the Achilles tendon. The study animals comprised 16 Sprague Dawley male rats divided in two groups. The right Achilles tendons were injured by blunt trauma using a mini guillotine, and were treated with LLLT or placebo LLLT 30 min later. The injury and LLLT procedures were then repeated 15 hours later on the same tendon. One group received active LLLT (lambda = 904 nm, 60 mW mean output power, 0.158 W/cm(2) for 50 s, energy 3 J) and the other group received placebo LLLT 23 hours after LLLT. Ultrasonographic images were taken to measure the thickness of the right and left Achilles tendons. Animals were then killed, and all Achilles tendons were tested for ultimate tensile strength (UTS). All analyses were performed by blinded observers. There was a significant increase in tendon thickness in the active LLLT group when compared with the placebo group (p < 0.05) and there were no significant differences between the placebo and uninjured left tendons. There were no significant differences in UTS between laser-treated, placebo-treated and uninjured tendons. Laser irradiation of the Achilles tendon at 0.158 W/cm(2) for 50 s (3 J) administered within the first 30 min after blunt trauma, and repeated after 15 h, appears to lead to edema of the tendon measured 23 hours after LLLT. The guillotine blunt trauma model seems suitable for inflicting tendon injury and measuring the effects of treatment on edema by ultrasonography and UTS. More studies are needed to further refine this model.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 May 6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21547473

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Low-level laser irradiation treatment reduces CCL2 expression in rat rheumatoid synovia via a chemokine signaling pathway.

Zhang L, Zhao J, Kuboyama N, Abiko Y

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, 870-1, Sakaecho-Nishi 2, Matsudo, Chiba, 271-8587, Japan.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disorder whose progression leads to the destruction of cartilage and bone. Although low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) is currently being evaluated for the treatment of RA, the molecular mechanisms underlying its effectiveness remain unclear. To investigate possible LLLI-mediated antiinflammatory effects, we utilized a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model and analyzed gene expression profiles in the synovial membranes of the knee joint. Total RNA was isolated from the synovial membrane tissue of the joints of untreated CIA rats or CIA rats treated with LLLI (830 nm Ga-Al-As diode), and gene expression profiles were analyzed by DNA microarray (41,000 rat genes), coupled with Ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA). DNA microarray analysis showed that CCL2 gene expression was increased in CIA tissue, and that LLLI treatment significantly decreased CIA-induced CCL2 mRNA levels. IPA revealed that chemokine signal pathways were involved in the activation of CCL2 production. These microarray data were further validated using real-time PCR and reverse transcription PCR. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that CCL2 production was decreased in CIA rats treated with LLLI. These findings suggest that decreased CCL2 expression may be one of the mechanisms involved in LLLI-mediated RA inflammation reduction.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 May 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21541773

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Low-power 808-nm laser irradiation inhibits cell proliferation of a human-derived glioblastoma cell line in vitro.

Murayama H, Sadakane K, Yamanoha B, Kogure S

Department of Bioinformatics, Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, 1-236 Tangi-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-8577, Japan.

It has been reported that low-power laser irradiation (LLI) can modulate various biological processes including cell proliferation. Some reports suggest that LLI interferes with the cell cycle and inhibits cell proliferation, while others suggest that LLI has a stimulatory effect. Mechanisms underlying the effects of LLI remain unclear. Since the effects of LLI on cancer cells are not well understood, with the aim of developing an LLI therapy for malignant glioblastoma, we investigated the effects of LLI on the cell proliferation of the human-derived glioblastoma cell line A-172. Glioblastoma cell cultures were irradiated with a diode laser at a wavelength of 808 nm and the effects on cell viability and proliferation were examined. Cell counting at 24 and 48 h after irradiation showed that LLI (at 18, 36 and 54 J/cm(2)) suppressed proliferation of A-172 cells in a fluence-dependent manner (irradiation for 20, 40 and 60 min). A reduction in the number of viable cells was also demonstrated by a fluorescent marker for viable cells, calcein acetoxymethylester (calcein-AM). The reduction in cell viability was not associated with morphological changes in the cells or with necrotic cell death as demonstrated by propidium iodide staining. LLI also had little effect on cell proliferation as shown by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine staining. We discuss possible mechanisms underlying the suppressive effect of 808-nm LLI on the viability of human-derived glioblastoma A-172 cells.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 May 3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21538143

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Effect of surface roughness and low-level laser therapy(LLLT) on removal torque of implants placed in rat femurs.

Primo BT, Cordeiro da Silva R, Grossmann E, Quevedo Miguens Junior SA, Gonzalez Hernandez PA, Silva Junior AN

Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Universidade Luterana do Brasil.

Abstract The present study measured removal torque and bone-implant interface resistance of machined implants, acid etched implants, or machined implants irradiated around the implant area with infrared low-level laser therapy (LLLT; 830 nm) immediately after surgery. There were statistically significant differences between Groups A (control) and B (rough surface) (p=0.03). Implants with a rough surface seem to add resistance to the bone-implant interface when compared with smooth titanium implants or implants treated with LLLT.

J Oral Implantol 2011 May 2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21534821

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[Principles of development of multifunctional equipment for low level laser and magnetolaser therapy].

Med Tekh 2011 Mar-Apr (2) 17-25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21574478

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Selective photothermal efficiency of citrate capped gold nanoparticles for destruction of cancer cells.

Raji V, Kumar J, Rejiya CS, Vibin M, Shenoi VN, Abraham A

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581, Kerala, India.

Gold nanoparticles are recently having much attention because of their increased applications in biomedical fields. In this paper, we demonstrated the photothermal efficacy of citrate capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the destruction of A431 cancer cells. Citrate capped AuNPs were synthesized successfully and characterized by UV-visible-NIR spectrophotometry and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM). Further, AuNPs were conjugated with epidermal growth factor receptor antibody (anti-EGFR) and applied for the selective photothermal therapy (PTT) of human epithelial cancer cells, A431. PTT experiments were conducted in four groups, Group I-control cells, Group II-cells treated with laser light alone, Group III-cells treated with unconjugated AuNP and further laser irradiation and Group IV-anti-EGFR conjugated AuNP treated cells irradiated by laser light. After laser irradiation, cell morphology changes that were examined using phase contrast microscopy along with the relevant biochemical parameters like lactate dehydrogenase activity, reactive oxygen species generation and caspase-3 activity were studied for all the groups to determine whether cell death occurs due to necrosis or apoptosis. From these results we concluded that, these immunotargeted nanoparticles could selectively induce cell death via ROS mediated apoptosis when cells were exposed to a low power laser light.

Exp Cell Res 2011 Apr 30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21565190

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Correlation between light transmission and permeability of human dentin.

Turrioni AP, de Oliveira CF, Basso FG, Moriyama LT, Kurachi C, Hebling J, Bagnato VS, de Souza Costa CA

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, UNESP – Univ. Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, 14801903, Brazil.

The influence of dentin permeability on transdentinal LED light propagation should be evaluated since this kind of phototherapy may further be clinically used to stimulate the metabolism of pulp cells, improving the healing of damaged pulps. This study evaluated the influence of the dentin permeability on the transdentinal LED light (630 nm) transmission. Forty-five 0.5-mm-thick dentin disks were prepared from the coronal dentin of extracted sound human molars. An initial measurement of transdentinal LED light transmission was carried out by illuminating the discs in the occlusal-to-pulpal direction onto a light power sensor to determine light attenuation. The discs were treated with EDTA for smear layer removal, subjected to analysis of hydraulic conductance, and a new measurement of transdentinal LED light transmission was taken. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used for analysis of data and showed a weak correlation between dentin permeability and light attenuation (coefficient = 0.19). This result indicates that higher or lower dentin permeability does not reflect the transdentinal propagation of LED light. Significantly greater transdentinal propagation of light was observed after treatment of dentin surface with EDTA (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.05). According to the experimental conditions of this in vitro study, it may be concluded that dentin permeability does not interfere in the transdentinal LED light transmission, and that smear layer removal facilitates this propagation.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 May 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21556924

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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