Literature watch update: End 2014

130 new LLLT papers for you including a systematic review on shoulder tendinopathies, a lovely article review in an orthopaedics journal by Howard Cotler, four systematic reviews on orthodontic tooth movement, a trial showing LEDs improve sperm motility, another systematic review on oral mucositis and much more.

The Efficacy of Low-Level Laser Therapy for Shoulder Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Haslerud S, Magnussen LH, Joensen J, Lopes-Martins RA, Bjordal JM

Centre for Evidence Based Practice, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, NorPhyPain Research Group, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway; Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, Physiotherapy Research Group, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is proposed as a treatment for tendinopathies. This is the first systematic review focusing solely on LLLT treatment effects in shoulder tendinopathy. METHODS: A systematic review with meta-analysis and primary outcome measures pain relief on 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) and relative risk for global improvement. Two independent assessors rated the included studies according to the PEDro scale. Intervention quality assessments were performed of LLLT dosage and treatment procedures according to World Association for Laser Therapy guidelines. The included trials were sub-grouped by intervention quality and use of other physiotherapy interventions. RESULTS: Seventeen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria, and 13 RCTs were of high and 4 RCTs of moderate methodological quality. Significant and clinically important pain relief was found with weighted mean differences (WMD) over placebo, for LLLT as monotherapy at 20.41 mm (95% CI: 12.38 to 28.44) and as adjunct to exercise therapy at 16.00 mm (95% CI: 11.88 to 20.12). The WMD when LLLT was used in a multimodal physiotherapy treatment regime reached statistical significance over placebo at 12.80 (95% CI: 1.67-23.94) mm pain reduction on VAS. Relative risks for global improvement were statistically significant at 1.96 (95% CI: 1.25-3.08) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.12-2.03), for laser as monotherapy or adjunctive in a physiotherapy regime, respectively. Secondary outcome measures of shoulder function were only significantly in favour of LLLT when used as monotherapy. Trials performed with inadequate laser doses were ineffective across all outcome measures. CONCLUSION: This review shows that optimal LLLT can offer clinically relevant pain relief and initiate a more rapid course of improvement, both alone and in combination with physiotherapy interventions. Our findings challenge the conclusions in previous multimodal shoulder reviews of physiotherapy and their lack of intervention quality assessments. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Physiother Res Int 2014 Dec 2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25450903

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A NASA discovery has current applications in orthopaedics.

Cotler HB

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been actively used for nearly 40 yr, during which time it has been known to reduce pain, inflammation, and edema. It also has the ability to promote healing of wounds, including deep tissues and nerves, and prevent tissue damage through cell death. Much of the landmark research was done by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and these studies provided a springboard for many additional basic science studies. Few current clinical studies in orthopaedics have been performed, yet only in the past few years have basic science studies outlined the mechanisms of the effect of LLLT on the cell and subsequently the organism. This article reviews the basic science of LLLT, gives a historical perspective, and explains how it works, exposes the controversies and complications, and shows the new immediately applicable information in orthopaedics.

Curr Orthop Pract 2015 Jan 26(1) 72-74

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25541589

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Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement using surgical and non-surgical approaches.

Fleming PS

Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Institute of Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK.

Data sourcesPubmed, Embase, Google scholar beta and the Cochrane Databases.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) reporting on results or treatment parameters related to accelerated orthodontic tooth movement were considered.Data extraction and synthesisData abstraction and quality assessment using the Cochrane risk of bias tool were carried out independently by two reviewers. A meta-analysis and narrative synthesis was presented.ResultsEighteen studies (342 patients ) were included. Eight involved low intensity laser, seven corticotomy, and interseptal bone reduction, pulsed electromagnetic fields and photobiomodulation were each investigated by a single trial. Twelve RCTs and six CCTs were included. Two RCTs were considered to be at low risk of bias, five at unclear risk and five at high risk of bias. Three CCTS were at high risk of bias and three at unclear risk. Two studies on corticotomy and two on low intensity laser were combined in a random effects model. Higher canine retraction rate was evident with corticotomy during the first month of therapy (WMD=0.73; 95% CI: 0.28, 1.19, p<0.01) and with low intensity laser (WMD=0.42mm/month; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.57, p<0.001) in a period longer than three months. The quality of evidence supporting the interventions is moderate for laser therapy and low for corticotomy intervention.ConclusionsThere is some evidence that low intensity laser therapy and corticotomy are effective, whereas the evidence is weak for interseptal bone reduction and very weak for photobiomodulation and pulsed electromagnetic fields. Overall, the results should be interpreted with caution given the small number of studies, allied to limited quality and heterogeneity of the included studies. Further research is required in this field with additional attention to application protocols, adverse effects and cost-benefit analysis.

Evid Based Dent 2014 Dec 15(4) 114-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25522944

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Effect of low-level laser therapy in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity and pain following periodontal flap surgery.

Doshi S, Jain S, Hegde R

Department of Periodontics, M. A. Rangoonwala Dental College and Research Centre , Pune, India .

Abstract Objective: This randomized controlled double-blinded split mouth study sought to compare the levels of dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) and pain after 660 nm laser irradiation in test and control sites following periodontal flap surgery. BACKGROUND DATA: Dentinal hypersensitivity and pain are the two main causes of discomfort after periodontal flap surgery. The analgesic and desensitising property of low-level lasers can be used to reduce postoperative complications following periodontal flap surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients were enrolled in this study. Periodontal flap surgery was performed on 60 sites. The test site was randomly determined for laser irradiation, and was irradiated by a sweeping motion of 660 nm laser (25 mW, 4.5 J) for 3 min for 3 consecutive days. The control site served as a placebo. Although the laser was used in a similar motion in the control sites, it was not activated postoperatively. A visual analogue scale (VAS) and verbal rating scale (VRS) for pain and DH were recorded for both sites in each patient, on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th days following flap surgery. RESULTS: There was statistically significant decrease in both DH and pain in the laser-irradiated site on the 7th day following periodontal flap surgery, as compared with the control site (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative DH and pain following periodontal surgery can be reduced by using low-level laser therapy.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Dec 32(12) 700-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25496085

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Photobiomodulation with light-emitting diodes improves sperm motility in men with asthenozoospermia.

Ban Frangez H, Frangez I, Verdenik I, Jansa V, Virant Klun I

Reproductive Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Slajmerjeva 3, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia, helena.ban.frangez@gmail.com.

Sperm motility is an important parameter of male fertility and depends on energy consumption. Photobiomodulation with light-emitting diode (LED) is known to stimulate respiratory chain in mitochondria of different mammalian cells. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of photobiomodulation with LED on sperm motility in infertile men with impaired sperm motility-asthenozoospermia. Thirty consecutive men with asthenozoospermia and normal sperm count who visited the infertility clinic of University Medial Centre Ljubljana between September 2011 and February 2012 were included in the study. Semen sample of each man was divided into five parts: one served as a non-treated (native) control and four parts were irradiated with LED of different wavelengths: (1) 850 nm, (2) 625, 660 and 850 nm, (3) 470 nm and (4) 625, 660 and 470 nm. The percentage of motile sperm and kinematic parameters were measured using a Sperm Class Analyser system following the WHO recommendations. In the non-treated semen samples, the average ratio of rapidly progressive sperms was 12 % and of immotile sperm 73 %. Treating with LED significantly increased the proportion of rapidly progressive sperm (mean differences were as follows: 2.83 (1.39-4.28), 3.33 (1.61-5.05), 4.50 (3.00-5.99) and 3.83 (2.31-5.36) for groups 1-4, respectively) and significantly decreased the ratio of immotile sperm (the mean differences and 95 % CI were as follows: 3.50 (1.30-5.70), 4.33 (2.15-6.51), 5.83 (3.81-7.86) and 5.50 (2.98-8.02) for groups 1-4, respectively). All differences were highly statistically significant. This finding confirmed that photobiomodulation using LED improved the sperm motility in asthenozoospermia regardless of the wavelength.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 235-40

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25204851

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Effect of prophylactic low level laser therapy on oral mucositis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Oberoi S, Zamperlini-Netto G, Beyene J, Treister NS, Sung L

Division of Haematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Division of Haematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Program in Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Division of Oral Medicine & Dentistry, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Division of Haematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Program in Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

BACKGROUND: Objective was to determine whether prophylactic low level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces the risk of severe mucositis as compared to placebo or no therapy. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until February 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing prophylactic LLLT with placebo or no therapy in patients with cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). All analyses used random effects models. RESULTS: Eighteen RCTs (1144 patients) were included. Prophylactic LLLT reduced the overall risk of severe mucositis (risk ratio (RR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.67; P = 0.001). LLLT also reduced the following outcomes when compared to placebo/no therapy: severe mucositis at the time of anticipated maximal mucositis (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.59), overall mean grade of mucositis (standardized mean difference -1.49, 95% CI -2.02 to -0.95), duration of severe mucositis (weighted mean difference -5.32, 95% CI -9.45 to -1.19) and incidence of severe pain (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.37). CONCLUSION: Prophylactic LLLT reduced severe mucositis and pain in patients with cancer and HSCT recipients. Future research should identify the optimal characteristics of LLLT and determine feasibility in the clinical setting.

PLoS One 2014 9(9) e107418

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25198431

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Use of low-level laser therapy as monotherapy or concomitant therapy for male and female androgenetic alopecia.

Munck A, Gavazzoni MF, Trueb RM

Institute of Dermatology Prof. R.D. Azulay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Institute of Dermatology Prof. R.D. Azulay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Center for Dermatology and Hair Diseases, Bahnhofplatz, Wallisellen, Switzerland.

BACKGROUND: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and in women. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are the treatments with the highest levels of medical evidence, but patients who exhibit intolerance or poor response to these treatments are in need of additional treatment modalities. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for AGA, either as monotherapy or as concomitant therapy with minoxidil or finasteride, in an office-based setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective observational study of male and female patients with AGA, treated with the 655 nm-HairMax Laser Comb((R)), in an office-based setting. Efficacy was assessed with global photographic imaging. RESULTS: Of 32 patients (21 female, 11 male), 8 showed significant, 20 moderate, and 4 no improvement. Improvement was seen both with monotherapy and with concomitant therapy. Improvement was observed as early as 3 months and was sustained up to a maximum observation time of 24 months. No adverse reactions were reported. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT represents a potentially effective treatment for both male and female AGA, either as monotherapy or concomitant therapy. Combination treatments with minoxidil, finasteride, and LLLT may act synergistic to enhance hair growth.

Int J Trichology 2014 Apr 6(2) 45-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25191036

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Use of Low-Level Laser Therapy (808 nm) to Muscle Fatigue Resistance: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial.

de Brito Vieira WH, Bezerra RM, Queiroz RA, Maciel NF, Parizotto NA, Ferraresi C

1 Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN) , Natal, RN, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) can provide fatigue resistance via maximum repetitions (RM) with an isokinetic dynamometer, and decrease electromyography fatigue index (EFI). BACKGROUND DATA: LLLT has been used to increase muscle performance when applied before or after intense exercises. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial with placebo. Seven young men (21+/-3 years of age) who were clinically healthy, were allocated into two groups: active laser (LLLT) and placebo laser (Placebo). Both groups were assessed at baseline, at one training session, and at the end of this study. Baseline and final assessments recorded the number of RM of knee flexion-extensions using an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 degrees/sec in conjunction with EFI recorded by median frequency. The training sessions consisted of three sets of 20 RM of knee flexion-extensions using an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 degrees/sec plus LLLT (808 nm, 100 mW, 4 J), or placebo, applied to quadriceps femoris muscles between sets, and after the last series of this exercise. After 1 week (washout period), all volunteers were exchanged among groups and then all assessments were repeated. RESULTS: LLLT group increased RM (52%; p=0.002) with a small EFI for the vastus medialis (p=0.004) and rectus femoris (p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest an increased muscle fatigue resistance when LLLT is applied during rest intervals, and after the last series of intense exercises.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Dec 32(12) 678-85

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25496083

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Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of TMDs: a meta-analysis of 14 randomised controlled trials.

Chen J, Huang Z, Ge M, Gao M

West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). We searched electronic databases and references lists of relevant articles, retrieved all of the published randomised controlled trials in regard to these issues and then performed a meta-analysis. Fourteen highly qualified RCTs reporting on a total of 454 patients, which evaluated the effectiveness of LLLT for patients suffering from TMDs were retrieved. The results indicated that LLLT was not better than placebo in reducing chronic TMD pain (weighted mean difference = -19.39; 95% confidence interval = -40.80-2.03; P < 0.00001; I2 = 99%). However, the LLLT provided significant better functional outcomes in terms of maximum active vertical opening (MAVO) (weighted mean difference = 4.18; 95% confidence interval = 0.73-7.63; P = 0.006; I2 = 73%), maximum passive vertical opening (MPVO) (weighted mean difference = 6.73; 95% confidence interval = 01.34-12.13; P = 0.06; I2 = 73%), protrusion excursion (PE) (weighted mean difference = 1.81; 95% confidence interval = 0.79-2.83; P = 0.59; I2 = 0%) and right lateral excursion (RLE) (weighted mean difference = 2.86; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-4.45; P = 0.01; I2 = 73%). The results of our meta-analysis have provided the best evidence on the efficacy of LLLT in the treatment of TMDs. This study indicates that using LLLT has limited efficacy in reducing pain in patients with TMDs. However, LLLT can significantly improve the functional outcomes of patients with TMDs.

J Oral Rehabil 2014 Dec 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25491183

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Low-Level Light Therapy Potentiates NPe6-mediated Photodynamic Therapy in a Human Osteosarcoma Cell Line via Increased ATP.

Tsai SR, Yin R, Huang YY, Sheu BC, Lee SC, Hamblin MR

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Dermatology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address: Hamblin@helix.mgh.harvard.edu.

BACKGROUND: Low-Level Light Therapy (LLLT) is used to stimulate healing, reduce pain and inflammation, and preserve tissue from dying. LLLT has been shown to protect cells in culture from dying after various cytotoxic insults, and LLLT is known to increase the cellular ATP content. Previous studies have demonstrated that maintaining a sufficiently high ATP level is necessary for the efficient induction and execution of apoptosis steps after photodynamic therapy (PDT). METHODS: We asked whether LLLT would protect cells from cytotoxicity due to PDT, or conversely whether LLLT would enhance the efficacy of PDT mediated by mono-L-aspartyl chlorin(e6) (NPe6). Increased ATP could lead to enhanced cell uptake of NPe6 by the energy dependent process of endocytosis, and also to more efficient apoptosis. In this study, human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 was subjected to 1.5J/cm2 of 810nm near infrared radiation (NIR) followed by addition of 10muM NPe6 and after 2h incubation by 1.5J/cm2 of 652nm red light for PDT. RESULTS: PDT combined with LLLT led to higher cell death and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species compared to PDT alone. The uptake of NPe6 was moderately increased by LLLT, and cellular ATP was increased. The mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor antimycin A abrogated the LLLT-induced increase in cytotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results demonstrate that LLLT potentiates NPe6-mediated PDT via increased ATP synthesis and is a potentially promising strategy that could be applied in clinical PDT.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2014 Nov 13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25462575

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Low-level Laser (Light) Therapy Increases Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and ATP Synthesis in C2C12 Myotubes with a Peak Response at 3-6 h.

Ferraresi C, Kaippert B, Avci P, Huang Y, de Sousa MV, Bagnato VS, Parizotto NA, Hamblin MR

Laboratory of Electrothermophototherapy, Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil; Post-Graduation Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil; Optics Group, Physics Institute of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil; Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Low-level laser (light) therapy has been used before exercise to increase muscle performance in both experimental animals and in humans. However, uncertainty exists concerning the optimum time to apply the light before exercise. The mechanism of action is thought to be stimulation of mitochondrial respiration in muscles, and to increase adenosine triphosphate (ATP) needed to perform exercise. The goal of this study was to investigate the time course of the increases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP in myotubes formed from C2C12 mouse muscle cells and exposed to light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT). LEDT employed a cluster of LEDs with 20 red (630 +/- 10 nm, 25 mW) and 20 near-infrared (850 +/- 10 nm, 50 mW) delivering 28 mW cm2 for 90 s (2.5 J cm2 ) with analysis at 5 min, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h post-LEDT. LEDT-6 h had the highest MMP, followed by LEDT-3 h, LEDT-24 h, LEDT-5 min and Control with significant differences. The same order (6 h > 3 h > 24 h > 5 min > Control) was found for ATP with significant differences. A good correlation was found (r = 0.89) between MMP and ATP. These data suggest an optimum time window of 3-6 h for LEDT stimulate muscle cells.

Photochem Photobiol 2014 Dec 1

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25443662

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Effectiveness of Er:YAG laser-aided fiberotomy and low-level laser therapy in alleviating relapse of rotated incisors.

Jahanbin A, Ramazanzadeh B, Ahrari F, Forouzanfar A, Beidokhti M

Associate professor, Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Professor, Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Assistant professor, Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address: Farzaneh.Aharri@gmail.com. Assistant professor, Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Private practice, Mashhad, Iran.

INTRODUCTION: In this study, we compared the effectiveness of laser-aided circumferential supracrestal fiberotomy (CSF) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with conventional CSF in reducing relapse of corrected rotations. METHODS: The study included 24 patients who were at the finishing stage of orthodontic treatment and had at least 1 maxillary incisor with 30 degrees to 70 degrees of rotation before starting therapy. The subjects were divided into 4 groups by treatment: conventional CSF, Er:YAG laser-aided CSF, LLLT, and control. After alginate impressions were taken, the archwire was sectioned from the experimental incisors, and they were allowed to relapse. The second impression was taken 1 month later, and the degree and percentage of relapse were calculated in photographs taken from the dental models. Gingival recession, pocket depth, and pain were also measured in the CSF groups. RESULTS: The mean percentages of relapse were 9.7% in the conventional CSF, 12.7% in the Er:YAG laser-aided CSF, 11.7% in the LLLT, and 27.8% in the control groups. Relapse was significantly greater in the control than the experimental groups (P <0.05), which were not statistically different from each other. The changes in sulcus depth and gingival recession were small and not significantly different among the CSF groups (P >0.05), but pain intensity was greater in subjects who underwent conventional CSF (P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Er:YAG laser-aided CSF proved to be an effective alternative to conventional CSF in reducing rotational relapse. LLLT with excessively high energy density was also as effective as the CSF procedures in alleviating relapse, at least in the short term.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2014 Nov 146(5) 565-72

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25439206

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on pain and swelling in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Smoot B, Chiavola-Larson L, Lee J, Manibusan H, Allen DD

Graduate Program in Physical Therapy, University of California San Francisco/San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USA, Betty.smoot@ucsf.edu.

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine literature on effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing limb volume and pain in adults with breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). METHODS: PubMed, PEDro, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases were searched using (lymphedema OR edema OR swelling) AND (breast cancer OR mastectomy) AND (laser OR low-level laser therapy OR LLLT OR cold laser). Intervention studies or meta-analyses reporting LLLT for BCRL were included in the search. Pooled effect sizes (ES) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for volume and pain. No limitations were placed on length of follow-up, publication year, or language. Final search was conducted on October 16, 2014. RESULTS: Nine studies met criteria for inclusion. Within-group pooled ES for volume (six studies) was -0.52 (-0.78, -0.25), representing a 75.7-ml reduction in limb volume after LLLT. Between-group pooled ES for volume (four studies) was -0.62 (-0.97, -0.28), representing a 90.9-ml greater reduction in volume with treatment including LLLT versus not including LLLT. Within-group pooled ES for pain reduction (three studies) was -0.62 (-1.06, -0.19), pain reduction of 13.5 mm (0-100 mm VAS). Between-group pooled ES for pain reduction (two studies) was non-significant at -1.21 (-4.51, 2.10). CONCLUSION: Moderate-strength evidence supports LLLT in the management of BCRL, with clinically relevant within-group reductions in volume and pain immediately after conclusion of LLLT treatments. Greater reductions in volume were found with the use of LLLT than in treatments without it. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: LLLT confers clinically meaningful reductions in arm volume and pain in women with BCRL.

J Cancer Surviv 2014 Nov 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25432632

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on muscle adaptation to knee extensor eccentric training.

Baroni BM, Rodrigues R, Freire BB, Franke RD, Geremia JM, Vaz MA

Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre, Sarmento Leite St., 245, Porto Alegre, RS, 90050-170, Brazil, bmbaroni@yahoo.com.br.

PURPOSE: Eccentric training has been popularized for physical conditioning and prevention/rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disorders, especially due to the expressive responses in terms of muscular strength gain. In view of evidence that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is able to increase exercise performance and accelerate post-exercise recovery, the aim of this study was to verify the effect of LLLT on hypertrophy and strengthening of knee extensor muscles submitted to eccentric training. METHOD: Thirty healthy male subjects were randomized into three groups: Control Group (CG), Training Group (TG) and Training + LLLT Group (TLG). CG received no intervention, while TG and TLG were engaged on an 8-week knee extensor isokinetic eccentric training program. Only subjects from TLG were treated with LLLT (wavelength = 810 nm; power output = 200 mW; total dosage = 240 J) before each training session. Knee extensor muscle thickness and peak torque were assessed through ultrasonography and isokinetic dynamometry, respectively. RESULTS: CG presented no changes in any variable throughout the study, while eccentric training led to significant increases in muscle thickness and peak torque in TG and TLG. Subjects from TLG reached significantly higher percent changes compared to subjects from TG for sum of muscles’ thicknesses (15.4 vs. 9.4 %), isometric peak torque (20.5 vs. 13.7 %), and eccentric peak torque (32.2 vs. 20.0 %). CONCLUSION: LLLT applied before eccentric training sessions seems to improve the hypertrophic response and muscular strength gain in healthy subjects.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2014 Nov 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25417170

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Near-Infrared Light Therapy to Attenuate Strength Loss After Strenuous Resistance Exercise.

Larkin-Kaiser KA, Christou E, Tillman M, George S, Borsa PA

Human Performance Laboratory, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada;

Context : Near-infrared (NIR) light therapy is purported to act as an ergogenic aid by enhancing the contractile function of skeletal muscle. Improving muscle function is a new avenue for research in the area of laser therapy; however, very few researchers have examined the ergogenic effects of (NIR) light therapy and the influence it may have on the recovery process during rehabilitation. Objective : To evaluate the ergogenic effect of (NIR) light therapy on skeletal muscle function. Design : Crossover study. Setting : Controlled laboratory. Patients or Other Participants : Thirty-nine healthy men (n = 21) and women (n = 18; age = 20.0 +/- 0.2 years, height = 169 +/- 2 cm, mass = 68.4 +/- 1.8 kg, body mass index = 23.8 +/- 0.4 kg/m2). Intervention(s) : Each participant received active and sham treatments on the biceps brachii muscle on 2 separate days. The order of treatment was randomized. A class 4 laser with a cumulative dose of 360 J was used for the active treatment. After receiving the treatment on each day, participants completed an elbow-flexion resistance-exercise protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s) : The dependent variables were elbow range of motion, muscle point tenderness, and strength (peak torque). Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to assess changes in these measures between treatments at baseline and at follow-up, 48 hours postexercise. Additionally, immediate strength loss postexercise was compared between treatments using a paired t test. Results : Preexercise to postexercise strength loss for the active laser treatment, although small, was less than with the sham treatment (P = .05). Conclusions : Applied to skeletal muscle before resistance exercise, (NIR) light therapy effectively attenuated strength loss. Therefore, NIR light therapy may be a beneficial, noninvasive modality for improving muscle function during rehabilitation after musculoskeletal injury. However, future studies using higher treatment doses are warranted.

J Athl Train 2014 Nov 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25397864

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Effectiveness of Passive Physical Modalities for Shoulder Pain: A Systematic Review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management Collaboration.

Yu H, Cote P, Shearer HM, Wong JJ, Sutton DA, Randhawa KA, Varatharajan S, Southerst D, Mior SA, Ameis A, Stupar M, Nordin M, van der Velde GM, Carroll L, Jacobs CL, Taylor-Vaisey AL, Abdulla S, Shergill Y

H. Yu, MBBS, MSc, UOIT-CMCC Centre for the Study of Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) and Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC), 6100 Leslie St, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M2H 3 J1. P. Cote, PhD, UOIT-CMCC Centre for the Study of Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, UOIT and CMCC. H.M. Shearer, DC, MSc, FCCS(C), UOIT-CMCC Centre for the Study of Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, UOIT and CMCC. J.J. Wong, BSc, DC, FCCS(C), UOIT-CMCC Centre for the Study of Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, UOIT and CMCC. D.A. Sutton, MEd, MSc, UOIT-CMCC Centre for the Study of Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, UOIT and CMCC. K.A. Randhawa, MPH, UOIT-CMCC Centre for the Study of Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, UOIT and CMCC. S. Varatharajan, MSc, UOIT-CMCC Centre for the Study of Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, UOIT and CMCC. D. Southerst, BScH, DC, FCCS(C), UOIT-CMCC Centre for the Study of Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, UOIT and CMCC. S.A. Mior, DC, PhD, Division of Graduate Education and Research, CMCC. A. Ameis, MD, FRCPC, DESS, DABPM&R, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. M. Stupar, DC, PhD, UOIT-CMCC Centre for the Study of Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, UOIT and CMCC. M. Nordin, DrMedSci, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, New York University, New York, New York. G.M. van der Velde, DC, PhD, Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) Collaborative, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and Institute for Work and Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. L. Carroll, PhD, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada. C.L. Jacobs, BFA, DC, MSc, FCCS(C), UOIT-CMCC Centre for the Study of Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, UOIT and CMCC. A.L. Taylor-Vaisey, MLS, UOIT-CMCC Centre for the Study of Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, UOIT and CMCC. S. Abdulla, BA, MSc, DC, Department of Graduate Studies, CMCC. Y. Shergill, BSc, DC, Department of Graduate Studies, CMCC, and Department of Anesthesia, the Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Canada.

BACKGROUND: Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal condition in the general population. Passive physical modalities are commonly used to treat shoulder pain. However, previous systematic reviews report conflicting results. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of passive physical modalities for the management of soft tissue injuries of the shoulder. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1st, 1990 to April 18th, 2013. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort and case-control studies were eligible. Random pairs of independent reviewers screened 1470 of 1760 retrieved articles after removing 290 duplicates. Twenty-two articles were eligible for critical appraisal. We critically appraised the eligible studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Of those, 11 studies had a low risk of bias. DATA EXTRACTION: The lead author extracted data from low risk of bias studies and built evidence tables. A second reviewer independently checked the extracted data. DATA SYNTHESIS: We synthesized the findings of low risk of bias studies according to principles of best evidence synthesis. We found that pre-tensioned tape, ultrasound and interferential current are not effective to manage shoulder pain. However, diathermy and corticosteroid injections lead to similar outcomes. Low-level laser therapy provides short-term pain reduction for subacromial impingement syndrome. Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy is not effective for subacromial impingement syndrome but it provides benefits for persistent shoulder calcific tendonitis. LIMITATIONS: Non-English studies excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Most passive physical modalities do not benefit patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. However, low-level laser therapy is more effective than placebo or ultrasound for subacromial impingement syndrome. Similarly, shock-wave therapy is more effective than sham for persistent shoulder calcific tendinitis.

Phys Ther 2014 Nov 13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25394425

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Light-emitting diode therapy in exercise-trained mice increases muscle performance, cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP and cell proliferation.

Ferraresi C, Parizotto NA, Pires de Sousa MV, Kaippert B, Huang YY, Koiso T, Bagnato VS, Hamblin MR

Laboratory of Electrothermophototherapy, Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil; Post-Graduation Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil; Optics Group, Physics Institute of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil; Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 40 Blossom Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) applied over the leg, gluteus and lower-back muscles of mice using a LED cluster (630 nm and 850 nm, 80 mW/cm2 , 7.2 J/cm2 ) increased muscle performance (repetitive climbing of a ladder carrying a water-filled tube attached to the tail), ATP and mitochondrial metabolism; oxidative stress and proliferative myocyte markers in mice subjected to acute and progressive strength training. Six bi-daily training sessions LEDT-After and LEDT-Before-After regimens more than doubled muscle performance and increased ATP more than tenfold. The effectiveness of LEDT on improving muscle performance and recovery suggest applicability for high performance sports and in training programs. Positioning of the mice and light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) applied on mouse legs, gluteus and lower-back muscles without contact.

J Biophotonics 2014 Nov 6 9999(9999)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25378263

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Connective tissue graft associated or not with low laser therapy to treat gingival recession: randomized clinical trial.

Fernandes-Dias SB, de Marco AC, Santamaria M Jr, Kerbauy WD, Jardini MA, Santamaria MP

Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry – FOSJC, UNESP – State University of Sao Paulo, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil.

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the treatment of gingival recession with a connective tissue graft (CTG) alone or in combination with low-level laser therapy (CTG + L). METHODS: Forty patients presenting 40 Miller Class I and II gingival recessions were included. The defects were randomly assigned to receive either CTG (n = 20) or CTG + L (n = 20). A diode laser (660 nm) was applied to the test sites immediately after surgery and every other day for 7 days (eight applications). RESULTS: The mean percentage of root coverage was 91.9% for the test group and 89.48% for the control group after 6 months (p > 0.05). The test group presented more complete root coverage (n = 13, 65%) than the control group (n = 7, 35%) (p = 0.04). Dentine sensitivity decreased significantly after 6 months in both groups (p < 0.001). The two groups showed improvement in aesthetics at the end of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Low-level laser therapy may increase the percentage of complete root coverage when associated with CTG.

J Clin Periodontol 2014 Oct 31

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25363203

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Autologous Proliferative Therapies in Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis.

Tetschke E, Rudolf M, Lohmann CH, Starke C

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the clinical effects of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) injections and low-level laser application as therapy options for chronic lateral epicondylitis. DESIGN: A total of 52 patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were evaluated in this study; 26 of these patients received three ACP injections and the control group, with 26 patients, received 12 laser applications, with standardized physical therapy for all patients afterward. Control examinations took place before treatment, after 2 and 6 mos, and in the 1 yr final follow-up. The control examination included the visual analog scale for pain and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand outcome measure scores. RESULTS: The analysis at final follow-up after 1 yr showed that both treatment options resulted in successful therapy outcome for the patients. In total, 63.5 % were successfully treated. Successful treatment was defined as more than 30% improvement in the visual analog score and more than 10.2 points in the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score. Both groups showed a significant improvement in time response. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of autologous proliferative therapies in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. The data show that laser application and ACP therapy lead to a clinical improvement in epicondylopathia. Especially the new treatment with ACP can be highlighted as an alternative and as an easy-to-apply therapy option for clinical practice.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2014 Oct 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25357145

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Systematic literature review: influence of low-level laser on orthodontic movement and pain control in humans.

Sousa MV, Pinzan A, Consolaro A, Henriques JF, de Freitas MR

1 Department of Orthodontics, Bauru Dental School, University of Sao Paulo , Brazil .

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to check the influence of low-level laser (LLL) on orthodontic movement and pain control in humans, and what dose ranges are effective for pain control and increased speed of orthodontic movement. METHODS: Computerized and manual searches were conducted up to January 4, 2014 for clinical studies that addressed these objectives. The selection criteria required that these studies (1) be prospective controlled clinical trials (CCT) and randomized clinical trials (RCT); (2) only use LLL in both infrared and visible red wavelengths, a laser with emission of constant wave; (3) have all main parameters of dose described, or at least conditions for calculation of the energy, in Joules; and (4) be published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish and be meta-analyses. RESULTS: Seven studies met the eligibility criteria for orthodontic movement/LLL and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria for analgesia/LLL, totaling 18 prospective randomized studies that were selected for detailed analysis. The most common and effective energy input was the interval of 0.2-2.2 J per point/2-8 J per tooth at a frequency of application 1-5 days per month to accelerate the orthodontic movement. For pain control, the recommended energy per points varied from 1-2 J when only one tooth was irradiated to 0.5-2.25 J per point when all teeth in the dental arch were irradiated. CONCLUSIONS: LLL seems to have a demonstrated efficacy, but further studies are warranted to determine the best protocols with regard to energy and frequency.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Nov 32(11) 592-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25335088

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Effects of intravascular low-level laser therapy during coronary intervention on selected growth factors levels.

Derkacz A, Protasiewicz M, Rola P, Podgorska K, Szymczyszyn A, Gutherc R, Poreba R, Doroszko A

1 Department of Internal Medicine and Hypertension, Wroclaw Medical University , Wroclaw, Poland .

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravascular low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on selected growth factor levels in subjects undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). BACKGROUND DATA: Restenosis remains the main problem with the long-term efficacy of PCI, and growth factors are postulated to play a crucial role in the restenosis cascade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized prospective study, an 808 nm LLLT (100 mW/cm2, continuous wave laser, 9 J/cm2, illuminated area 1.6-2.5 cm2) was delivered intracoronarily to patients during PCI. Fifty-two patients underwent irradiation with laser light, and 49 constituted the control group. In all individuals, serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) were measured before angioplasty, then 6 and 12 h and 1 month after the procedure. In all patients, a control angiography was performed 6 months later. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in IGF-1 and VEGF levels between the groups. While evaluating FGF-2, we observed its significantly lower levels in the irradiated patients during each examination. There was a significant increase in TGF-beta1 level in control group after 12 h of observation. In the irradiated individuals, control angiography revealed smaller late lumen loss and smaller late lumen loss index as compared with the control group. The restenosis rate was 15.0% in the treated group, and 32.4% in the control group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT decreases levels of TGF-beta1 and FGF-2 in patients undergoing coronary intervention, which may explain smaller neointima formation.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Oct 32(10) 582-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25302462

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Effects of laser vs ultrasound on bone healing after distraction osteogenesis: A histomorphometric analysis.

Medeiros MA, do Nascimento LE, Lau TC, Mineiro AL, Pithon MM, Sant’Anna EF

a Student, Department of Orthodontics, Universidade Federal do Piaui, UFPI, Teresina, Piaui, Brazil.

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the effects of low-level laser irradiation vs ultrasound irradiation on bone healing after distraction osteogenesis. Materials and Methods: Distraction osteogenesis was performed with rapid maxillary expansion devices (Hyrax-Morelli, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo Brazil) in 24 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). After a 2-day latency period, the distraction devices were activated for 10 days at a rate of 1 mm/d. Four groups of six animals were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) laser irradiation on the right side, (3) ultrasound irradiation on the right side, and (4) laser irradiation on the right side and ultrasound on the left side. Histomorphometric analysis was used to assess the bone healing area. Analysis of variance was used to perform the statistical analyses. Results: The influence of low-intensity laser associated with ultrasound irradiation on bone healing was statistically significant. The analyses showed the greatest amount of bone healing in the jaws of animals in group 4, which received treatment with both ultrasound and laser. Conclusion: This study concluded that bone healing is accelerated with the application of laser irradiation. The greatest effects were observed with combined ultrasound and laser treatment.

Angle Orthod 2014 Oct 7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25289655

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Thermographic monitoring of wound healing and oral health-related quality of life in patients treated with laser (aPDT) after impacted mandibular third molar removal.

Batinjan G, Zore Z, Celebic A, Papic M, Gabric Panduric D, Filipovic Zore I

Department of Oral Surgery, School of Dental Medicine and Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address: gbatinjan@sfzg.hr. Department of Surgical Oncology, Clinical Hospital Sisters of Mercy, Zagreb, Croatia. Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dental Medicine and Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. High Business School Libertas, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. Department of Oral Surgery, School of Dental Medicine and Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. Department of Oral Surgery, School of Dental Medicine and Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.

The objective of this study was to assess the impact of low-level laser therapy on wound swelling, wound temperature changes, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. Forty patients with impacted lower third molars requiring surgical removal participated in this study; all were Pell-Gregory class IIB or IIC. The patients were divided randomly into two groups for post-extraction therapy. One group received antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and the other received no additional therapy (placebo group). Temperature measurements were done using an infrared thermographic camera on days 3 and 7 postoperative. OHRQoL was assessed in both groups on day 7 using the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire translated into Croatian (OHIP-14-CRO). Prior to surgical treatment, there was no difference in patient characteristics between the two groups. A significantly lower temperature and less wound swelling were recorded on day 3 postoperative in the aPDT group compared to the control group (P<0.001). Participants in the aPDT group also had significantly lower OHIP-14-CRO summary scores (P<0.01). The present study showed beneficial effects of the aPDT modality of low-level laser therapy: postoperative wound swelling was reduced and wound temperature decreased, and OHRQoL was better through the 7-day postoperative period in comparison to the placebo group.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014 Dec 43(12) 1503-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25277807

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Effect of high-intensity laser therapy in the management of myofascial pain syndrome of the trapezius: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Dundar U, Turkmen U, Toktas H, Solak O, Ulasli AM

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, 03200, Turkey, umitftr@yahoo.com.

Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of the trapezius muscle is one of the main causes of neck pain. In this randomized, double-blind study, we evaluated the effects of high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) in female patients with chronic MPS of the trapezius muscle. The patients were assigned to two groups. The HILT group was treated with HILT and exercise, and the sham therapy group was treated with placebo HILT and exercise. The patients were assessed for pain, cervical active range of motion, disability, and quality of life. Evaluations were performed before treatment (week 0) and after treatment (weeks 4 and 12). Both groups showed significant improvement in all parameters at weeks 4 and 12. However, in a comparison of the percentage changes in the parameters at weeks 4 and 12 relative to pretreatment values, the HILT group showed greater improvement in pain scores, the neck disability index, and several subparts of the short-form 36 health survey (SF-36) (physical functioning, role limitations due to physical functioning, bodily pain, general health perceptions, social functioning, and role limitations due to emotional problems) than did the sham therapy group. We conclude that HILT is an effective therapeutic method in the treatment of patients with chronic MPS of the trapezius muscle.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 325-32

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25274197

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Electrotherapy modalities for adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder).

Page MJ, Green S, Kramer S, Johnston RV, McBain B, Buchbinder R

School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, The Alfred Centre, 99 Commercial Road, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3004.

BACKGROUND: Adhesive capsulitis (also termed frozen shoulder) is a common condition characterised by spontaneous onset of pain, progressive restriction of movement of the shoulder and disability that restricts activities of daily living, work and leisure. Electrotherapy modalities, which aim to reduce pain and improve function via an increase in energy (electrical, sound, light, thermal) into the body, are often delivered as components of a physical therapy intervention. This review is one in a series of reviews which form an update of the Cochrane review ‘Physiotherapy interventions for shoulder pain’. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise the available evidence regarding the benefits and harms of electrotherapy modalities, delivered alone or in combination with other interventions, for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus and the ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) clinical trials registries up to May 2014, unrestricted by language, and reviewed the reference lists of review articles and retrieved trials to identify any other potentially relevant trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials using a quasi-randomised method of allocation that included adults with adhesive capsulitis and compared any electrotherapy modality to placebo, no treatment, a different electrotherapy modality, or any other intervention. The two main questions of the review focused on whether electrotherapy modalities are effective compared to placebo or no treatment, or if they are an effective adjunct to manual therapy or exercise (or both). The main outcomes of interest were participant-reported pain relief of 30% or greater, overall pain, function, global assessment of treatment success, active shoulder abduction, quality of life, and the number of participants experiencing any adverse event. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted the data, performed a risk of bias assessment, and assessed the quality of the body of evidence for the main outcomes using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Nineteen trials (1249 participants) were included in the review. Four trials reported using an adequate method of allocation concealment and six trials blinded participants and personnel. Only two electrotherapy modalities (low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF)) have been compared to placebo. No trial has compared an electrotherapy modality plus manual therapy and exercise to manual therapy and exercise alone. The two main questions of the review were investigated in nine trials.Low quality evidence from one trial (40 participants) indicated that LLLT for six days may result in improvement at six days. Eighty per cent (16/20) of participants reported treatment success with LLLT compared with 10% (2/20) of participants receiving placebo (risk ratio (RR) 8.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.11 to 30.34; absolute risk difference 70%, 95% CI 48% to 92%). No participants in either group reported adverse events.We were uncertain whether PEMF for two weeks improved pain or function more than placebo at two weeks because of the very low quality evidence from one trial (32 participants). Seventy-five per cent (15/20) of participants reported pain relief of 30% or more with PEMF compared with 0% (0/12) of participants receiving placebo (RR 19.19, 95% CI 1.25 to 294.21; absolute risk difference 75%, 95% CI 53% to 97%). Fifty-five per cent (11/20) of participants reported total recovery of joint function with PEMF compared with 0% (0/12) of participants receiving placebo (RR 14.24, 95% CI 0.91 to 221.75; absolute risk difference 55%, 95% CI 31 to 79).Moderate quality evidence from one trial (63 participants) indicated that LLLT plus exercise for eight weeks probably results in greater improvement when measured at the fourth week of treatment, but a similar number of adverse events, compared with placebo plus exercise. The mean pain score at four weeks was 51 points with placebo plus exercise, while with LLLT plus exercise the mean pain score was 32 points on a 100 point scale (mean difference (MD) 19 points, 95% CI 15 to 23; absolute risk difference 19%, 95% CI 15% to 23%). The mean function impairment score was 48 points with placebo plus exercise, while with LLLT plus exercise the mean function impairment score was 36 points on a 100 point scale (MD 12 points, 95% CI 6 to 18; absolute risk difference 12%, 95% CI 6 to 18). Mean active abduction was 70 degrees with placebo plus exercise, while with LLLT plus exercise mean active abduction was 79 degrees (MD 9 degrees, 95% CI 2 to 16; absolute risk difference 5%, 95% CI 1% to 9%). No participants in either group reported adverse events. LLLT’s benefits on function were maintained at four months.Based on very low quality evidence from six trials, we were uncertain whether therapeutic ultrasound, PEMF, continuous short wave diathermy, Iodex phonophoresis, a combination of Iodex iontophoresis with continuous short wave diathermy, or a combination of therapeutic ultrasound with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) were effective adjuncts to exercise. Based on low or very low quality evidence from 12 trials, we were uncertain whether a diverse range of electrotherapy modalities (delivered alone or in combination with manual therapy, exercise, or other active interventions) were more or less effective than other active interventions (for example glucocorticoid injection). AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: Based upon low quality evidence from one trial, LLLT for six days may be more effective than placebo in terms of global treatment success at six days. Based upon moderate quality evidence from one trial, LLLT plus exercise for eight weeks may be more effective than exercise alone in terms of pain up to four weeks, and function up to four months. It is unclear whether PEMF is more or less effective than placebo, or whether other electrotherapy modalities are an effective adjunct to exercise. Further high quality randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the benefits and harms of physical therapy interventions (that comprise electrotherapy modalities, manual therapy and exercise, and are reflective of clinical practice) compared to interventions with evidence of benefit (for example glucocorticoid injection or arthrographic joint distension).

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 10 CD011324

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25271097

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The effect of low-level laser on postoperative pain after tibial fracture surgery: a double-blind controlled randomized clinical trial.

Nesioonpour S, Mokmeli S, Vojdani S, Mohtadi A, Akhondzadeh R, Behaeen K, Moosavi S, Hojjati S

Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Canadian Optic and Laser Center, COL Center, Victoria, Canada. Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Department of Orthopedic, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is a common complication that can lead to serious morbidities and delayed recovery. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy on acute pain after tibial fracture surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, 54 patients who were candidate for tibial fracture surgery were allocated randomly to two groups, namely, control and laser therapy. Both groups had the same type of surgery and technique of spinal anesthesia. Patients in laser group were treated with the combination of two lasers (GaALAs, 808 nm; and GaALInP, 650 nm) at the end of the surgery while control group received laser in turn-off mode with the same duration as laser group. Patients were evaluated for pain intensity according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the amount of analgesic use during 24 hours after surgery. RESULTS: Laser group experienced less pain intensity in comparison with control group at second, fourth, eighth, 12(th), and 24(th) hours after surgery (P Value < 0.05). In addition, the amount of consumed opioid in laser group was significantly less than the control group (51.62 +/- 29.52 and 89.28 +/- 35.54 mg, respectively; P Value, 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Low Level Laser Therapy is a proper method to reduce postoperative pain because it is painless, safe, and noninvasive and is easily accepted by patients.

Anesth Pain Med 2014 Aug 4(3) e17350

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25237637

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Effects of low-intensity laser therapy on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: A clinical trial.

Kansal A, Kittur N, Kumbhojkar V, Keluskar KM, Dahiya P

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Himachal Institute of Dental Sciences, Paonta Sahib, Sirmour, Himachal Pradesh, India. Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, KLE V.K. Institute of Dental Sciences, KLE University, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Department of Periodontics, KLE V.K. Institute of Dental Sciences, KLE University, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, KLE V.K. Institute of Dental Sciences, KLE University, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Department of Periodontics, Himachal Institute of Dental Sciences, Paonta Sahib, Sirmour, Himachal Pradesh, India.

BACKGROUND: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) can be utilized for different treatments in the field of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of LILT on (1) the rate of canine movement during canine retraction phase and (2) evaluate the radiographic changes occurring during LILT around the irradiated area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 patients of both genders were included for this study. One quadrant of the upper arch was considered control group (CG) and received mechanical activation of the canine teeth with 150 g. The opposite quadrant received the same mechanical activation and was also irradiated with a diode emitting light (gallium-arsenide laser) at 904 nm, for 10 s at 12 mW, at 4.2 J/cm(2). Laser application was done on 1(st) day, 3(rd), 7(th), 14(th), 21(th), 28(th), 35(th), 42(nd), 49(th), 56(th) day respectively during the canine retraction phase. Distance was measured on 1(st) day, 35(th) day and 63(rd) day and appliance activation was done on 1(st) and 35(th) day. Results were analyzed using t-test with the significance level set at P < 0.01. RESULTS: Mean value obtained from 1(st) to 63(rd) day was 3.30 +/- 2.36 mm for CG and 3.53 +/- 2.30 mm for laser group (LG). CONCLUSION: There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of tooth movement during canine retraction between the LG and the CG. There was no evidence of any pathologic changes in the radiograph following LILT.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2014 Jul 11(4) 481-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25225562

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A Meta-analysis of Clinical Effects of Low-level Laser Therapy on Temporomandibular Joint Pain.

Chang WD, Lee CL, Lin HY, Hsu YC, Wang CJ, Lai PT

Department of Sports Medicine, China Medical University, Taiwan. Physical Education Section of General Education, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan. Department of Occupational Therapy, I-Shou University, Taiwan. Rehabilitation Therapy Center, Tungs’ Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taiwan. Department of Rehabilitation Science, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Taiwan. Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Da-Chien General Hospital, Taiwan.

[Purpose] Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain is a symptom of TMJ disease. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is often used in the clinical treatment of TMJ pain. The aim of this study was to review the effective parameters of LLLT for TMJ pain. [Methods] This study was a systematic review in which electronic databases were searched for the period of January 2005 to January 2010. We selected reports of randomized controlled trials and calculated the effect size (ES) of the pain relief to evaluate the effect of LLLT. [Results] Seven reports are found to meet the inclusion criteria and discussed. Based on the calculation results, the pooled ES was -0.6, indicating a moderate effect of pain relief. In addition, the dosages and treatments with wavelengths of 780 and 830 nm can cause moderate and large pain relief effects. [Conclusion] Use of LLLT on the masticatory muscle or joint capsule for TMJ pain had a moderate analgesic effect. The optimal parameters for LLLT to treat TMJ pain have not been confirmed. However, our results can be a vital clinical reference for clinical physicians in treatment of patients with TMJ pain.

J Phys Ther Sci 2014 Aug 26(8) 1297-300

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25202201

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Doxycycline fluorescence-guided Er:YAG laser ablation combined with Nd:YAG/diode laser biostimulation for treating bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.

Porcaro G, Amosso E, Scarpella R, Carini F

Oral Surgery Specialist, Department of Translational Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy. Postgraduate student, Department of Translational Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy. Electronic address: e.amosso@virgilio.it. Postgraduate student, Department of Translational Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy. Research Professor, Department of Translational Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

Laser therapy and fluorescence-guided surgery are highly reliable and predictable methods, but their combination has not been found to yield useful outcomes. We present a new therapeutic approach combining fluorescence-guided Er:YAG laser ablation with Nd:YAG/diode laser biostimulation for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). A woman was treated with zoledronic acid for bone metastasis from clear cell renal cell carcinoma and subsequently developed BRONJ in the left jaw. The management protocol included perioperative medical therapy (1% chlorhexidine gel, rifamycin, and doxycycline for 10 preoperative and 7 postoperative days), Er:YAG laser ablation guided by doxycycline fluorescence in vital bone under UV light, and Nd:YAG/diode laser biostimulation. The lesion regressed from stage 3 to stage 1 and showed nearly complete healing after laser therapy (3 and 23 cycles of ablation and biostimulation, respectively). These preliminary findings suggest the feasibility of the new approach, which is minimally invasive and biostimulative and causes very low morbidity.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015 Jan 119(1) e6-e12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25174873

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Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Adolescents With Temporomandibular Disorder: A Blind Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

Leal de Godoy CH, Motta LJ, Santos Fernandes KP, Mesquita-Ferrari RA, Deana AM, Bussadori SK

Doctoral Student in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, Brazil. Professor, Postgraduate Program in Health Systems Management, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, Brazil. Professor, Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, Brazil. Professor, Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, Brazil. Professor, Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, Brazil. Professor, Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: sandra.skb@gmail.com.

PURPOSE: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on pain, mandibular movements, and occlusal contacts in adolescents and young adults with temporomandibular disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Individuals aged 14 to 23 years were evaluated. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used for the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders. Pain was assessed with a visual analog scale. Occlusal contacts were recorded using the T-Scan III program (Tekscan, Boston, MA). The participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups: active or placebo laser treatment. The laser parameters were as follows: wavelength of 780 nm, energy density of 33.5 J/cm2, power of 50 mW, power density of 1.67 W/cm2, and 20-second exposure time. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine the normality of the data distribution. The paired t test was used for the comparisons of the pretreatment and post-treatment results. The SPSS program for Windows (version 15.0; SPSS, Chicago, IL) was used for all analyses, with the level of significance set at 5% (P < .05). RESULTS: No statistically significant differences between groups were found for the right and left anterior temporal muscles (P = .3801 and P = .5595, respectively), superior masseter muscles (P = .087 and P = .1969, respectively), medial masseter muscles (P = .2241 and P = .076, respectively), or inferior masseter muscles (P = .5589 and P = .3268, respectively) after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant differences were found regarding pain, mandibular range of motion, or the distribution of occlusal contacts after treatment with low-level laser therapy. These preliminary results need to be verified in a larger sample of patients to confirm the lack of response to low-level laser therapy.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014 Oct 2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25542604

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Are interventions for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement effective?

Abdallah MN, Flores-Mir C

Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Quebec, Canada. Division of Orthodontics, Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Data sourcesPubmed, Embase, Sciences Citation Index, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and grey literature database of SIGLE were searched from January 1, 1990 to August 20, 2011 with no language restrictions.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs in which the participants were healthy and received additional interventions to conventional orthodontic treatment for accelerating tooth movements were included. Subjects with defects in oral and maxillofacial regions (ie, cleft lip/palate), dental pathologies and medical conditions were excluded.Data extraction and synthesisStudies were selected by two independent reviewers and disagreements were resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. The primary outcomes included accumulative moved distance (AMD) or movement rate (MR) and time required to move the tooth to its destination. Secondary outcomes were pain improvement, anchorage loss, periodontal health, orthodontic caries, pulp vitality and root resorption. The reviewers performed statistical pooling, where possible, according to a priori criteria on the basis of comparability of patient type, treatments and outcomes measured and risk of bias. The reviewers tested for heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity. A quality assessment test was conducted to evaluate the method used to measure AMD.ResultsThe authors selected seven RCTs and two quasi-RCTs, which included a total of 101 patients with an age range of 12-26.3 years. Eight studies compared four intervention methods to no intervention group (control group). From them, four studies assessed low laser therapy (LLL), two evaluated corticotomy (CC), one assessed electrical current therapy (EC) and one evaluated pulsed electromagnetic field (PEF). Another study compared dentoalveolar distraction (DAD) vs periodontal distraction (PDD).Quality assessment scores showed that only two studies were of high quality, five studies were of medium quality, while two studies were of low quality. All studies, except one, compared left and right sides of the same participant (split mouth design), and measured the AMD.The method for measuring AMD was reliable in three studies, relatively reliable in one study and unreliable in four studies. The authors only performed pooled AMD mean meta-analysis for the LLL studies. The meta-analysis showed pooled mean AMD of 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 20.04, 0.68), 0.76 (95% CI, 20.14, 1.65), and 0.73 (95% CI, 20.68, 2.14) for one month, two months and three months, respectively. Two LLL studies showed no differences regarding periodontal health and two LLL studies showed no differences in root resorption between LLL intervention and control groups. Compared to control group, one study reported that CS had significantly higher MR and another study showed that CS exhibited larger AMD for one month, two months, three months and four months. Two studies revealed that CS did not show any difference in the periodontal health status. One study reported the EC showed significantly larger AMD for one month, whereas another study reported that PEF induced larger AMD for five + 0.6 months. DAD showed faster MR and less anchorage loss compared to PDD. Teeth remained vital in both DAD and PDD interventions and one out of six cases presented root resorption in the PDD group.ConclusionsAmong the five interventions corticotomy is effective and safe to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement, low-level laser therapy was unable to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. The level of evidence does not support whether electrical current and pulsed electromagnetic fields are effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement and dentoalveolar or periodontal distraction is promising in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement.

Evid Based Dent 2014 Dec 15(4) 116-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25522945

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Penile anesthesia in Post SSRI Sexual Dysfunction (PSSD) responds to low-power laser irradiation: A case study and hypothesis about the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels.

Waldinger MD, van Coevorden RS, Schweitzer DH, Georgiadis J

Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of BetaSciences, Utrecht University, Universiteitslaan 99, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands; Private Practice Psychiatry and Neurosexology, Amstelveen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: md@waldinger.demon.nl. Medisch Centrum Buitenveldert, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Reinier de Graaf Groep of Hospitals, Delft-Voorburg, The Netherlands. Department of Neuroscience, Section Anatomy, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Treatment of paroxetine-induced penile anesthesia in Post SSRI Sexual Dysfunction (PSSD) by Low-power Laser Irradiation (LPLI) is unknown in medical literature. The aim of the current article is to report partial efficacy of LPLI for paroxetine-induced persistent penile anesthesia. We report on a male patient who presented with a history of reversible loss of smell, taste and skin sensitivity occurring within a week after start of 20mg/day paroxetine-hemihydrate for a depressive period. Concurrently, patient suffered from penile anesthesia, scrotum hypesthesia, anejaculation and erectile difficulties with normal sexual desire. During 2.5 years of paroxetine treatment and throughout 2 years after paroxetine discontinuation, genital and sexual complaints persisted. Penile anesthesia was treated by LPLI with single and multi diode pulsed laser probes. After 20 LPLI-treatment sessions of 15min each, patient reported partial return of penile touch and temperature sensation. Clinical improvement of glans penis sensitivity was reported to 20% and 40%, compared to pre-paroxetine treatment penile sensitivity during erect and flaccid states, respectively. However, anejaculation and erectile difficulties remained unchanged. Briefly, in the current patient with early onset of PSSD, LPLI treatment reduced paroxetine-induced penile anesthesia. It is hypothesized that SSRI treatment induces disturbances of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels of mechano-, thermo- and chemosensitive nerve endings and receptors resulting in the penile anesthesia in PSSD. It is further hypothesized that there are two types of PSSD, one of which occurs soon after the start of SSRI treatment.

Eur J Pharmacol 2014 Dec 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25483212

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Autologous bone-marrow stem cells stimulation reverses post-ischemic-reperfusion kidney injury in rats.

Oron U, Tuby H, Maltz L, Sagi-Assif O, Abu-Hamed R, Yaakobi T, Doenyas-Barak K, Efrati S

Department of Zoology, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been found to modulate biological activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible beneficial effects of LLLT application to stem cells in the bone marrow (BM), on the kidneys of rats that had undergone acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: Injury to the kidneys was induced by the excision of the left kidney and 60 min of IRI to the right kidney in each rat. Rats were then divided randomly into 2 groups: non-laser-treated and laser-treated. LLLT was applied to the BM 10 min and 24 h post-IRI and rats were sacrificed 4 days post-IRI. Blood was collected before the sacrifice and the kidney processed for histology. RESULTS: Histological evaluation of kidney sections revealed the restored structural integrity of the renal tubules, and a significant reduction of 66% of pathological score in the laser-treated rats as compared to the non-laser-treated ones. C-kit positive cell density in kidneys post-IRI and laser-treatment was (p = 0.05) 2.4-fold higher compared to that of the non-laser treated group. Creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and cystatin-C levels were significantly 55, 48, and 25% lower respectively in the laser-treated rats as compared to non-treated ones. CONCLUSION: LLLT application to the BM causes induction of stem cells, which subsequently migrate and home in on the injured kidney. Consequently, a significant reduction in pathological features and improved kidney function post-IRI are evident. The results demonstrate a novel approach in cell-based therapy for acute ischemic injured kidneys. (c) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Am J Nephrol 2014 40(5) 425-33

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25413586

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Pulsed versus continuous wave low-level light therapy on osteoarticular signs and symptoms in limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome): a case report.

Barolet D

RoseLab Skin Optics Laboratory, 3333 100th Avenue, Suite 200, Laval, Quebec, H7T 0G3, Canada.

Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) was formerly known as CREST syndrome in reference to the associated clinical features: calcinosis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasias. The transforming growth factor beta has been identified as a major player in the pathogenic process, where low-level light therapy (LLLT) has been shown to modulate this cytokine superfamily. This case study was conducted to assess the efficacy of 940 nm using millisecond pulsing and continuous wave (CW) modes on osteoarticular signs and symptoms associated with lcSSc. The patient was treated two to three times a week for 13 weeks using a sequential pulsing mode on one elbow and a CW mode on the other. Efficacy assessments included inflammation, symptoms, pain, health scales, patient satisfaction, clinical global impression, and adverse effects monitoring. Considerable functional and morphologic improvements were observed after LLLT, with the best results seen with the pulsing mode. No adverse effects were noted. Pulsed LLLT represents a treatment alternative for osteoarticular signs and symptoms in limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome).

J Biomed Opt 2014 Nov 19(11) 118001

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25393970

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Laser acupuncture effect on fetal well-being during induction of labor.

Alsharnoubi J, Khattab A, Elnoury A

Medical Laser Department, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, broncojena@gmail.com.

Labor induction with traditional drugs is sometimes associated with fetal complications as fetal distress or death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of labor induction by laser acupuncture on fetal well-being in post-term pregnancy. Nulliparous women at 40 weeks or greater were randomized to sham laser group versus laser acupuncture group. Each session consisted of laser application on bilateral points LI 4, SP 6, BL 31, and BL 32. The study was conducted in Cairo University, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences. Sixty nulliparous women were randomized into laser acupuncture group n = 30 and control group n = 30. Women were treated in both groups in three consecutive days in post-date pregnancy. Results (66.6 %) showed a significant difference in rate of normal vaginal delivery (NVD) between acupuncture group (50 %) and control group (50 %) (p = 0.002). There was no significant difference of enrollment delivery time between laser acupuncture and sham groups (p > 0.05). There were six cases of cesarean section (CS) due to no fetal movement with normal cardiotocography (CTG). Laser acupuncture has no effect on fetus, and its effect on fetal movement needs more investigations. Laser can induce labor if the cervical length is less than 1 cm and dilation (0).

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 403-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25371029

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A new standard of Efficacy for Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in Pain Attenuation in Japan (a secondary publication).

Shiroto C, Ohshiro T

Shiroto Clinic. Ohshiro Clinic ; Japan Medical Laser Laboratory.

The assessment of the efficacy of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for pain attenuation varies among institutions, all having their own method of assessment with no common standards. At the author’s institution in the beginning, the patients were asked how they assessed their pain relief immediately after the treatment. They were to choose from excellent, good, fair, no change and poor. The overall efficacy rate was calculated by the numbers of patients scoring excellent and good, expressed as a percentage of the total number of patients. However, a large number of institutions have utilized the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) or the Pain Relief Score (PRS) for the assessment of treatment; but even then, the evaluation could not be considered uniform. Therefore, the standardization of the efficacy rate was continuously discussed among the practitioners of LLLT, dating back to the 9(th) annual meeting of the Japan Laser Therapy Association (JaLTA) in 1997. It took four years (including the 1997 meeting) until finally an agreement was reached and a new standard of efficacy was presented at the 12(th) JaLTA meeting in 2000, based on the PRS. The new standard defined excellent as pain reduction in any treatment session from 10 to 0 or 1, good as reduction from 10 to 2 approximately 5, fair as reduction from 10 to 6 approximately 8, no change as a reduction from 10 to 9 approximately 10 and poor was defined as exacerbation of pain from 10 to 11 or greater. Efficacy rate was calculated by the number of patients scoring excellent and good expressed as a percentage of the total number of patients. For the purpose of reference, the VAS was to be used for patients receiving the treatment for the first time.

Laser Ther 2014 Sep 30 23(3) 183-90

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25368444

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Recurrent Labial Herpes Simplex in Pediatric Dentistry: Low-level Laser Therapy as a Treatment Option.

Stona P, da Silva Viana E, Dos Santos Pires L, Blessmann Weber JB, Floriani Kramer P

Managing Editor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, RS, Brazil. Managing Editor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, RS, Brazil. Managing Editor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, RS, Brazil. Managing Editor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brazil. Managing Editor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, RS, Brazil.

Recurrent labial herpes simplex is a pathology of viral origin that is frequently observed in children. The signs and symptoms are uncomfortable and, in many cases, the efficacy of treatment is unproven. However, several studies have demonstrated good results from the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), primarily due to acceleration of the healing process and pain relief, which make it a promising resource for use with this pathology. This paper describes a clinical case of a 7-year-old patient affected by this pathology and the therapeutic resolution proposed. How to cite this article: Stona P, da Silva Viana E, dos Santos Pires L, Weber JBB, Kramer PF. Recurrent Labial Herpes Simplex in Pediatric Dentistry: Low-level Laser Therapy as a Treatment Option. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):140-143.

Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014 May 7(2) 140-3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25356015

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Dental movement acceleration: Literature review by an alternative scientific evidence method.

Camacho AD, Cujar SA

Angela Dominguez Camacho, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad del Valle, Cali 76001000, Colombia. Angela Dominguez Camacho, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad del Valle, Cali 76001000, Colombia.

The aim of this study was to analyze the majority of publications using effective methods to speed up orthodontic treatment and determine which publications carry high evidence-based value. The literature published in Pubmed from 1984 to 2013 was reviewed, in addition to well-known reports that were not classified under this database. To facilitate evidence-based decision making, guidelines such as the Consolidation Standards of Reporting Trials, Preferred Reporting items for systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, and Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomized Designs check list were used. The studies were initially divided into three groups: local application of cell mediators, physical stimuli, and techniques that took advantage of the regional acceleration phenomena. The articles were classified according to their level of evidence using an alternative method for orthodontic scientific article classification. 1a: Systematic Reviews (SR) of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 1b: Individual RCT, 2a: SR of cohort studies, 2b: Individual cohort study, controlled clinical trials and low quality RCT, 3a: SR of case-control studies, 3b: Individual case-control study, low quality cohort study and short time following split mouth designs. 4: Case-series, low quality case-control study and non-systematic review, and 5: Expert opinion. The highest level of evidence for each group was: (1) local application of cell mediators: the highest level of evidence corresponds to a 3B level in Prostaglandins and Vitamin D; (2) physical stimuli: vibratory forces and low level laser irradiation have evidence level 2b, Electrical current is classified as 3b evidence-based level, Pulsed Electromagnetic Field is placed on the 4(th) level on the evidence scale; and (3) regional acceleration phenomena related techniques: for corticotomy the majority of the reports belong to level 4. Piezocision, dentoalveolar distraction, alveocentesis, monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament distraction technique, only had case series or single report cases (4(th) level of evidence). Surgery first and periodontal distraction have 1 study at level 2b and corticision one report at level 5. Multiple orthodontic acceleration reports on humans were identified by an alternative evidence level scale, which is a simple and accurate way of determining which techniques are better and have a higher rate of effectiveness. The highest level of evidence for a specific procedure to accelerate orthodontic dental movement up to October 2013 was surgery first followed by low level laser application, corticotomy and periodontal distraction located on level 2, recommendation grade b from this proposed scientific evidence-based scale.

World J Methodol 2014 Sep 26 4(3) 151-62

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25332914

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New treatment alternatives in the ulnar neuropathy at the elbow: ultrasound and low-level laser therapy.

Ozkan FU, Saygi EK, Senol S, Kapci S, Aydeniz B, Aktas I, Gozke E

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital, E-5 Karayolu Icerenkoy-Atasehir, 34752, Istanbul, Turkey, feyzamd@yahoo.com.

Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow (UNE) is the second most common entrapment neuropathy of the arm. Conservative treatment is the treatment of choice in mild to moderate cases. Elbow splints and avoiding flexion of the involved elbow constitute majority of the conservative treatment; indeed, there is no other non-invasive treatment modality. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ultrasound (US) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of UNE to provide an alternative conservative treatment method. A randomized single-blind study was carried out in 32 patients diagnosed with UNE. Short-segment conduction study (SSCS) was performed for the localization of the entrapment site. Patients were randomized into US treatment (frequency of 1 MHz, intensity of 1.5 W/cm2, continuous mode) and LLLT (0.8 J/cm2 with 905 nm wavelength), both applied five times a week for 2 weeks. Assessments were performed at baseline, at the end of the treatment, and at the first and third months by visual analog scale, hand grip strength, semmes weinstein monofilament test, latency change at SSCS, and patient satisfaction scale. Both treatment groups had significant improvements on clinical and electrophysiological parameters (p < 0.05) at first month with no statistically significant difference between them. Improvements in all parameters were sustained at the third month for the US group, while only changes in grip strength and latency were significant for the LLLT group at third month. The present study demonstrated that both US and LLLT provided improvements in clinical and electrophysiological parameters and have a satisfying short-term effectiveness in the treatment of UNE.

Acta Neurol Belg 2014 Oct 16

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Blue or red: which intravascular laser light has more effects in diabetic patients?

KazemiKhoo N, Ansari F

Department of Medical Genetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, nooshakazemi@gmail.com.

The effects of intravascular laser irradiation of blood (ILIB), with 405 and 632.8 nm on serum blood sugar (BS) level, were comparatively studied. Twenty-four diabetic type 2 patients received 14 sessions of ILIB with blue and red lights. BS was measured before and after therapy. Serum BS decreased highly significant after ILIB with both red and blue lights (p < 0.0001), but we did not find significant difference between red and blue lights. The ILIB effect would be of benefit in the clinical treatment of diabetic type 2 patients, irrespective of lasers (blue or red lights) that are used.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 363-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25304768

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Low-level laser therapy for orthodontic pain: a systematic review.

Li FJ, Zhang JY, Zeng XT, Guo Y

Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, No.237, Luoyu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan, 430079, China, lfj6666@163.com.

This review aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome of different lasers management on orthodontic pain. Cochrane Library (Issue 7, 2014) and MEDLINE (1966-2014.7) were searched to collect randomized controlled trials on lasers for orthodontic pain. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated. The Cochrane Collaboration tools RevMan5.1.7 and GRADEpro 3.6 were used in this systematic review and meta-analysis. As a result, 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studying on low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for orthodontic pain control were included. Meta-analysis and risk of bias assessment were implemented using RevMan5.1.7, and level of evidence assessments was measured by GRADEpro 3.6. In the outcome of the score of the most painful day, the comparison of laser versus placebo (pain associated with tooth movement) demonstrated that LLLT reduced the pain score significantly compared with placebo groups (MD = -4.39, 95 % CI range -5.9–2.88, P < 0.00001). In the same way, the most painful day was significantly brought forward in laser versus control group (MD = -0.42, 95 % CI range -0.74–0.10, P = 0.009). Furthermore, the outcome of the end of pain day showed a trend of pain termination earlier in laser versus control and placebo groups, but without statistical significance (MD = -1.37, 95 % CI range -3.37-0.64, P = 0.18 and MD = -1.04, 95 % CI range -4.22-2.15, P = 0.52). However, for the reason of downgrade factors, all the GRADE level of evidences of eight comparisons for three outcomes showed a very low quality. Therefore, for the methodological shortcomings and risk of bias of RCTs included, insufficient evidence was submitted to judge whether LLLT was effective in relieving orthodontic pain. Further and more perfect researches should be done in order to recommend LLLT as a routine method for orthodontic pain.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Sep 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25258106

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Synergic effects of ultrasound and laser on the pain relief in women with hand osteoarthritis.

Paolillo AR, Paolillo FR, Joao JP, Joao HA, Bagnato VS

Optics Group from Physics Institute of Sao Carlos (IFSC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400-Centro, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, arpaolillo@gmail.com.

Patients with pain avoid movements, leading to a gradual impairment of their physical condition and functionality. In this context, the use of ultrasound (US) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) show promising results for nonpharmacological and noninvasive treatment. The aim of this study was evaluated the synergistic effects of the US and the LLLT (new prototype) with or without therapeutic exercises (TE) on pain and grip strength in women with hand osteoarthritis. Forty-five women with hand osteoarthritis, aged 60 to 80 years, were randomly assigned to one of three groups, but 43 women successfully completed the full study. The three groups were as follows: (i) the placebo group which did not perform TE, but the prototype without emitting electromagnetic or mechanical waves was applied (n = 11); (ii) the US + LLLT group which carried out only the prototype (n = 13); and (iii) the TE + US + LLLT group which performed TE before the prototype is applied (n = 13). The parameters of US were frequency 1 MHz; 1.0 W/cm(2) intensity, pulsed mode 1:1 (duty cycle 50 %). Regarding laser, the output power of the each laser was fixed at 100 mW leading to an energy value of 18 J per laser. Five points were irradiated per hand, during 3 min per point and 15 min per session. The prototype was applied after therapeutic exercises. The treatments are done once a week for 3 months. Grip strength and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were measured. Grip strength did not differ significantly for any of the groups (p >/= 0.05). The average PPT between baseline and 3 months shows significant decrease of the pain sensitivity for both the US + LLLT group ( = 30 +/- 19 N, p<0.001) and the TE + US + LLLT group ( = 32 +/- 13 N, p < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in average PPT for placebo group ( = -0.3 +/- 9 N). There was no placebo effect. The new prototype that combines US and LLLT reduced pain in women with hand osteoarthritis.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 279-86

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25239030

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Chiropractic management of a 24-year-old woman with idiopathic, intermittent right-sided hemiparesthesia.

Bova J, Sergent A

Private Practice, Latham, NY. Assistant Professor, Clinic Services, Palmer Chiropractic College of Florida, Port Orange, FL.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case report is to describe the chiropractic management of a patient with idiopathic, intermittent right-sided hemiparesthesia. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 24-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of intermittent idiopathic right arm paresthesia. She also had a 3-month history of intermittent idiopathic right leg/face paresthesia. These symptoms were strongest at night and caused insomnia and worsened over time. She rated her discomfort at 5/10 on a numeric scale. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: Care included vibration stimulation therapy, spinal manipulation and cold laser therapy. She had a noticeable reduction in her paresthesia both subjectively and objectively. She showed improvement in paresthesia on the right side of her body after the first visit. The following week, after 2 visits she returned and stated that she was symptom free with 0/10 discomfort on a numeric scale. CONCLUSION: This patient’s symptoms of idiopathic, intermittent right-sided hemi-paresthesia seemed to improve with a short course of chiropractic care using manipulation, vibration therapy and cold laser therapy.

J Chiropr Med 2014 Dec 13(4) 282-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25435843

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Phototherapy with combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes is beneficial in improvement of muscular performance (strength and muscular endurance), dyspnea, and fatigue sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Miranda EF, de Oliveira LV, Antonialli FC, Vanin AA, de Carvalho Pde T, Leal-Junior EC

Post-Graduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro, 235, 01504-001, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Phototherapy is an electrophysical intervention being considered for the retardation of peripheral muscular fatigue usually observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes phototherapy on isokinetic performance in patients with COPD. Thirteen patients performed muscular endurance tests in an isokinetic dynamometer. The maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), peak torque (PT), and total work (TW) of the non-dominant lower limb were measured in two visits. The application of phototherapy or placebo (PL) was conducted randomly in six locations of femoral quadriceps muscle by using a cluster of 12 diodes (4 of 905 nm super-pulsed lasers, 0.3125 mW each; 4 of 875 nm LEDs, 17.5 mW each; and 4 of 640 nm LEDs, 15 mW each, manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical). We found statistically significant increases for PT (174.7 +/- 35.7 N . m vs. 155.8 +/- 23.3 N . m, p = 0.003) and TW after application of phototherapy when compared to placebo (778.0 +/- 221.1 J vs. 696.3 +/- 146.8 J, p = 0.005). Significant differences were also found for MVIC (104.8 +/- 26.0 N . m vs. 87.2 +/- 24.0 N . m, p = 0.000), sensation of dyspnea (1 [0-4] vs. 3 [0-6], p = 0.003), and fatigue in the lower limbs (2 [0-5] vs. 5 [0.5-9], p = 0.002) in favor of phototherapy. We conclude that the combination of super-pulsed lasers and LEDs administered to the femoral quadriceps muscle of patients with COPD increased the PT by 20.2 % and the TW by 12 %. Phototherapy with a combination of super-pulsed lasers and LEDs prior to exercise also led to decreased sensation of dyspnea and fatigue in the lower limbs in patients with COPD.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 437-43

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25413975

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Laser acupuncture: keep it scientific.

Robinson NG

CSU Center for Comparative and Integrative Medicine, Colorado State University , Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Dec 32(12) 647-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25411903

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Noninvasive and alternative management of chronic low back pain (efficacy and outcomes).

Wellington J

Pain Medicine Center, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this article is to provide a thorough literature review of available noninvasive and alternative treatment options for chronic low back pain. In particular, the efficacy of each therapy is evaluated and pertinent outcomes are described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive search for available literature was done through PubMed and Cochrane data base for topics discussed in this paper. RESULTS: Relevant current and past references were reviewed and presented to reflect the efficacy of each therapy and related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: There are a wide variety of noninvasive and alternative therapies for the treatment of chronic low back pain. Those with the strongest evidence in the literature for good efficacy and outcomes include exercise therapy with supervised physical therapy, multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation, and acupuncture. Therapies with fair evidence or moderately supported by literature include yoga, back schools, thermal modalities, acupressure, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Those therapies with poor evidence or little to no literature support include manipulation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, low-level laser therapy, reflexology, biofeedback, progressive relaxation, hypnosis, and aromatherapy. Providers delivering care for patients with chronic low back pain must carefully evaluate these available treatment options related to their efficacy or lack thereof as well as relevant outcomes.

Neuromodulation 2014 Oct 17 Suppl 2 24-30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25395114

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Tri-length laser therapy associated to tecar therapy in the treatment of low-back pain in adults: a preliminary report of a prospective case series.

Osti R, Pari C, Salvatori G, Massari L

Orthopaedic Institute, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy, raffaellaosti@gmail.com.

Low-back pain is very frequent, especially in active adult population. There are several different orthopaedic condition that can cause low-back pain, and the pain worsen the quality of life significantly. The treatments vary from drugs, physical therapies, kinesiology, local infiltrations, and so on. Laser therapy has an important role in the treatment of the inflammatory causes of pain, with several studies that demonstrate the efficacy of low and high energy laser therapy in the treatment of low-back pain. Sixty-six consecutive patients with low-back pain with or without leg pain were treated using a combination of Tri-length laser I-Triax(R) (Mectronic Medicale, Bergamo, Italy) and Pharon(R) tecar therapy (Mectronic Medicale, Bergamo, Italy). The patients were treated three times a week, every other day, for a total of 10 sessions. Clinical results were evaluated using visual analogic scale for individual pain (0 to 10) and the Oswestry disability scale (ODS). Tests started before the beginning of therapies and 8 weeks after the end of the therapies. Visual analogic scale (VAS) score significantly improved from an average value of 8.1 +/- 1.58 pre-treatment to an average value 8-weeks post-treatment of 2.63 +/- 2.74 (P < .01). ODS values start from a pre-treatment average value of 53.0 +/- 13.0 to a post-treatment average value of 23.5 +/- 19.8 (P < .01). A higher improvement both in VAS and in ODS was denoted in the group of patient with low-back pain and leg pain (respectively, VAS from 8.66 +/- 1.58 to 2.86 +/- 2.94 and ODS from 57.8 +/- 15.5 to 23.7 +/- 19.5). Low-back pain, associated or not with leg pain, is a very common clinical situation. The treatments of this condition are different, and an important role can be given to the laser therapy. The conclusion of this study is that the association between laser therapy iLux-Triax(R) and tecar therapy Pharon(R) in the treatment of low-back pain, with or without leg pain, can significantly reduce pain and improve the quality of life in patients with degenerative and inflammatory problems.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 407-12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25376670

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Effect of light-emitting diode ( 627 nm and 945 nm ) treatment on first intention healing: Immunohistochemical analysis.

Kerppers II, de Lima CJ, Fernandes AB, Villaverde AB

Laboratory of Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology, Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste-UNICENTRO Rua Vicente Machado, 3459, CEP: 85035-180, Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil, labneurosubmissao@gmail.com.

Collagen I is not only responsible for maintaining the integrity of most tissues due to its mechanical properties, but also for its active participation in the functionality of tissues because of its interaction with cells present in the extracellular matrix. The synthesis of collagen begins with tissue injury and remains until the end of the healing process. The use of non-coherent light for healing processes is still understudied. This procedure stands out as a biostimulation method for tissue repair, which increases local circulation, cell proliferation, and collagen synthesis. This study sought to quantify collagen I in the healing process after the treatment of wounds with the light-emitting diode (LED) treatment. The histologic analysis with tissue samples stained with picrosirius red showed a statistical difference between the positive controls, LED 627 and LED 945 nm groups; the group treated with LED 627 nm showed a predominance of mature collagen. The immunohistochemical analysis showed a statistically significant high concentration of collagen I in the LED 945 nm group. The irradiation of wounds with the higher wavelength (945 nm) used in the study produced the best activity of collagen I formation in experimental model.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 397-401

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25367711

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Alternative approach to the management of postoperative pain after pediatric surgical procedures.

Paschoal M, Souza J, Santos-Pinto L, Pansani C

PhD Student, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School Univ Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. PhD Student, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School Univ Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School Univ Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School Univ Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

AIM: This paper reports two clinical cases in which the application of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) enhanced the postoperative symptoms after pediatric surgical procedures. BACKGROUND: The uses of novel technologies allow more comfort to the patients and ensure a rapid procedure, and LLLT application has shown a positive effect in the prevention of discomfort after invasive procedures. CASE DESCRIPTION: Low-level laser therapy protocol was applied after surgical removal of supernumerary tooth and frenectomy resulting in less swallow and pain with no need of medication intake. CONCLUSION: The laser application was well accepted by both children and parents and showed a clinical efficiency in the follow-up examinations beyond the satisfactory quality of wound healing. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The LLLT approach is an excellent adjuvant therapy resource for delivery an optimal postoperative after surgical procedures in children. How to cite this article: Paschoal M, Souza J, Santos-Pinto L, Pansani C. Alternative Approach to the Management of Postoperative Pain after Pediatric Surgical Procedures. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):125-129.

Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014 May 7(2) 125-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25356012

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Laser acupuncture therapy in patients with treatment-resistant temporomandibular disorders.

Hu WL, Chang CH, Hung YC, Tseng YJ, Hung IL, Hsu SF

Department of Chinese Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Kaohsiung Medical University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Fooyin University College of Nursing, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Fooyin University College of Nursing, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Division of Chinese Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Chinese Medical Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Department of Chinese Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; School of Chinese Medicine for Post Baccalaureate, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Department of Chinese Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Department of Chinese Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Graduate Institute of Acupuncture Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taipei Branch, Taipei, Taiwan.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effects of laser acupuncture therapy for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) after ineffective previous treatments. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in 29 treatment-resistant TMD patients (25 women, 4 men; age range, 17-67 years). Subjects were treated 3 times per week for 4 weeks with the Handylaser Trion (GaAlAs laser diode, 810 nm, 150 mW, pulsed waves), which delivered 0.375 J of energy (5 s) to ST7, ST6, and LI4 and 3 J (40 s) to each Ashi point, 7.5-26.25 J/cm2 in total. The visual analog scale (VAS) and maximal mouth opening (MMO) were evaluated before and after treatment. RESULTS: VAS analysis showed that the patients were free of pain at rest (endpoint) after 5.90+/-6.08 sessions of laser acupuncture for acute TMD and after 16.21+/-17.98 sessions for chronic TMD. The VAS score on palpation of the temporomandibular joint reduced to 0.30+/-0.67 for patients with acute TMD (p = 0.005) and to 0.47+/-0.84 for those with chronic TMD (p<0.001). The MMO significantly increased in patients with acute TMD (7.80+/-5.43 mm, p = 0.008) and in patients with chronic TMD (15.58+/-7.87 mm, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that laser acupuncture therapy improves the symptoms of treatment-resistant TMD. Further studies with a more appropriate design, involving long-term follow-up examinations in a larger patient sample, are needed to evaluate its efficacy.

PLoS One 2014 9(10) e110528

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25329855

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Emulated laser-acupuncture system.

Chang SC, Kuo CC, Ni CH, Tsai CC, Yen SF, Chiu YH, Qu AD, Wang CY

A novel laser-acupuncture system was developed that can be used to implement the manipulation methods of traditional acupuncture, such as lifting and thrusting. A 780 nm laser diode with a maximum power of 90 mW was used as the light source. The focus point of the laser beam was adjustable by changing the position of the lens, facilitating the implementation of the lifting and thrusting methods of traditional Chinese medicine and achieving various stimulation depths at the acupuncture point. The images for the light spots from the outlet of the emulated laser acupuncture were captured at various distances and their sizes were calculated. The result showed that the diameter of the focused light spot (i.e., at the focus point) was 0.11 mm, which is close to the diameter of commonly used needles (with diameters of approximately 0.22 mm). The area of the light spot 1 cm from the focus point was approximately 50 times larger, indicating that the unit power might be 1/50 of the power of the focus point. To study the effect of emulated laser acupuncture on human meridians, after stimulating the Shenmen point (HT7) of five subjects and obtaining their Ryodoraku values of the heart meridian and the small-intestine meridian, a paired t test showed that the laser stimulation incorporating lifting and thrusting was significantly higher than the laser stimulation without lifting and thrusting (p<0.05). The result is consistent with traditional acupuncture in that acupuncture incorporating lift and thrust is more effective than that without lift and thrust.

Appl Opt 2014 Oct 10 53(29) H170-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25322416

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Low-level laser therapy as an alternative for pulpotomy in human primary teeth.

Marques NC, Neto NL, Rodini CD, Fernandes AP, Sakai VT, Machado MA, Oliveira TM

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Orthodontics and Public Health, Bauru School of Dentistry – University of Sao Paulo, Bauru, SP, Brazil.

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on pulpal response of primary teeth. Twenty mandibular primary molars were randomly divided into the following groups: group I Buckley’s formocresol (diluted at 1:5), group II calcium hydroxide, group III LLLT + zinc oxide/eugenol, and group IV LLLT + calcium hydroxide. LLLT parameters were set at 660-nm wavelength, 10-mW power output, and 2.5 J/cm2 energy density for 10 s in continuous mode (InGaAlP laser, Twin Laser(R), MMOptics, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brazil). The teeth were extracted at the regular exfoliation period. The dentin-pulp complex was graded by an established histopathological score system. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square test. The histopathological assessment revealed statistically significant differences among groups (P < 0.05). The lowest degree of pulpal inflammation was present in LLLT + calcium hydroxide (P = 0.0296). Calcium hydroxide showed the highest rate of hard tissue barrier (P = 0.0033), odontoblastic layer (P = 0.0033), and dense collagen fibers (P = 0.0095). On the other hand, formocresol showed the highest incidence of internal resorption (P = 0.0142). Based on this study, low-level laser therapy preceding the use of calcium hydroxide exhibited satisfactory results on pulp tissue healing. However, further clinical studies on human teeth with long-term follow-up are needed to test the low-level laser therapy efficacy.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Sep 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25240388

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Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on hair regrowth in dogs with noninflammatory alopecia: a pilot study.

Olivieri L, Cavina D, Radicchi G, Miragliotta V, Abramo F

Clinica Veterinaria Modena Sud, Piazza dei Tintori, 41057, Spilamberto, MO, Italy.

BACKGROUND: Canine noninflammatory alopecia (CNA) is a heterogeneous group of skin diseases with different underlying pathogenesis. The therapeutic approach is challenging, and new options for treatment are desirable. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To test the clinical efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on hair regrowth in CNA. ANIMALS: Seven dogs of different ages, breeds and genders with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of noninflammatory alopecia. METHODS: Each dog was treated twice weekly for a maximum of 2 months with a therapeutic laser producing the following three different wavelengths emerging simultaneously from 21 foci: 13 x 16 mW, 470 nm; 4 x 50 mW, 685 nm; and 4 x 200 mW, 830 nm. The fluence given was 3 J/cm2 , frequency 5 Hz, amplitude of the irradiated area was 25 cm2 and application time was 1.34 min. A predetermined alopecic area was left untreated and served as a control area. From one dog, post-treatment biopsies of treated and untreated sites were obtained for histological evaluation of hair density and the percentage of haired and nonhaired follicles. RESULTS: At the end of the study, coat regrowth was greatly improved in six of seven animals and improved in one of seven. By morphometry, the area occupied by hair follicles was 18% in the treated sample and 11% in the untreated one (11%); haired follicles were (per area) 93% in the treated sample and only 9% in the control sample. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Our clinical and histological data document promising effects of LLLT on hair regrowth in CNA. Further studies investigating the biological mechanism underlying the effect of LLLT on hair follicle cycling are warranted.

Vet Dermatol 2014 Sep 16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25227429

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Diagnosis and management of osteonecrosis of the jaw: a systematic review and international consensus.

Khan AA, Morrison A, Hanley DA, Felsenberg D, McCauley LK, O’Ryan F, Reid IR, Ruggiero SL, Taguchi A, Tetradis S, Watts NB, Brandi ML, Peters E, Guise T, Eastell R, Cheung AM, Morin SN, Masri B, Cooper C, Morgan SL, Obermayer-Pietsch B, Langdahl BL, Al Dabagh R, Davison KS, Kendler DL, Sandor GK, Josse RG, Bhandari M, El Rabbany M, Pierroz DD, Sulimani R, Saunders DP, Brown JP, Compston J

This work provides a systematic review of the literature from January 2003 to April 2014 pertaining to the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), and offers recommendations for its management based on multidisciplinary international consensus. ONJ is associated with oncology-dose parenteral antiresorptive therapy of bisphosphonates (BP) and denosumab (Dmab). The incidence of ONJ is greatest in the oncology patient population (1% to 15%), where high doses of these medications are used at frequent intervals. In the osteoporosis patient population, the incidence of ONJ is estimated at 0.001% to 0.01%, marginally higher than the incidence in the general population (<0.001%). New insights into the pathophysiology of ONJ include antiresorptive effects of BPs and Dmab, effects of BPs on gamma delta T-cells and on monocyte and macrophage function, as well as the role of local bacterial infection, inflammation, and necrosis. Advances in imaging include the use of cone beam computerized tomography assessing cortical and cancellous architecture with lower radiation exposure, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scanning, and positron emission tomography, although plain films often suffice. Other risk factors for ONJ include glucocorticoid use, maxillary or mandibular bone surgery, poor oral hygiene, chronic inflammation, diabetes mellitus, ill-fitting dentures, as well as other drugs, including antiangiogenic agents. Prevention strategies for ONJ include elimination or stabilization of oral disease prior to initiation of antiresorptive agents, as well as maintenance of good oral hygiene. In those patients at high risk for the development of ONJ, including cancer patients receiving high-dose BP or Dmab therapy, consideration should be given to withholding antiresorptive therapy following extensive oral surgery until the surgical site heals with mature mucosal coverage. Management of ONJ is based on the stage of the disease, size of the lesions, and the presence of contributing drug therapy and comorbidity. Conservative therapy includes topical antibiotic oral rinses and systemic antibiotic therapy. Localized surgical debridement is indicated in advanced nonresponsive disease and has been successful. Early data have suggested enhanced osseous wound healing with teriparatide in those without contraindications for its use. Experimental therapy includes bone marrow stem cell intralesional transplantation, low-level laser therapy, local platelet-derived growth factor application, hyperbaric oxygen, and tissue grafting. (c) 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (c) 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

J Bone Miner Res 2015 Jan 30(1) 3-23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25414052

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Low intensity laser for reducing pain from anesthetic palatal injection.

Sattayut S

Oral Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry and Lasers in Dentistry Research Group, Khon Kaen University , Khon Kaen, Thailand .

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pain reduction techniques for palatal injection, namely, low intensity laser therapy (LILT), topical anesthesia, pressure, and light touch. BACKGROUND DATA: Previous evidence indicates that LILT may prevent pain from palatal injection. However, no clinical trials evaluating this clinical question have been performed. METHODS: A double-blind clinical trial was conducted using 80 healthy volunteers, 18-25 years of age. The subjects were randomly allocated into four groups with 10 females and 10 males each group. Pain reduction techniques were administered at an injection point that was 10 mm from the margin of the palatal gingiva of the upper left first molar according to the following groups: (1) a 790 nm 30 mW continuous wave with a 0.13 cm(2) focal spot at an applied energy of 3.6 J and fluence of 27.69 J/cm(2), (2) 20% benzocaine, (3) pressure, and (4) light touch as the control. Then, 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was injected using a 27-gauge needle with a pressure and volume control intraligamentary syringe. All subjects recorded pain on a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: The pain score in the LILT group was
Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Dec 32(12) 658-62

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Acupuncture for chronic knee pain: a randomized clinical trial.

Hinman RS, McCrory P, Pirotta M, Relf I, Forbes A, Crossley KM, Williamson E, Kyriakides M, Novy K, Metcalf BR, Harris A, Reddy P, Conaghan PG, Bennell KL

Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia2Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health. Department of General Practice, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Department of General Practice, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Epidemiology and Preventative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, London, United Kingdom7Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom. Department of General Practice, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Department of General Practice, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Centre for Health Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Newcastle, Australia. Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds and NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Leeds, United Kingdom. Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

IMPORTANCE: There is debate about benefits of acupuncture for knee pain. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of laser and needle acupuncture for chronic knee pain. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Zelen-design clinical trial (randomization occurred before informed consent), in Victoria, Australia (February 2010-December 2012). Community volunteers (282 patients aged >/=50 years with chronic knee pain) were treated by family physician acupuncturists. INTERVENTIONS: No acupuncture (control group, n = 71) and needle (n = 70), laser (n = 71), and sham laser (n = 70) acupuncture. Treatments were delivered for 12 weeks. Participants and acupuncturists were blinded to laser and sham laser acupuncture. Control participants were unaware of the trial. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcomes were average knee pain (numeric rating scale, 0 [no pain] to 10 [worst pain possible]; minimal clinically important difference [MCID], 1.8 units) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, 0 [no difficulty] to 68 [extreme difficulty]; MCID, 6 units) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included other pain and function measures, quality of life, global change, and 1-year follow-up. Analyses were by intention-to-treat using multiple imputation for missing outcome data. RESULTS: At 12 weeks and 1 year, 26 (9%) and 50 (18%) participants were lost to follow-up, respectively. Analyses showed neither needle nor laser acupuncture significantly improved pain (mean difference; -0.4 units; 95% CI, -1.2 to 0.4, and -0.1; 95% CI, -0.9 to 0.7, respectively) or function (-1.7; 95% CI, -6.1 to 2.6, and 0.5; 95% CI, -3.4 to 4.4, respectively) compared with sham at 12 weeks. Compared with control, needle and laser acupuncture resulted in modest improvements in pain (-1.1; 95% CI, -1.8 to -0.4, and -0.8; 95% CI, -1.5 to -0.1, respectively) at 12 weeks, but not at 1 year. Needle acupuncture resulted in modest improvement in function compared with control at 12 weeks (-3.9; 95% CI, -7.7 to -0.2) but was not significantly different from sham (-1.7; 95% CI, -6.1 to 2.6) and was not maintained at 1 year. There were no differences for most secondary outcomes and no serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In patients older than 50 years with moderate or severe chronic knee pain, neither laser nor needle acupuncture conferred benefit over sham for pain or function. Our findings do not support acupuncture for these patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12609001001280.

JAMA 2014 Oct 1 312(13) 1313-22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25268438

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Low-level laser therapy as a treatment for chronic pain.

Kingsley JD, Demchak T, Mathis R

Human Performance and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Exercise Physiology, Kent State University Kent, OH, USA. Department of Applied Medicine, Indiana State University Terre Haute, IN, USA. Reed Mathis DC Tallahassee, FL, USA.

Front Physiol 2014 5 306

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25191273

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[Effect of intravenous laser irradiation on some blood biochemical indicators in the acute stage of lacunar infarcts].

Nechipurenko NI, Anatskaia LN, Matusevich LI, Pashkovskaia ID, Shcherbina NIu

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dynamics of lipid metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in lacunar infarction (LI) in chronic cerebral ischemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups of patients were studied. The main group included 31 patients who received intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) with semiconductor laser (wavelength – 0.67 microns, the power output – 3-2 mW) in addition to standard treatment. Patients of the control group (n=22) received only standard treatment. RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol levels to normal values due to the significant reduction of the content of antiatherogenic fraction of cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein and atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) was found in the main group after treatment. The reduction in atherogenic cholesterol fractions in both groups was associated with the decrease in apolipoprotein B level. The level of CRP was higher than normal in the main and control groups of patients before and after treatment, which indicated the risk of vascular diseases in patients with LI. After treatment, superoxide dismutase activity returned to normal values. In patients of the main group, the catalase activity increased while the level of reduced glutathione did not change and lipid peroxidation products remained on the high level. CONCLUSION: Additional antioxidant therapy is needed for these patients.

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2014 114(7) 43-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25176266

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Effects of phototherapy on muscle activity and pain in individuals with temporomandibular disorder: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Herpich CM, Leal-Junior EC, Amaral AP, de Paiva Tosato J, Dos Santos Gloria IP, Garcia MB, Barbosa BR, El Hage Y, Arruda EE, de Paula Gomes CA, Rodrigues MS, de Sousa DF, de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho P, Bussadori SK, de Oliveira Gonzalez T, Politti F, Biasotto-Gonzalez DA

Student, Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Center for Support to Research on Movement Analysis, University Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Rua Profa Maria Jose Barone Fernandes, 300, Sao Paulo, SP 02117-020, Brazil. carolinaherpich12@hotmail.com.

BACKGROUND: According to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), the term temporomandibular disorder (TMD) regards a subgroup of orofacial pain, the symptoms of which include pain or discomfort in the temporomandibular joint, ears, masticatory muscles and neck on one or both sides, as well as joint sounds, limited mandibular movements or mandibular deviation and difficulties chewing. Phototherapy, such as low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light-emitting diode (LED) therapy, is one of the resources used to treatment muscle pain. Thus, there is a need to investigate therapeutic resources that combine different wavelengths as well as different light sources (LLLT and LED) in the same apparatus.The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the effects of four different doses of phototherapy on pain, activity of the masticatory muscles (masseter and bilateral anterior temporal) and joint mobility in individuals with temporomandibular disorder. A further aim is to determine the cumulative effect 24 and 48 hours after a single session. METHODS/DESIGN: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, clinical trial will be carried out involving 72 women between 18 and 40 years of age with a diagnosis of myogenous TMD. The participants will then be randomly allocated to four groups totaling 18 individuals per group. Three groups will be submitted to a single session of phototherapy with different light sources, and one group will receive placebo therapy: Group A (2.62 Joules); Group B (5.24 Joules); Group C (7.86 Joules); and Group D (0 Joules). The following assessment tools will be administered on four separate occasions (baseline and immediately after, 24 h after and 48 h after phototherapy). Pain intensity will be assessed using the visual analog scale for pain, while pain thresholds will be determined using algometer, and electromyographic (EMG) analysis on the masseter and anterior temporal muscles. DISCUSSION: The study will contribute to the practice of the evidence-based use of phototherapy in individuals with a myogenous TMD. Data will be published after the study is completed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials, NCT02018770, date of registration: 7 December 2013.

Trials 2014 15(1) 491

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25514875

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Use of Physical Therapy in a Dog with Bilateral Severe Plantigrade Stance.

Ree J, Hayashi K, Woelz J, Kim SY

From the Animal Specialty Center, Yonkers, NY (J.R.); Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Hospital for Animals, Ithaca, NY (K.H.); Tahoe Integrative Veterinary Care, Truckee, CA (J.W.); and Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA (S.Y.K.).

ABSTRACT A 3.5 yr old spayed female Staffordshire terrier weighing 25.5 kg was presented with a 7 wk history of bilateral plantigrade stance in the pelvic limbs directly following an ovariohysterectomy procedure. Upon presentation, the dog had bilateral atrophy of the distal pelvic limb muscles, enlarged popliteal lymph nodes, and ulcerative wounds on the dorsa of her rear paws. Orthopedic examination revealed intact calcaneal tendons bilaterally and neurologic examination localized the lesion to the distal sciatic nerve. A diagnosis of compressive and stretch neuropathy was made affecting the distal sciatic nerve branches. Physical therapy modalities included neuromuscular electrical stimulation, ultrasound, and low-level laser therapy. Other therapeutic modalities included the use of orthotics and progressive wound care. The dog had increased muscle mass, return of segmental reflexes, return of nociception, and the ability to walk on pelvic limbs with higher carriage of the hock 15 mo following presentation. The use of custom orthotics greatly increased the quality of life and other physical therapy modalities may have improved the prognosis in this dog with severe bilateral plantigrade stance due to neuropathy.

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2014 Nov 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25415214

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Laser acupuncture as an adjuvant therapy for a neonate with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) due to maternal substitution therapy: additional value of acupuncture.

Raith W, Urlesberger B

Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria Research Group for Paediatric Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM Research Centre Graz (Acupuncture Research), Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria Research Group for Paediatric Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM Research Centre Graz (Acupuncture Research), Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Acupunct Med 2014 Dec 32(6) 523-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25303949

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Phototherapy for the treatment of cutaneous graft versus host disease.

Garbutcheon-Singh KB, Fernandez-Penas P

Department of Dermatology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia; Sydney Medical School-Westmead, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Graft versus host disease (GvHD) occurs in half the patients who receive allogenic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is a major contributor for the morbidity and mortality in these patients. Immunosuppressant therapy cannot suppress all the manifestations of GvHD and new ways of treating the condition are needed. The focus of this review is the treatment of cutaneous GvHD through phototherapy. Of the six acute and ten chronic cutaneous GvHD case series examined the overall trend was that phototherapy was able to reduce the presence of cutaneous lesions of GvHD and, as a consequence, steroid use could be reduced. This provides a positive outlook for phototherapy as a treatment for cutaneous GvHD but there is a need for future studies to include larger numbers of patients in order to obtain more data.

Australas J Dermatol 2014 Oct 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25302552

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia: a pilot study.

Saleh J, Figueiredo MA, Cherubini K, Braga-Filho A, Salum FG

1 Oral Medicine Division, Sao Lucas Hospital, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul- PUCRS , Porto Alegre – RS, Brazil .

OBJECTIVE: The present pilot study aimed to assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on hyposalivation and xerostomia as a consequence of head and neck radiotherapy. BACKGROUND DATA: The benefits of LLLT in salivary flow have been shown; however, there are no studies investigating its effects on patients who have already undergone radiotherapy and present hyposalivation and xerostomia as a sequela. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with a history of head and neck malignancy, who were treated by fractioned teletherapy (dosimetry ranging from 45 to 70 Gy) in the cervicofacial region were selected. They all presented with xerostomia and severe hyposalivation. Patients were randomly distributed into a laser group (n=12) and a control group (n=11). A GaAlAs laser (830 nm, 100 mW, illuminated area 0.028 cm2, 3.57 W/cm2, 20 sec, 2.0 J, 71 J/cm2) was used punctually in the major salivary glands, twice a week for 6 weeks, with a 12 session total. Stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rate (SFR) were assessed, as well as the xerostomia and quality of life related to oral health (QLROH). RESULTS: The analysis did not show any significant difference between the groups with regards to the SFR and xerostomia, and the QLROH. However, at the end of the treatment, the xerostomia and the QLROH showed significant improvement in both groups compared with assessments performed at baseline, highlighting the importance of advice given to the irradiated patients, and their follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: With the parameters used, LLLT was not able to increase SFR or decrease xerostomia. The results may be associated with the late effects of radiotherapy on glandular structure, such as fibrosis and acinar atrophy.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Oct 32(10) 546-52

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25302460

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Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and low-level laser therapy on the muscle architecture and functional capacity in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

Melo MD, Pompeo KD, Brodt GA, Baroni BM, da Silva Junior DP, Vaz MA

Exercise Research Laboratory, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil Nucleo de Pesquisa em Ciencias e Arte do Movimento Humano, University of Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, Brazil melo.monica@terra.com.br. Exercise Research Laboratory, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Exercise Research Laboratory, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil Nucleo de Pesquisa em Ciencias e Arte do Movimento Humano, University of Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, Brazil. Exercise Research Laboratory, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil Federal University of Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre. Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Exercise Research Laboratory, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil Physique Centre of Physical Therapy and Physical Fitness, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of low-level laser therapy in combination with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the muscle architecture and functional capacity of elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: A randomized, evaluator-blinded clinical trial with sequential allocation of patients to three different treatment groups. SETTING: Exercise Research Laboratory. SUBJECTS: A total of 45 elderly females with knee osteoarthritis, 2-4 osteoarthritis degrees, aged 66-75 years. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized into one of the following three intervention groups: electrical stimulation group (18-32 minutes of pulsed current, stimulation frequency of 80 Hz, pulse duration of 200 mus and stimulation intensity fixed near the maximal tolerated), laser group (low-level laser therapy dose of 4-6 J per point, six points at the knee joint) or combined group (electrical stimulation and low-level laser therapy). All groups underwent a four-week control period (without intervention) followed by an eight-week intervention period. MAIN MEASURES: The muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length were assessed by ultrasonography, and the functional capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test and the Timed Up and Go Test. RESULTS: After intervention, only the electrical stimulation and combined groups exhibited significant increases in the muscle thickness (27%-29%) and pennation angle (24%-34%) values. The three groups exhibited increased performance on the walk test (5%-9%). However, no significant differences in terms of functional improvements were observed between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation reduced the deleterious effects of osteoarthritis on the quadriceps structure. Low-level laser therapy did not potentiate the effects of electrical stimulation on the evaluated parameters.

Clin Rehabil 2014 Sep 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25261425

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[Clinical research on electrode and laser stimulating on acupoint combined with music therapy for grade 1 essential hypertension].

Hong HY, Chen YS, Hong ZS, Shi JL, Yang ZB, Chen ZB, Zhan HR

OBJECTIVE: To explore safe, effective, simple and easy non-drug treatments for grade 1 essential hypertension. METHODS: According to TCM syndrome differentiation, 126 cases of grade 1 essential hypertension were classified into 4 types: liver-fire hyperactivity syndrome, yin-deficiency and yang-hyperactivity syndrome, excessive phlegm-dampness syndrome, yin-yang deficiency syndrome, and then the patients were randomly divided into a photoelectric combined with musical treatment group (group A), an acupuncture group(group B) and a placebo group (group C). The acupoints were selected according to TCM syndrome differentiation in group A and group B, and multi-mode audio frequency pulse photoelectric therapeutic apparatus and acupuncture were used in the two groups respectively, once daily. Taichong (LR 3) and Quchi (LI 11) were selected in liver-fire hyperactivity syndrome, Taixi (KI 3) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) were selected yi yin-deficiency and yang-hyperactivity syndrome, Zusanli (ST 36) and Fenglong (ST 40) were selected in excessive phlegm-dampness syndrome, while Taixi (KI 3) and Guanyuan (CV 4) were selected yi yirryang deficiency syndrome. The group C was treated with oral administration of starch tablet (25 mg), one tablet each time,three times everyday. Ten days were considered as one course, totally three courses were required in the three groups. The blood pressure and scores of TCM syndromes before and after treatment were compared among the three groups. RESULTS: The blood pressure decreased significantly after treatment in group A and group B (all P<0.01), and the decrease in systolic blood pressure was more significant in group A (P < 0.05). The total effective rate was 90.5 / (38/42) in group A, which was superior to 71. 4 (30/42, P < 0.05) in group B and 19.1% (18/34, P 0.05). CONCLUSION: The clinical effect of multi-mode audio frequency pulse photoelectric therapeutic apparatus for treatment of grade 1 essential hypertension is reliable. Meanwhile, it has the advantages of a non-invasive and simple operation.

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2014 Jul 34(7) 713-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25233668

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Magnetoledtherapy in the treatment of wounds after surgical procedures of the knee joint.

Pasek J, Pasek T, Sieron A

Clinical Ward of Internal Diseases, Angiology, and Physical Medicine, Centre of Diagnostics and Laser Therapy in Bytom, Silesian Medical University, Katowice, Poland. Rehabilitation Unit, St Barbara Provincial Specialist Hospital No 5, Sosnowiec, Poland. Clinical Ward of Internal Diseases, Angiology, and Physical Medicine, Centre of Diagnostics and Laser Therapy in Bytom, Silesian Medical University, Katowice, Poland.

The intense development of methods of physical medicine has been noted recently. The new methods are treatment methods, which in many cases allow a reduction of treatment time and positively influence the quality of life of patients undergoing treatment. This applies to illnesses and injuries of the locomotor system and diseases affecting soft tissues, as well as chronic wounds. This article discusses the positive results of the treatment of a 63-year-old woman with a persisting chronic wound of her right lower extremity after knee joint endoprosthesis surgery. The physical medicine method applied, in the form of magnetoledtherapy, contributed to complete wound healing and alleviation of pain suffered, as well as improvement of the quality of life of the treated patient.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2014 10 717-20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25214792

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[Chronobiological approach to the treatment of patients with erectile dysfunction using a combination of local negative pressure and laser illumination].

Moskvin SV, Ivanchenko LP

It is shown that the synchronization of energetic, spectral, frequency, and temporal parameters of technique with biorhythms of physiological processes in the organ, which is target of impact, and in the human body as a whole, allows to significantly improve efficiency, and achieve stable and reproducible results of treatment. The article presents the results of study including 62 patients with vasculogenic ED. The study design included the randomization of patients into 3 groups depending on the complex of the therapy with the use of combined techniques, including negative pressure and laser illumination (LLNP) as a part of combined therapy and as monotherapy. Significant increase in the peak flow velocity after a course of treatment was observed in all three groups of patients. Improvement in erectile function was observed in all groups; according to IIEF score, erectile function has increased by 22.3 +/- 0.05% in group 1, by 34 +/- 1.5% in the group 2, and by 19 +/- 1.7% in the group 3, indicating the best results of treatment in the group receiving combined therapy. Combination of LLNP with the administration of PDE5 inhibitors significantly increases the effectiveness of treatment of vasculogenic ED due to the influence of physical factors on the stabilization of hemodynamics in the main arteries of the penis. After a course of therapy, increase in systemic vascular elasticity by 39.8 +/- 1.5% was also noted. The efficiency of the LLNP methodology in the treatment of patients with vasculogenic ED is demonstrated. The best results were obtained in the group of patients treated with combined therapy, including the use of LLNP and PDE-5 inhibitor.

Urologiia 2014 May-Jun (3) 48-53

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25211927

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Light coaxes stem cells to repair teeth.

Dent Today 2014 Jul 33(7) 40, 43

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25118519

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Low-level laser irradiation promotes the proliferation and maturation of keratinocytes during epithelial wound repair.

Sperandio FF, Simoes A, Correa L, Aranha AC, Giudice FS, Hamblin MR, Sousa SC

Department of Pathology and Parasitology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, Alfenas, 37130-000, MG, Brazil; Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. sperandio@usp.br, felipe.fornias@unifal-mg.edu.br.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been extensively employed to improve epithelial wound healing, though the exact response of epithelium maturation and stratification after LLLT is unknown. Thus, this study aimed to assess the in vitro growth and differentiation of keratinocytes (KCs) and in vivo wound healing response when treated with LLLT. Human KCs (HaCaT cells) showed an enhanced proliferation with all the employed laser energy densities (3, 6 and 12 J/cm2 , 660 nm, 100 mW), together with an increased expression of Cyclin D1. Moreover, the immunoexpression of proteins related to epithelial proliferation and maturation (p63, CK10, CK14) all indicated a faster maturation of the migrating KCs in the LLLT-treated wounds. In that way, an improved epithelial healing was promoted by LLLT with the employed parameters; this improvement was confirmed by changes in the expression of several proteins related to epithelial proliferation and maturation. Immunofluorescent expression of cytokeratin 10 (red) and Cyclin D1 (green) in (A) Control keratinocytes and (B) Low-level laser irradiated cells. Blue color illustrates the nuclei of the cells (DAPI staining).

J Biophotonics 2014 Nov 20 9999(9999)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25411997

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Arrest of progression of pre-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by low level laser phototherapy.

Gavish L, Beeri R, Gilon D, Rubinstein C, Berlatzky Y, Bulut A, Reissman P, Gavish LY, Gertz SD

Institute for Medical Research-IMRIC, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Using non-invasive, high-frequency ultrasonography (HF-u/s), we showed that low-level laser phototherapy (LLL) inhibits de-novo formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in apolipoprotein-E-deficient (Apo-E(-/-) ) mice. The current study tests the effect of LLL on the progression of pre-induced AAA. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIAL AND METHODS: AAA was induced in Apo-E(-/-) mice (age16-20 weeks) by subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin-II using osmotic minipumps (1000 ng/kg/minutes, 4 weeks). HF-u/s (40 MHz, 0.01 mm resolution, Vevo-770, VisualSonics) was used to measure the maximum cross-sectional-diameter (MCD) of the suprarenal abdominal aorta, the anterior wall displacement (AWD), and radial wall velocity (RWV). The aortas of mice that developed >35% dilatation at 2 weeks over baseline were exposed retroperitoneally and treated with LLL (780 nm, 2.2 J/cm(2) , 9 minutes) or sham-operated. HF-u/s was repeated at 4 weeks, the mice sacrificed by perfusion fixation, and the aortas excised for histopathology. RESULTS: Of all mice with >35% MCD expansion of the suprarenal aorta at 2 weeks, 7(58%) of 12 non-treated, but only 1(7%) of 14 LLL, had increased MCD(> 1 SD) at 4 weeks (P < 0.009 by Fisher’s Exact Test [FET]). The mean change in MCD from 2-4 weeks was also markedly reduced in the LLL-treated mice (control vs. LLL, 0.24 +/- 0.25 vs. -0.06 +/- 0.39mm, P = 0.029 by unpaired t-test). Similar results were obtained when limiting the analysis to animals with >/=50% expansion at 2 weeks. The deterioration in AWD from 2-4 weeks in non-treated controls was not observed in LLL-treated animals (DeltaAWD: control, 0.03 +/- 0.05 mm, P < 0.036 vs. LLL, 0.00 +/- 0.05, P = 0.91 by paired t-test). By the modified Daugherty classification, we found significantly fewer severe aneurysms at 4 weeks in the LLL-treated animals versus control (3 of 10 vs. 9 of 11, P = 0.03 by FET). CONCLUSIONS: LLL not only prevents de novo development of AAA, but, from this study, also arrests further progression of pre-induced AAA and its associated deterioration in the biomechanical integrity of the aortic wall in Apo-E(-/-) mice. Lasers Surg. Med. 46:781-790, 2014. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2014 Dec 46(10) 781-90

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25409657

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The fluence effects of low-level laser therapy on inflammation, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, and synovial apoptosis in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis.

Hsieh YL, Cheng YJ, Huang FC, Yang CC

1 Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University , Taichung, Taiwan .

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) operating at low and high fluences on joint inflammation, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), and synovial apoptosis in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. BACKGROUND DATA: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by pronounced inflammation and FLS proliferation within affected joints. Certain data indicate that LLLT is effective in patients with inflammation caused by RA; however, the fluence effects of LLLT on synovium are unclear. METHODS: Monoarthritis was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) via intraarticular injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the tibiotarsal joint. Animals were irradiated 72 h after CFA administration with a 780 nm GaAlAs laser at 4.5 J/cm(2) (30 mW, 30 sec/spot) and 72 J/cm(2) (80 mW, 180 sec/spot) daily for 10 days. After LLLT, the animals were euthanized and their arthritic ankles were collected for histopathological analysis, immunoassays of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)3 and 5B5, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. RESULTS: LLLT at a fluence of 4.5 J/cm(2) significantly reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and expressions of TNF-alpha-, MMP3- and 5B5-like immunoreactivities, as well as resulting in more TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in the synovium. No significant changes were observed in these biochemicals and inflammation in arthritic animals treated with 72 J/cm(2). CONCLUSIONS: LLLT with low fluence is highly effective in reducing inflammation to sites of injury by decreasing the numbers of FLS, inflammatory cells, and mediators in the CFA-induced arthritic model. These data will be of value in designing clinical trials of LLLT for RA.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Dec 32(12) 669-77

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25394331

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Phototherapy promotes healing of cutaneous wounds in undernourished rats.

Leite SN, Andrade TA, Masson-Meyers Ddos S, Leite MN, Enwemeka CS, Frade MA

Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, USA. Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, USA. Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.

BACKGROUND: Various studies have shown that phototherapy promotes the healing of cutaneous wounds. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of phototherapy on healing of cutaneous wounds in nourished and undernourished rats. METHODS: Forty rats, 20 nourished plus 20 others rendered marasmus with undernourishment, were assigned to four equal groups: nourished sham, nourished Light Emitting Diode treated, undernourished sham and undernourished Light Emitting Diode treated. In the two treated groups, two 8-mm punch wounds made on the dorsum of each rat were irradiated three times per week with 3 J/cm2 sq cm of combined 660 and 890 nm light; wounds in the other groups were not irradiated. Wounds were evaluated with digital photography and image analysis, either on day 7 or day 14, with biopsies obtained on day 14 for histological studies. RESULTS: Undernourishment retarded the mean healing rate of the undernourished sham wounds (p < 0.01), but not the undernourished Light emission diode treated wounds, which healed significantly faster (p < 0.001) and as fast as the two nourished groups. Histological analysis showed a smaller percentage of collagen in the undernourished sham group compared with the three other groups, thus confirming our photographic image analysis data. CONCLUSION: Phototherapy reverses the adverse healing effects of undernourishment. Similar beneficial effects may be achieved in patients with poor nutritional status.

An Bras Dermatol 2014 Nov-Dec 89(6) 899-904

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25387494

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Anti-inflammatory activities of light emitting diode irradiation on collagen-induced arthritis in mice (a secondary publication).

Kuboyama N, Ohta M, Sato Y, Abiko Y

Department of Pharmacology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo. Department of Oral Diagnosis, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo ; Research Institute of Oral Science, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo. Department of Pharmacology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, ; Research Institute of Oral Science, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an auto-immune disease afflicting multiple joints of the body, where as a result of the increase in inflammatory cytokines and tissue destructive factors such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, deterioration of the bones and cartilages of the joints occurs. The present investigation was carried out to study the anti-inflammatory activities of light emitting diode (LED) irradiation on hind paw inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice models. MATERIALS AND METHOD: RA in the CIA mouse model was induced by immunization of DBA/1J mice with intradermal injections of an emulsion of bovine type II collagen and complete Freund’s adjuvant. A total of 20 CIA mice were subdivided into the following groups: control group, CIA group and 2 groups of LED irradiated CIA mice (LED groups) (n=5 per group). The mouse knee joint area in the LED groups (the 570 nm and 940 nm groups) was irradiated with LED energy, three times a week for 500 s per session over 8 weeks at a dose of 5 J/cm(2). The hind paw swelling was assessed by the increase in hind paw thickness. The serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines and arthritic factor MMP-3 were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: In the LED-570 and LED-940 groups at 4 weeks after arthritis induction, the swelling inhibition index was 18.1+/-4.9 and 29.3+/-4.0 respectively. Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and MMP-3 serum levels were significantly lower in the LED-940 group. CONCLUSIONS: LED irradiation, particularly in the near-infrared was effective for inhibition of the inflammatory reactions caused by RA.

Laser Ther 2014 Sep 30 23(3) 191-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25368445

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Low level light therapy by LED of different wavelength induces angiogenesis and improves ischemic wound healing.

Dungel P, Hartinger J, Chaudary S, Slezak P, Hofmann A, Hausner T, Strassl M, Wintner E, Redl H, Mittermayr R

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, AUVA Research Center, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna, Austria.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Low-level light therapy (LLLT) has been revealed as a potential means to improve wound healing. So far, most studies are being performed with irradiation in the red to near-infrared spectra. Recently, we showed that blue light (470 nm) can significantly influence biological systems such as nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and is able to release NO from nitrosyl-hemoglobin or mitochondrial protein complexes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the therapeutic value of blue or red light emitting diodes (LEDs) on wound healing in an ischemia disturbed rodent flap model. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: An abdominal flap was rendered ischemic by ligation of one epigastric bundle and subjected to LED illumination with a wavelength of 470 nm (blue, n = 8) or 629 nm (red, n = 8) each at 50 mW/cm(2) and compared to a non-treated control group (n = 8). Illumination was performed for 10 minutes on five consecutive days. RESULTS: LED therapy with both wavelengths significantly increased angiogenesis in the sub-epidermal layer and intramuscularly (panniculus carnosus muscle) which was associated with significantly improved tissue perfusion 7 days after the ischemic insult. Accordingly, tissue necrosis was significantly reduced and shrinkage significantly less pronounced in the LED-treated groups of both wavelengths. CONCLUSIONS: LED treatment of ischemia challenged tissue improved early wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis irrespective of the wavelength thus delineating this noninvasive means as a potential, cost effective tool in complicated wounds. Lasers Surg. Med. 46:773-780, 2014. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2014 Dec 46(10) 773-80

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25363448

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Transcranial low-level laser therapy enhances learning, memory, and neuroprogenitor cells after traumatic brain injury in mice.

Xuan W, Vatansever F, Huang L, Hamblin MR

Ruikang Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Nanning 530021, ChinabWellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, United StatescHarvard Medical School. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, United StatescHarvard Medical School, Department of Dermatology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, United StatescHarvard Medical School, Department of Dermatology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United StatesdGuangxi Medical University, First Affiliated College. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, United StatescHarvard Medical School, Department of Dermatology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United StateseHarvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technolo.

The use of transcranial low-level laser (light) therapy (tLLLT) to treat stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) is attracting increasing attention. We previously showed that LLLT using an 810-nm laser 4 h after controlled cortical impact (CCI)-TBI in mice could significantly improve the neurological severity score, decrease lesion volume, and reduce Fluoro-Jade staining for degenerating neurons. We obtained some evidence for neurogenesis in the region of the lesion. We now tested the hypothesis that tLLLT can improve performance on the Morris water maze (MWM, learning, and memory) and increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ) after CCI-TBI in mice. One and (to a greater extent) three daily laser treatments commencing 4-h post-TBI improved neurological performance as measured by wire grip and motion test especially at 3 and 4 weeks post-TBI. Improvements in visible and hidden platform latency and probe tests in MWM were seen at 4 weeks. Caspase-3 expression was lower in the lesion region at 4 days post-TBI. Double-stained BrdU-NeuN (neuroprogenitor cells) was increased in the dentate gyrus and SVZ. Increases in double-cortin (DCX) and TUJ-1 were also seen. Our study results suggest that tLLLT may improve TBI both by reducing cell death in the lesion and by stimulating neurogenesis.

J Biomed Opt 2014 Oct 19(10) 108003

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25292167

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Photobiostimulation reduces edema formation induced in mice by Lys-49 phospholipases A2 isolated from Bothrops moojeni venom.

Nadur-Andrade N, Dale CS, Santos AS, Soares AM, de Lima CJ, Zamuner SR

Universidade Nove de Julho, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Stella.rz@uninove.br.

The prominent local myotoxic effects induced by Bothrops snake venom are due, in part, to myotoxins. This effect is not neutralized by antivenom, which is the main therapy for victims of snakebite. Two basic myotoxins named MjTX-I and MjTX-II were isolated from Bothrops moojeni venom. Both myotoxins have a Lys-49 phospholipase A2 structure devoid of enzymatic activity, but are highly myonecrotic and edema-inducing. In this study, we analyzed the effect of a low-level laser (LLL) at 685 nm, an energy density of 2.2 J cm(-2), and the irradiation time of 15 s, and a light emitting diode (LED) at 635 or 945 nm at energy densities of 4 and 3.8 J cm(-2), and irradiation times of 41 and 38 s, respectively, applied 30 min and 3 h after edema formation in mice caused by MjTX-I or MjTX-II. MjTX-I or MjTX-II caused a significant edema formation in envenomed paws. LLL and LED irradiation significantly reduced the edema formation by both myotoxins from 1 up to 6 hours after the injection. Both LLL and LEDs were similar in reducing the edema formation induced by myotoxins. The combined photobiostimulation with antivenom had the same effect in reducing edema as treatment with the LLL or LEDs alone. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that photobiostimulation could be used in association with antivenom therapy for treatment of local effects of Bothrops species venom.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2014 Nov 13(11) 1561-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25232894

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660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment.

Li X, Hou W, Wu X, Jiang W, Chen H, Xiao N, Zhou P

Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China. Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China ; Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Medical Electronics Technology, Chongqing, China. Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China ; Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Medical Electronics Technology, Chongqing, China. Rehabilitation Center, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Medical Electronics Technology, Chongqing, China. Rehabilitation Center, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Medical Electronics Technology, Chongqing, China.

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efficiencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600-1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this study, the migration and colonization of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation were detected using Transwell assay. The results showed that, after a 40-hour irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm(2), an increasing number of green fluorescence-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrated towards hypoxic-ischemic damaged primary neurons. Meanwhile, neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 x 10(6) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, followed by irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm(2) for 7 successive days. Shuttle box test results showed that, after phototherapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, the active avoidance response rate of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats was significantly increased, which was higher than that after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation alone. Experimental findings indicate that 660 nm red light emitting diode irradiation promotes the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thereby enhancing the contribution of cell transplantation in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

Neural Regen Res 2014 Feb 1 9(3) 236-42

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25206807

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Low-level laser therapy for traumatic brain injury in mice increases brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synaptogenesis.

Xuan W, Agrawal T, Huang L, Gupta GK, Hamblin MR

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 40 Blossom Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Otolaryngology, Traditional Chinese Medical University of Guangxi, Nanning, China.

Transcranial low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) is a new non-invasive approach to treating a range of brain disorders including traumatic brain injury (TBI). We (and others) have shown that applying near-infrared light to the head of animals that have suffered TBI produces improvement in neurological functioning, lessens the size of the brain lesion, reduces neuroinflammation, and stimulates the formation of new neurons. In the present study we used a controlled cortical impact TBI in mice and treated the mice either once (4 h post-TBI, 1-laser), or three daily applications (3-laser) with 810 nm CW laser 36 J/cm2 at 50 mW/cm2 . Similar to previous studies, the neurological severity score improved in laser-treated mice compared to untreated TBI mice at day 14 and continued to further improve at days 21 and 28 with 3-laser being better than 1-laser. Mice were sacrificed at days 7 and 28 and brains removed for immunofluorescence analysis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was significantly upregulated by laser treatment in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) but not in the perilesional cortex (lesion) at day 7 but not at day 28. Synapsin-1 (a marker for synaptogenesis, the formation of new connections between existing neurons) was significantly upregulated in lesion and SVZ but not DG, at 28 days but not 7 days. The data suggest that the benefit of LLLT to the brain is partly mediated by stimulation of BDNF production, which may in turn encourage synaptogenesis. Moreover the pleiotropic benefits of BDNF in the brain suggest LLLT may have wider applications to neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) for TBI mice.

J Biophotonics 2014 Sep 8 9999(9999)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25196192

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Effects of low level laser therapy on attachment, proliferation, and gene expression of VEGF and VEGF receptor 2 of adipocyte-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultivated under nutritional deficiency.

de Oliveira TS, Serra AJ, Manchini MT, Bassaneze V, Krieger JE, de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho P, Antunes DE, Bocalini DS, Ferreira Tucci PJ, Silva JA Jr

Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro, 235, Liberdade, 01504-001, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to increase the proliferation of several cell types. We evaluated the effects of LLLT on adhesion, proliferation, and gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and type 2 receptor of VEGF (VEGFR2) at mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human (hMSCs) and rat (rMSCs) adipose tissues on nutritional deficiencies. A dose-response curve was performed with cells treated with laser Ga-Al-As (660 nm, 30 mW) at energy of 0.7 to 9 J. Cell adhesion and proliferation were quantified 20, 40, and 60 min after LLLT and 24, 72, and 120 h after cultivation. Gene expression was verified by RT-PCR after 2 h of LLLT. A minor nutritional support caused a significant decrease in proliferation and adhesion of hMSCs and rMSCs. However, at the lowest LLLT dose (0.7 J), we observed a higher proliferation in hMSCs at standard condition shortly after irradiation (24 h). Adhesion was higher in hMSCs cultivated in controlled conditions at higher LLLT doses (3 and 9 J), and rMSCs show a reduction in the adhesion on 1.5 to 9 J. On nutritional deprivation, a 9 J dose was shown to reduce proliferation with 24 h and adhesion to all culture times in rMSCs. VEGF and VEGFR2 were increased after LLLT in both cell types. However, hMSCs under nutritional deprivation showed higher expression of VEGF and its receptor after irradiation with other laser doses. In conclusion, LLLT on human and rat MSCs might upregulate VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and modulate cell adhesion and proliferation distinctively.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 217-23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25192841

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Fluence-dependent effects of low-level laser therapy in myofascial trigger spots on modulation of biochemicals associated with pain in a rabbit model.

Hsieh YL, Hong CZ, Chou LW, Yang SA, Yang CC

Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, 40402, sherrie@mail.cmu.edu.tw.

Evidence strongly supports that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is an effective physical modality for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger points (MTrP). However, the effect of laser fluence (energy intensity in J/cm(2)) on biochemical regulation related to pain is unclear. To better understand the biochemical mechanisms modulated by high- and low-fluence LLLT at myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs; similar to human MTrPs) in skeletal muscles of rabbits, the levels of beta-endorphin (beta-ep), substance P (SP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated in this study. New Zealand rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg in weight) were used in this study. High-fluence LLLT (27 J/cm(2)), low-fluence LLLT (4.5 J/cm(2)), or sham operations were applied on MTrSs of biceps femoris of rabbits for five sessions (one session per day). Effects of LLLT at two different fluences on biceps femoris, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and serum were determined by beta-ep, SP, TNF-alpha, and COX-2 immunoassays. LLLT irradiation with fluences of 4.5 and 27 J/cm(2) at MTrSs can significantly reduce SP level in DRG. LLLT with lower fluence of 4.5 J/cm(2) exerted lower levels of TNF-alpha and COX-2 expression in laser-treated muscle, but LLLT with higher fluence of 27 J/cm(2) elevated the levels of beta-ep in serum, DRG, and muscle. This study demonstrated fluence-dependent biochemical effects of LLLT in an animal model on management of myofascial pain. The findings can contribute to the development of dosage guideline for LLLT for treating MTrP-induced pain.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 209-16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25190639

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Effect of three different protocols of low-level laser therapy on thyroid hormone production after dental implant placement in an experimental rabbit model.

Weber JB, Mayer L, Cenci RA, Baraldi CE, Ponzoni D, Gerhardt de Oliveira M

1 School of Dentistry, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) , Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil .

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the systemic effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on thyroid gland function and, consequently, calcium regulation – as measured by serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and free calcium levels – when administered after dental implant placement in a rabbit model. BACKGROUND DATA: Protocols for the use of laser therapy in several clinical procedures are currently under investigation, as not all of the actions and systemic effects of laser irradiation have been clearly established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male adult New Zealand rabbits were distributed across five groups of eight animals each: two control groups (C-I and C-II) of unirradiated animals, and three experimental groups (E-5, E-10, and E-20), each exposed to a distinct dose of gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser [lambda=830 nm, 50 mW, continuous wave (CW)] every 48 h for a total of seven sessions. The total dose per session was 5 J/cm(2) in E-5, 10 J/cm(2) in E-10, and 20 J/cm(2) in E-20. Animals in C-II and all experimental groups underwent surgical extraction of the mandibular left incisor followed by immediate placement of an osseointegrated implant (Nanotite((R)), Biomet 3i()) into the socket. Animals in group C-I served as an absolute control for T3, T4, and calcium measurements. The level of significance was set at 5% (p
Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Nov 32(11) 612-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25265487

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Low-level laser therapy during postnatal development modulates degeneration and enhances regeneration processes in the hindlimb muscles of dystrophic mice.

Oron A, Oron U, Sadeh M

1 Department of Hand Surgery, Kaplan Medical Center , Rehovot, Israel .

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) at early stages postpartum could affect regeneration and degenerative processes in skeletal muscles of the dystrophic mdx mouse. BACKGROUND DATA: LLLT has been found to modulate various biological processes. It was previously shown that LLLT can markedly promote the process of skeletal muscle regeneration and angiogenesis, as well as reduce apoptosis in skeletal muscle fibers in culture. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight newborn mdx mice were used. Ga-Al-As diode laser (810 nm) was applied at a power density of10 mW/cm(2) to the surface (area of 0.0255 cm(2)) of hindlimb muscle for 120 sec (fluence of 1.2 J/cm(2)) once a week for 4 consecutive weeks, commencing 1 week post-birth. The contralateral leg served as an untreated (sham) control. Mice were euthanized 2 days following the last laser application, and the muscles were processed for histology. Histological sections were scored for degenerative muscle foci. Statistical analysis revealed a score of 2.91+/-0.17 in the control, untreated group, which was significantly higher (p<0.001) than the value in the laser-treated group (1.56+/-0.49), indicating less degenerative foci in the laser-treated muscles. Histology also indicated regeneration (numerous myotubes) in the laser-treated mice, and no regeneration in the non-laser-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that LLLT applied to mdx mice during postnatal development may have a significant beneficial effect in the induction of regenerative capacity and reduction of degenerative muscle foci in these mice, with possible direct clinical relevance.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Nov 32(11) 606-11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25329504

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The influence of low-level laser on orthodontic relapse in rats.

Franzen TJ, Zahra SE, El-Kadi A, Vandevska-Radunovic V

Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway and. Department of Orthodontics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. Department of Orthodontics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway and.

Summary OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the tendency of rat molars to relapse following orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maxillary rat molars were moved mesially for 10 days. Animals were randomly assigned to group I (non-irradiated) or II (irradiation with LLLT). Appliances were removed, and the molars allowed to relapse for 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, or 21 days; rats in group II received LLLT according to a protocol. Bone density of periapical alveolar bone was measured using radiographs and Digora software. Dental supporting structures were examined histologically with haematoxylin and eosin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. RESULTS: In both groups, first molar relapse was rapid 1 day after the end of active treatment; by 21 days percentage relapse was measured as 86.11 per cent in group I, and 72.22 per cent in group II. Osteoclast number was highest at the end of active OTM, and thereafter successively decreased during the relapse phase in both groups. Decrease in number, and redistribution of osteoclasts occurred more rapidly in the non-irradiated than the LLLT group. Whilst molar relapse was generally less and osteoclast numbers generally higher in group II compared to group I, the differences were not significant. There was no significant difference in bone density between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that LLLT may reduce the relapse tendency, possibly due in part to bone formation in previous tension areas, and to redistribution of osteoclasts following removal of orthodontic force. The role of LLLT in the prevention of orthodontic relapse requires further study.

Eur J Orthod 2014 Oct 6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25287057

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Low-level laser therapy improves peri-implant bone formation: resonance frequency, electron microscopy, and stereology findings in a rabbit model.

Gomes FV, Mayer L, Massotti FP, Baraldi CE, Ponzoni D, Webber JB, de Oliveira MG

School of Dentistry and Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. School of Dentistry, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. School of Dentistry and Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. School of Dentistry and Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address: carlos.baraldi@ufrgs.br. School of Dentistry and Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. School of Dentistry, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Hospital Cristo Redentor, Grupo Hospitalar Conceicao, Brazilian Ministry of Health, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Previous studies have reported positive effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone healing. This study evaluated the effects of LLLT on peri-implant healing in vivo. Thirty-two rabbits had their mandibular left incisors removed, followed by immediate insertion of a dental implant into the fresh socket. Animals were assigned randomly to four groups: control (non-irradiated) or LLLT at three different doses per session: 5J/cm2, 10J/cm2, and 20J/cm2. A GaAlAs laser (830nm, 50mW) was applied every 48h for 13 days, starting immediately after surgery. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) was measured using resonance frequency analysis upon implant insertion and immediately after death, 30 days after the last application. Tissues were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereology. Variables measured were bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone neoformation within implant threads at three different sites. The results showed better ISQ for the 20J/cm2 group (P=0.003). BIC values were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the 20J/cm2 group, on both SEM and stereology. Bone area values were better in the 10J/cm2 (P=0.036) and 20J/cm2 (P=0.016) groups compared to the control group. Under these conditions, LLLT enhanced peri-implant bone repair, improving stability, BIC, and bone neoformation. The findings support and suggest parameters for the design of clinical trials using LLLT after implant placement.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014 Oct 2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25282596

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Antihyperglycaemic effect of laser acupuncture treatment at BL20 in diabetic rats.

Cornejo-Garrido J, Becerril-Chavez F, Carlin-Vargas G, Ordonez-Rodriguez JM, Abrajan-Gonzalez Mdel C, de la Cruz-Ramirez R, Ordaz-Pichardo C

Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Productos Naturales, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico. Departamento de Acupuntura, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico. Departamento de Acupuntura, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico. Departamento de Acupuntura, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico. Departamento de Acupuntura, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico. Departamento de Acupuntura, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico. Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Productos Naturales, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y Homeopatia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antihyperglycaemic activity of laser acupuncture stimulation at 650 and 980 nm at BL20 in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Seventy healthy adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 250+/-50 g were divided into seven groups of 10 animals each. Groups I-III comprised healthy control rats which were untreated (I) or stimulated with laser acupuncture at 650 nm (II) and 980 nm (III), respectively. Groups IV-VII underwent induction of diabetes with a single intraperitoneal administration of STZ at 50 mg/kg. Animals with blood glucose levels of >/=200 mg/dL on the fifth day were used for the experiments and were left untreated (group IV), treated with glibenclamide (group V) or stimulated with laser acupuncture at 650 nm (group VI) and 980 nm (group VII), respectively. Laser acupuncture was applied at BL20 on alternate days for a total of 12 sessions over a 28-day period. RESULTS: After 28 days of treatment, STZ-induced diabetic rats stimulated with laser acupuncture at 650 and 980 nm had significantly lower glucose levels compared with untreated diabetic rats (242.0+/-65.0 and 129.8+/-33.2 vs 376.5+/-10.0 mg/dL, both p
Acupunct Med 2014 Dec 32(6) 486-94

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Low-level laser therapy on bone repair of rat tibiae exposed to ionizing radiation.

Maman Fracher Abramoff M, Pereira MD, de Seixas Alves MT, Segreto RA, Guilherme A, Ferreira LM

1 Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo , Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil .

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the repair of rat tibiae exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). BACKGROUND DATA: IR causes structural changes that delay bone tissue repair. Properly dosed, LLLT improves the bone repair process. METHODS: Seventy-two healthy Wistar rats were distributed into the following groups: Group I, sham control; Group II, LLLT; Group III, IR; and Group IV, IR and LLLT. Groups III and IV received a single dose (30 Gy) of gamma radiation and underwent surgery 28 days later. A noncritical sized bone defect (diameter 2.5 mm) was surgically created in all groups. Groups II and IV received three applications of postsurgical LLLT (GaAlAs, 808 nm, 100 mW, 0.028 cm(2), 3.57 W/cm(2), 20 sec, 2 J, congruent with71.4 J/cm(2)) on alternate days. Histomorphometry was assessed following digital image analysis. RESULTS: The samples were evaluated on days 7, 14, and 21 after surgery; the IR protocol resulted in a significant reduction (p<0.018) in bone formation in Group III compared with Group I. Significant increases (p<0.006) in newly formed bone were noted in Group IV compared with Group III. No significant differences were observed between Group I and Group IV. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT increased the newly formed bone area during the initial phase of the tibiae repair process in rats exposed to IR.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Nov 32(11) 618-26

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Effect of laser (lambda 660 nm) and LED (lambda 630 nm) photobiomodulation on formocresol-induced oral ulcers: a clinical and histological study on rodents.

de Carvalho FB, Andrade AS, Rasquin LC, de Castro IV, Cangussu MC, Pinheiro AL, Dos Santos JN

Center of Biophotonic and Division of Endodontic, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate, clinically and histologically, the influence of laser and LED photobiomodulation in the healing of formocresol-induced oral mucosa ulcers of rats. We used 60 Wistar rats in which oral ulcers were induced on the gingiva of the lower incisors. Forty-eight hours after inducing the ulcers, the animals were divided into three groups: laser, LED, and untreated. Animals from the laser group received irradiation with GaAlAs, 660 nm, CW, 40 mW, phi 4 mm(2), 4.8 J/cm(2). Animals from the LED group received irradiation with InGaAIP, 630 nm, 150 mW, 4.8 J/cm(2), 0.8 cm spot. Forty-eight hours after oral ulcer induction, both irradiations were applied in a punctuate manner in the center of the ulcer at 48-h interval until the end of the experimental period. The animals were killed at 3, 5, 7, and 11 days after day 0. The results of the clinical evaluation showed that the laser and LED phototherapies were able to accelerate the healing of formocresol-induced oral ulcers, which occurred first in the laser group (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Histologically, there was a slight variation between LED and laser therapy; therefore, the laser group proved to be effective in accelerating wound healing, especially at 5 days, whereas the LED group was more effective at the end of the experimental period. It was concluded that laser and LED photobiomodulation were effective in accelerating the healing of formocresol-induced oral ulcers in both clinical and histological aspects.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 389-96

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25354753

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The effect of dosage on the efficiency of LLLT in new bone formation at the expanded suture in rats.

Altan AB, Bicakci AA, Avunduk MC, Esen H

Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey, burcuk12@yahoo.com.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect that dosage has on the efficiency of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in bone formation in a rat study model. Twenty-eight rats were divided into four groups as only expansion (OE), expansion + low dose (0.15 J) (LD), expansion + medium dose (0.65 J) (MD), and expansion + high dose (198 J) (HD) laser therapy groups. The midpalatal suture was expanded during 5 days. Afterwards, irradiations were started and performed with an 820 nm, continuous wave, Ga-Al-As diode laser (Doris, CTL-1106MX, Warsaw, Poland). At the end of experiment, the premaxillae of the animals were dissected. The sections were transferred into PC environment and analyzed by using Image Analysis program. Number of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, fibroblasts, vessels, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) expression, and new bone formation were evaluated with this program. Amount of expansion did not show any difference among the groups. All parameters except the number of osteoclasts were increased in all lased groups while that parameter was significantly decreased. Vessels, TGF-beta expression, and new bone formation were mostly increased in LD group followed by HD group. Among the lased groups, a significant difference was observed only for the amount of new bone formation, which was between the LD and the MD groups. On the other hand, the difference in this parameter was insignificant between OE and MD groups. Low-level laser therapy with both 5 and 6,300 J/cm(2) doses was found to be significantly effective, while the 20 J/cm(2) dose did not show a significant effect in increasing new bone formation. This finding reveals that the efficiency of the therapy is affected by the dosage.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 255-62

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25228094

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Low-level laser therapy attenuates LPS-induced rats mastitis by inhibiting polymorphonuclear neutrophil adhesion.

Wang Y, He X, Hao D, Yu D, Liang J, Qu Y, Sun D, Yang B, Yang K, Wu R, Wang J

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, P.R. China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The rat model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. The results showed that LPS-induced secretion of IL-1beta and IL-8 significantly decreased after LLLT (650 nm, 2.5 mW, 30 mW/cm(2)). LLLT also inhibited intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and attenuated the LPS-induced decrease of the expression of CD62L and increase of the expression of CD11b. Moreover, LLLT also suppressed LPS-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) entering the alveoli of the mammary gland. The number of PMNs in the mammary alveolus and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were decreased after LLLT. These results suggested that LLLT therapy is beneficial in decreasing the somatic cell count and improving milk nutritional quality in cows with an intramammary infection.

J Vet Med Sci 2014 Dec 1 76(11) 1443-50

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25452258

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Combined therapeutic effects of low power laser (980nm) and CoQ10 on Neuropathic Pain in adult male rat.

Jameie SB, Masoumipoor M, Janzadeh A, Nasirinezhad F, Kerdari M, Soleimani M

1. Associate Professor of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Department of Medical Basic Sciences, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. jameie.sb@iums.ac.ir & behjame@gmail.com. 2. MSc, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Sciences and Researches branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. masoumipoor@gmail.com. 3. PhD Student of Physiology, Department of Medical Basic Sciences, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Research Center of Physiology & Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Atusa_j@yahoo.com. 4. Associated professor of Physiology, Research Center of Physiology & Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. f-nasiri@tums.ac.ir. 5. MD, Department of Medical Basic Sciences, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. mhd136355@gmail.com . 6. Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. soleimanimaryam89@gmail.com.

BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain (NP) is one of the most suffering medical conditions that often fail to respond to certain pain therapy. Although its exact etiology is still unknown the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress were explored by many researchers. Neuropathies either central or peripheral lead to painful condition as well as social and economic isolation, thus various therapies were used to treat or reduce the pain. Laser therapy and antioxidant drugs have separately considered as treatment for NP, but the combination of them have not been used yet. In order to study the combination effects of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) the present study was designed. METHODS: Sixty adult male rats (230-320g) were used in this experimental study that divided into six groups (n=10). Chronic constriction injury (CCI) was used to induce neuropathic pain. The CoQ10 or vehicle, a low level laser of 980nm was used for two consecutive weeks. Thermal and mechanical paw withdrawal thresholds were assessed before and after surgery on 7(th) and 14(th) days. RESULTS: As we expected CCI decreased the pain threshold, whereas CoQ10 administration for two weeks increased mechanical and thermal threshold. The same results obtained for laser therapy using the CCI animals. Combination of laser 980nm with CoQ10 also showed significant differences in CCI animals. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings the combination of CoQ10 with LLLT showed better effects than each one alone. In this regard we believe that there might be cellular and molecular synergism in simultaneous use of CoQ10 and LLLT on pain relief.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2014 28 58

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Healing effects and superoxide dismutase activity of diode/Ga-As lasers in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis.

Lee JY, Lee SU, Lim T, Choi SH

Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea. Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea. Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea. Veterinary Medical Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea shchoi@cbu.ac.kr.

BACKGROUND/AIM: Osteoarthritis is a major cause of pain and disability in joints. The present study investigated the effects of differences of wavelengths and continuous versus pulsed delivery modes of low-level laser therapy (LLT) in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis. Comparison of the healing effects and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity between therapy using diode and Ga-As lasers was our primary interest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Simple continuous wave (808-nm diode) and super-pulsed wave (904-nm Ga-As) lasers were used. Osteoarthritis was induced by injecting hydrogen peroxide into the articular spaces of the right stifle in rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups: normal control without osteoarthritis induction (G1), osteoarthritis-induction group without treatment (G2), osteoarthritis induction with diode irradiation (G3), and osteoarthritis induction with Ga-As irradiation (G4). Laser irradiation was applied transcutaneously for 5 min every day for over four weeks, starting the first day after confirmation of induction of osteoarthritis. The induction of osteoarthritis and effects of LLT were evaluated by biochemistry, computed tomography, and histological analyses. RESULTS: The SOD activity in G3 and G4 rabbits at two and four weeks after laser irradiation was significantly higher than that of G1 animals (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between G3 and G4 animals. Moreover, there were significant differences at two and four weeks between the control and osteoarthritis-induction groups, but no significant difference between G3 and G4 in the computed tomographic analyses and histological findings. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that diode and Ga-As lasers are similarly effective in healing and inducing SOD activity for LLT applications in a rabbit model of OA.

In Vivo 2014 Nov-Dec 28(6) 1101-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25398806

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Effects of red laser, infrared, photodynamic therapy, and green LED on the healing process of third-degree burns: clinical and histological study in rats.

de Vasconcelos Catao MH, Nonaka CF, de Albuquerque RL Jr, Bento PM, de Oliveira Costa R

Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, State University of Paraiba, R. Baraunas, 351, Bodoncongo, Campina Grande, PB, Brazil, CEP 58429-500, mhelenact@zipmail.com.br.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of red laser, infrared, photodynamic therapy, and green light-emitting diode (LED) on the healing process of skin burns through clinical and histopathologic analysis in rats. For this, 100 animals were randomly divided into five groups: G1-untreated control (CTR), G2-red laser (LVER), G3-infrared (LINF), G4-photodynamic therapy (PDT), and G5-green LED. Burn was induced on the dorsum of the rat and the treatment of the experimental groups was red light (10 J/cm(2), 10 s, 40 mW, and lambda660 nm), infrared (10 J/cm(2), 10 s, 40 mW, and lambda780 nm), green LED irradiation (60 J/cm(2), 10 s, lambda520, and 550 nm), and photodynamic therapy (10 J/cm(2), 40 mW, and lambda660 nm), the latter combined with methylene blue photosensitizer at concentration 0.5 mug/mL. Applications were performed daily until day prior to sacrifice of the animal at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days with intraperitoneal anesthetic overdose. The specimens collected were clinically examined and soon after processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Picrosirius for analysis under light and polarized light microscopy, respectively. Animals treated with LVER, LINF, PDT (p < 0.001), and LED (p < 0.05) stimulated production and maturation of collagen, and increased the consumption of food and water compared to the CTR (p < 0.001). Laser lambda660 nm and lambda780 nm showed the largest wound reductions in all groups (p = 0.001). In conclusion, red laser, infrared, photodynamic therapy, and green LED favored the healing process of third-degree burns in rats.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 421-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25391372

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The low level laser therapy (LLLT) operating in 660 nm reduce gene expression of inflammatory mediators in the experimental model of collagenase-induced rat tendinitis.

Torres-Silva R, Lopes-Martins RA, Bjordal JM, Frigo L, Rahouadj R, Arnold G, Leal-Junior EC, Magdalou J, Pallotta R, Marcos RL

Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, Nove de Julho University, Sao Paulo, 01504-001, Brazil.

Tendinopathy is a common disease with a variety of treatments and therapies. Laser therapy appears as an alternative treatment. Here, we investigate the effects of laser irradiation in an experimental model of tendinitis induced by collagenase injection on rats’ Achilles tendon, verifying its action in important inflammatory markers. Male Wistar rats were used and divided into five groups: control saline (C), non-treated tendinitis (NT) and tendinitis treated with sodium diclofenac (D) or laser (1 J) and (3 J). The tendinitis was induced by collagenase (100 mug/tendon) on the Achilles tendon, which was removed for further analyses. The gene expression for COX-2; TNF-alpha; IL-6; and IL-10 (RT-PCR) was measured. The laser irradiation (660 nm, 100 mW, 3 J) used in the treatment of the tendinitis induced by collagenase in Achilles tendon in rats was effective in the reduction of important pro-inflammatory markers such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha, becoming a promising tool for the treatment of tendon diseases.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Nov 8

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Effect of GaAIAs low-level laser therapy on the healing of human palate mucosa after connective tissue graft harvesting: randomized clinical trial.

Dias SB, Fonseca MV, Dos Santos NC, Mathias IF, Martinho FC, Junior MS, Jardini MA, Santamaria MP

Division of Periodontics, College of Dentistry – FOSJC, UNESP – State University of Sao Paulo, Av. Eng. Francisco Jose Longo, 777, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, 12245-000, Brazil.

Among the available techniques to treat gingival recession, connective tissue graft (CTG) presents more foreseeability and better results in the long term. However, this technique causes morbidity and discomfort in the palatine region due to graft removal at that site. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing of the donor palatine area after CTG. Thirty-two patients presenting buccal gingival recession were selected and randomly assigned to receive LLLT irradiation (test group) or LLLT sham (control group) in the palatine area after connective graft removal. A diode laser (AsGaAl, 660 nm) was applied to test the sites immediately after surgery and every other day for 7 days. The evaluated parameters were wound remaining area (WRA), scar and tissue colorimetry (TC), tissue thickness (TT), and postoperative discomfort (D). These parameters were evaluated at baseline and 7, 14, 45, 60, and 90 days after surgery. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used for analysis. The test group presented statistically significant smaller wounds at days 14 and 45. None of the patients presented a scar at the operated area, and colorimetry analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between groups (p > 0.05). Patients reported mild to moderate discomfort, with low consumption of analgesic pills. We concluded that LLLT irradiation can accelerate wound healing on palatine mucosa after connective tissue removal for root coverage techniques (ClinicalTrial.org NCT02239042).

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Nov 6

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Morphological aspects and Cox-2 expression after exposure to 780-nm laser therapy in injured skeletal muscle: an in vivo study.

Rodrigues NC, Brunelli R, Abreu DC, Fernandes K, Parizotto NA, Renno AC

Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Departamento de Cirurgia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Departamento de Biomecanica, Medicina e Reabilitacao do Sistema Locomotor, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Departamento de Biociencias, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Santos, SP, Brazil. Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Departamento de Biociencias, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Santos, SP, Brazil.

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in muscle regeneration is still not well known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of laser irradiation during muscle healing. METHOD: For this purpose, 63 rats were distributed to 3 groups: non-irradiated control group (CG); group irradiated at 10 J/cm(2) (G10); and group irradiated at 50 J/cm(2) (G50). Each group was divided into 3 different subgroups (n=7), and on days 7, 14 and 21 post-injury the rats were sacrificed. RESULTS: Seven days post-surgery, the CG showed destroyed zones and extensive myofibrillar degeneration. For both treated groups, the necrosis area was smaller compared to the CG. On day 14 post-injury, treated groups demonstrated better tissue organization, with newly formed muscle fibers compared to the CG. On the 21(st) day, the irradiated groups showed similar patterns of tissue repair, with improved muscle structure at the site of the injury, resembling uninjured muscle tissue organization. Regarding collagen deposition, the G10 showed an increase in collagen synthesis. In the last period evaluated, both treated groups showed statistically higher values in comparison with the CG. Furthermore, laser irradiation at 10 J/cm(2) produced a down-regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) immunoexpression on day 7 post-injury. Moreover, Cox-2 immunoexpression was decreased in both treated groups on day 14. CONCLUSIONS: Laser therapy at both fluencies stimulated muscle repair through the formation of new muscle fiber, increase in collagen synthesis, and down-regulation of Cox-2 expression.

Braz J Phys Ther 2014 Sep-Oct 18(5) 395-401

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25372001

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Low-level laser therapy associated with high intensity resistance training on cardiac autonomic control of heart rate and skeletal muscle remodeling in wistar rats.

Paolillo FR, Arena R, Dutra DB, de Cassia Marqueti Durigan R, de Araujo HS, de Souza HC, Parizotto NA, Cipriano G Jr, Chiappa G, Borghi-Silva A

Optics Group from Physics Institute of Sao Carlos (IFSC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Phototherapy plus dynamic exercise can enhance physical performance and improve health. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) associated with high intensity resistance training (HIT) on cardiac autonomic and muscle metabolic responses in rats. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups: sedentary control (CG), HIT, LLLT and HIT + LLLT. HIT was performed 3 times/week for 8 weeks with loads attached to the tail of the animal. The load was gradually increased by 10% of body mass until reaching a maximal overload. For LLLT, irradiation parameters applied to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were as follows: infrared laser (780 nm), power of 15 mW for 10 seconds, leading to an irradiance of 37.5 mW/cm(2) , energy of 0.15 J per point and fluency of 3.8 J/cm(2) . Blood lactate (BL), matrix metalloproteinase gelatinase A (MMP-2 ) gene expression and heart rate variability (HRV) indices were performed. RESULTS: BL significantly increased after 8-weeks for HIT, LLLT and HIT + LLLT groups. However, peak lactate when normalized by maximal load was significantly reduced for both HIT and HIT + LLLT groups (P<0.05). MMP-2 in the active form was significantly increased after HIT, LLLT and HIT + LLLT compared tom the CG (P<0.05). There was a significant reduction in low frequency [LF (ms(2) )] and increase in high frequency [HF (un)] and HF (ms(2) )] for the HIT, LLLT and HIT + LLLT groups compared with the CG (P < 0.05). However, the LF/HF ratio was further reduced in the LLLT and HIT + LLLT groups compared to the CG and HIT group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results provide evidence for the positive benefits of LLLT and HIT with respect to enhanced muscle metabolic and cardiac autonomic function in Wistar rats. Lasers Surg. Med. 46:796-803, 2014. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2014 Dec 46(10) 796-803

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Musculoskeletal Atrophy in an Experimental Model of Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effects of Exercise Training and Low-Level Laser Therapy.

Assis L, Almeida T, Milares LP, Dos Passos N, Araujo B, Bublitz C, Veronez S, Renno AC

From the Department of Bioscience, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an exercise training protocol and low-level laser therapy (and the association of both treatments) on musculoskeletal atrophy using an experimental model of knee osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, knee OA control group, OA plus exercise training group, OA plus low-level laser therapy group, and OA plus exercise training associated with low-level laser therapy group. The exercise training and the laser irradiation started 4 wks after the surgery, 3 days per week for 8 wks. The exercise was performed at a speed of 16 m/min, 3 days per week, 50 mins per day, for 8 wks. Laser irradiation was applied at two points of the left knee joint (medial and lateral), for 24 sessions. RESULTS: The results showed that both trained groups (irradiated or not) presented a significant increase in the muscle cross-sectional area and a decrease in muscle fiber density compared with the knee OA control group. Moreover, both trained and laser-irradiated groups demonstrated decreased muscle-specific ring-finger protein 1 and atrogin-1 immunoexpression. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that exercise training and low-level laser therapy were effective in preventing musculoskeletal alterations related to atrophy caused by the degenerative process induced by knee OA.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2014 Oct 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25299541

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Low power laser stimulation of the bone consolidation in tibial fractures of rats: a radiologic and histopathological analysis.

Briteno-Vazquez M, Santillan-Diaz G, Gonzalez-Perez M, Gallego-Izquierdo T, Pecos-Martin D, Plaza-Manzano G, Romero-Franco N

Benemerita Autonomous University of Puebla, Puebla, Mexico, moybrit@hotmail.com.

The objective of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of low power laser irradiation in the bone consolidation of tibial fractures in rats. An experimental, comparative, prospective study with control group was designed. Twenty Wistar rats were grouped into control (n = 10) and experimental groups (n = 10). A tibial fracture, with a mechanical drill, was inflicted in all rats. The experimental group received ten days of low power arsenide-gallium laser irradiation of 850 nm (KLD, Sao Paulo, Brasil)-100 mW, 8 J/cm(2), 64 s. Before and after the laser treatment, a radiologic analysis was carried out in both groups, in which the rats were graded from 0 to IV according the Montoya scale of bone consolidation. Also, we histopathologically analyzed the bone to estimate the proliferation of fibroblasts, bone matrix, and angiogenesis with a microscopy, which were graded as I (thin layer of fibroblasts and osteoid matrix), II (thick layer of fibroblasts and osteoid matrix), or III (thick layer of fibroblasts and osteoid matrix and new blood vessels). Radiologic data showed that the experimental group had a higher bone consolidation of Montoya scale after ten days of laser irradiation compared to control group (P < 0.004). Histopathologic data showed more fibroblasts and angiogenesis presence in the group receiving laser irradiation, compared to control group (P < .002). The low power laser radiation therapy may expedite the bone repair after tibial fractures in rats, according to radiologic and histopathologic analysis.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 333-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25274198

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Effects of light-emitting diode (LED) therapy on skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion in rats.

Takhtfooladi MA, Shahzamani M, Takhtfooladi HA, Moayer F, Allahverdi A

Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, dr_ashrafzadeh@yahoo.com.

Low-level laser therapy has been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion injuries in the skeletal muscle by induction of synthesis of antioxidants and other cytoprotective proteins. Recently, the light-emitting diode (LED) has been used instead of laser for the treatment of various diseases because of its low operational cost compared to the use of a laser. The objective of this work was to analyze the effects of LED therapy at 904 nm on skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Thirty healthy male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups of ten rats each as follows: normal (N), ischemia-reperfusion (IR), and ischemia-reperfusion + LED (IR + LED) therapy. Ischemia was induced by right femoral artery clipping for 2 h followed by 2 h of reperfusion. The IR + LED group received LED irradiation on the right gastrocnemius muscle (4 J/cm(2)) immediately and 1 h following blood supply occlusion for 10 min. At the end of trial, the animals were euthanized and the right gastrocnemius muscles were submitted to histological and histochemical analysis. The extent of muscle damage in the IR + LED group was significantly lower than that in the IR group (P < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the IR group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The muscle tissue glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels in the IR group were significantly lower than those in the subjects in other groups. From the histological and histochemical perspective, the LED therapy has alleviated the metabolic injuries in the skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion in this experimental model.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 311-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25274196

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Biophotonic effect of diode laser irradiance on tensile strength of diabetic rats.

Lau PS, Bidin N, Krishnan G, Nassir Z, Bahktiar H

Faculty of Science, Advanced Photonic Science Institute, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia , Johor Bahru, Johor , Malaysia.

Low-energy laser irradiance at certain wavelengths is able to stimulate the tissue bio-reaction and enhance the healing process. Collagen deposition is one of the important aspects in healing process because it can increase the strength of the skin. This study was designed to examine the biophotonic effect of irradiance on collagen production of diabetic wound in rat model. The tensile strength of skin was employed as a parameter to describe the wound. Diabetic rat models were induced by streptozotocin via intravenous injection. Skin-breaking strength was measured using an Instron tensile test machine. The experimental animals were treated with 808-nm diode laser at two different powers-0.1 and 0.5 W/cm2-and 30, 60, and 120 s for each session. The tensile strength was optimized after treated with high-power diode laser. The photostimulation effect was revealed by accelerated healing process and enhanced tensile strength of wound. Laser photostimulation on tensile strength in diabetic wound suggests that such therapy facilitates collagen production in diabetic wound healing.

J Cosmet Laser Ther 2014 Oct 16 1-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25260140

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Hemodynamic effect of laser therapy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Tomimura S, Silva BP, Sanches IC, Canal M, Consolim-Colombo F, Conti FF, De Angelis K, Chavantes MC

Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biofotonica em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Nove de Julho. Programa de Graduacao e Pos-Graduacao, UNINOVE. Laboratorio de Fisiologia Translacional, UNINOVE. Programa de Graduacao e Pos-Graduacao, UNINOVE. Programa de Graduacao e Pos-Graduacao, UNINOVE. Laboratorio de Fisiologia Translacional, UNINOVE. Laboratorio de Fisiologia Translacional, UNINOVE. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biofotonica em Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Nove de Julho.

Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16) were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8), which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8), which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 +/- 4 mmHg* vs. 182 +/- 4 mmHg from the Sham Group) and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 +/- 4 mmHg* vs. 157 +/- 3 mmHg from the Sham Group), revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 +/- 14 bpm vs. 361 +/- 13 bpm from the Sham Group). Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2014 Aug 103(2) 161-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25211315

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Superpulsed (Ga-As, 904 nm) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) attenuates inflammatory response and enhances healing of burn wounds.

Gupta A, Keshri GK, Yadav A, Gola S, Chauhan S, Salhan AK, Bala Singh S

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, DRDO, Lucknow Road, 110 054, Timarpur, Delhi, India. asheeshgupta2001@gmail.com.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) using superpulsed near-infrared light can penetrate deeper in the injured tissue and could allow non-pharmacological treatment for chronic wound healing. This study investigated the effects of superpulsed laser (Ga-As 904 nm, 200 ns pulse width; 100 Hz; 0.7 mW mean output power; 0.4 mW/cm2 average irradiance; 0.2 J/cm2 total fluence) on the healing of burn wounds in rats, and further explored the probable associated mechanisms of action. Irradiated group exhibited enhanced DNA, total protein, hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents compared to the control and silver sulfadiazine (reference care) treated groups. LLLT exhibited decreased TNF-alpha level and NF-kB, and up-regulated protein levels of VEGF, FGFR-1, HSP-60, HSP-90, HIF-1alpha and matrix metalloproteinases-2 and 9 compared to the controls. In conclusion, LLLT using superpulsed 904 nm laser reduced the inflammatory response and was able to enhance cellular proliferation, collagen deposition and wound contraction in the repair process of burn wounds. Photomicrographs showing no, absence inflammation and faster wound contraction in LLLT superpulsed (904 nm) laser treated burn wounds as compared to the non-irradiated control and silver sulfadiazine (SSD) ointment (reference care) treated wounds.

J Biophotonics 2014 Sep 10 9999(9999)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25207838

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Roles of reinforced nerve conduits and low-level laser phototherapy for long gap peripheral nerve repair.

Liu BS, Huang TB, Chan SC

Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, China. Department of Bioscience Technology, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan, China. Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, China.

Neural Regen Res 2014 Jun 15 9(12) 1180-2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25206779

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Low-level laser therapy on skeletal muscle inflammation: evaluation of irradiation parameters.

Mantineo M, Pinheiro JP, Morgado AM

University of Coimbra, Instrumentation Center, Department of Physics, Coimbra 3004-516, PortugalbIBILI-Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences, Azinhaga de Santa Comba-Celas, Coimbra 3000-548, Portugal. University of Coimbra, Faculty of Medicine, Azinhaga de Santa Comba-Celas, Coimbra 3000-548, Portugal. University of Coimbra, Instrumentation Center, Department of Physics, Coimbra 3004-516, PortugalbIBILI-Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Life Sciences, Azinhaga de Santa Comba-Celas, Coimbra 3000-548, Portugal.

We evaluated the effect of different irradiation parameters in low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for treating inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and analysis of muscle tissue. We used continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illuminations (830 nm). Animals were divided into five groups per wavelength (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mW), and a control group. LLLT was applied during 5 days with a constant irradiation time and area. TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Inflammatory cells were counted using microscopy. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 Hz). For continuous irradiation, treatment effects occurred for all doses, with a reduction of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 cytokines and inflammatory cells. Continuous irradiation at 830 nm was more effective, a result explained by the action spectrum of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO). Best results were obtained for 40 mW, with data suggesting a biphasic dose response. Pulsed wave irradiation was only effective for higher frequencies, a result that might be related to the rate constants of the CCO internal electron transfer process.

J Biomed Opt 2014 Sep 19(9) 98002

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25200395

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Morphological aspects and Cox-2 expression after exposure to 780-nm laser therapy in injured skeletal muscle: an in vivo study.

Rodrigues NC, Brunelli R, Abreu DC, Fernandes K, Parizotto NA, Renno AC

Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Departamento de Cirurgia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Departamento de Biomecanica, Medicina e Reabilitacao do Sistema Locomotor, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Departamento de Biociencias, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Santos, SP, Brazil. Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Departamento de Biociencias, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Santos, SP, Brazil.

Background: The effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in muscle regeneration is still not well known. Objective: To investigate the effects of laser irradiation during muscle healing. Method: For this purpose, 63 rats were distributed to 3 groups: non-irradiated control group (CG); group irradiated at 10 J/cm(2) (G10); and group irradiated at 50 J/cm(2) (G50). Each group was divided into 3 different subgroups (n=7), and on days 7, 14 and 21 post-injury the rats were sacrificed. Results: Seven days post-surgery, the CG showed destroyed zones and extensive myofibrillar degeneration. For both treated groups, the necrosis area was smaller compared to the CG. On day 14 post-injury, treated groups demonstrated better tissue organization, with newly formed muscle fibers compared to the CG. On the 21st day, the irradiated groups showed similar patterns of tissue repair, with improved muscle structure at the site of the injury, resembling uninjured muscle tissue organization. Regarding collagen deposition, the G10 showed an increase in collagen synthesis. In the last period evaluated, both treated groups showed statistically higher values in comparison with the CG. Furthermore, laser irradiation at 10 J/cm2 produced a down-regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) immunoexpression on day 7 post-injury. Moreover, Cox-2 immunoexpression was decreased in both treated groups on day 14. Conclusions: Laser therapy at both fluencies stimulated muscle repair through the formation of new muscle fiber, increase in collagen synthesis, and down-regulation of Cox-2 expression.

Braz J Phys Ther 2014 Aug 29 0 0

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25185029

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Photomodulation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors by a novel light-switchable ligand.

Bahamonde MI, Taura J, Paoletta S, Gakh AA, Chakraborty S, Hernando J, Fernandez-Duenas V, Jacobson KA, Gorostiza P, Ciruela F

Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC) , 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

The adenosinergic system operates through G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, which have become promising therapeutic targets for a wide range of pathological conditions. However, the ubiquity of adenosine receptors and the eventual lack of selectivity of adenosine-based drugs have frequently diminished their therapeutic potential. Accordingly, here we aimed to develop a new generation of light-switchable adenosine receptor ligands that change their intrinsic activity upon irradiation, thus allowing the spatiotemporal control of receptor functioning (i.e., receptor activation/inactivation dependent on location and timing). Therefore, we synthesized an orthosteric, photoisomerizable, and nonselective adenosine receptor agonist, nucleoside derivative MRS5543 containing an aryl diazo linkage on the N(6) substituent, which in the dark (relaxed isomer) behaved as a full adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) and partial adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonist. Conversely, upon photoisomerization with blue light (460 nm), it remained a full A3R agonist but became an A2AR antagonist. Interestingly, molecular modeling suggested that structural differences encountered within the third extracellular loop of each receptor could modulate the intrinsic, receptor subtype-dependent, activity. Overall, the development of adenosine receptor ligands with photoswitchable activity expands the pharmacological toolbox in support of research and possibly opens new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities.

Bioconjug Chem 2014 Oct 15 25(10) 1847-54

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25248077

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Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory nerve.

Hernandez VH, Gehrt A, Jing Z, Hoch G, Jeschke M, Strenzke N, Moser T

InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen; Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Goettingen; Department of Chemical, Electronic, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Guanajuato. InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen; Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen. Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen. InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen. InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen. Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen. InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen; Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Goettingen; Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Goettingen; tmoser@gwdg.de.

Direct electrical stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) by cochlear implants (CIs) enables open speech comprehension in the majority of implanted deaf subjects(1-) (6). Nonetheless, sound coding with current CIs has poor frequency and intensity resolution due to broad current spread from each electrode contact activating a large number of SGNs along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea(7-) (9). Optical stimulation is proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation that promises spatially more confined activation of SGNs and, hence, higher frequency resolution of coding. In recent years, direct infrared illumination of the cochlea has been used to evoke responses in the auditory nerve(10). Nevertheless it requires higher energies than electrical stimulation(10,11) and uncertainty remains as to the underlying mechanism(12). Here we describe a method based on optogenetics to stimulate SGNs with low intensity blue light, using transgenic mice with neuronal expression of channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)(13) or virus-mediated expression of the ChR2-variant CatCh(14). We used micro-light emitting diodes (microLEDs) and fiber-coupled lasers to stimulate ChR2-expressing SGNs through a small artificial opening (cochleostomy) or the round window. We assayed the responses by scalp recordings of light-evoked potentials (optogenetic auditory brainstem response: oABR) or by microelectrode recordings from the auditory pathway and compared them with acoustic and electrical stimulation.

J Vis Exp 2014 (92) e52069

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25350571

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Light-emitting diode-generated red light inhibits keloid fibroblast proliferation.

Mamalis A, Jagdeo J

Department of Dermatology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California; daggerDermatology Service, Sacramento VA Medical Center, Mather, California; double daggerDepartment of Dermatology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.

BACKGROUND: Red light is part of the visible light spectrum that does not generate DNA adducts associated with skin cancer and photoaging and may represent a safer therapeutic modality for treatment of keloid scars and other fibrotic skin diseases. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that light-emitting diode-generated red light (LED-RL) inhibits proliferation of skin fibroblasts. The effects of LED-RL on keloidal skin are not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of LED-RL on keloid-derived fibroblast proliferation and viability in vitro. METHODS: Irradiation of primary keloid-derived human skin fibroblasts using LED-RL panels was performed in vitro, and modulation of proliferation and viability was quantified using trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance to compare treatment arms and the Student t-test to compare each treatment arm with the paired bench control arm. RESULTS: Keloid fibroblasts treated with LED-RL 240, 320, and 480 J/cm demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent decreases in relative proliferation rate of 12.4%, 16.5%, and 28.9%, respectively, compared with matched nonirradiated controls (p < .05) and did not significantly alter viability relative to the matched nonirradiated controls. CONCLUSION: Light-emitting diode-generated red light can inhibit keloid fibroblast proliferation in a dose-dependent manner without altering viability. Light-emitting diode-generated red light has the potential to contribute to the treatment of keloids and other fibrotic skin diseases and is worthy of further translational and clinical investigation.

Dermatol Surg 2015 Jan 41(1) 35-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25485805

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Effects of a low-level diode laser on oral keratinocytes, oral fibroblasts, endothelial cells and osteoblasts incubated with bisphosphonates: An study.

Walter C, Pabst AM, Ziebart T

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany.

Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw may have multiple causes, including altered bone remodeling, angiogenesis inhibition and impact of bisphosphonate on the soft tissues. Successful treatment is difficult. As a positive effect of low-level laser application on wound healing is well known, an in vitro study was designed to analyze the effect of low-level laser (280 mW, 670 nm) treatment on keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and osteoblasts treated with clodronate, ibandronate, pamidronate or zoledronate. Pure irradiation had a positive effect on cell viability, whereas bisphosphonate treatment had a negative impact. Viability was significantly increased in cells treated with bisphosphonates and sequel irradiation. There was no effect when the bisphosphonate medium was irradiated. The revealed effect of laser stimulation on cell viability is not due to an inactivation of the bisphosphonates. These results may support the idea of low-level laser therapy as a supportive therapy in patients receiving bisphosphonates to prevent and treat bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw.

Biomed Rep 2015 Jan 3(1) 14-18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25469239

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Increased cell proliferation and differential protein expression induced by low-level Er:YAG laser irradiation in human gingival fibroblasts: proteomic analysis.

Ogita M, Tsuchida S, Aoki A, Satoh M, Kado S, Sawabe M, Nanbara H, Kobayashi H, Takeuchi Y, Mizutani K, Sasaki Y, Nomura F, Izumi Y

Department of Periodontology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8549, Japan.

Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser treatment has demonstrated favorable wound healing effect after periodontal therapy. One of the reasons may be the positive biological effect of the low-level laser on the irradiated tissues, although the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level Er:YAG laser irradiation on cell proliferation and laser-induced differential expression of proteins in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) by proteomic analysis. In the first experiment, HGFs were exposed to low-level Er:YAG laser irradiation and the laser-induced cell proliferation and damage were evaluated on day 3. In the second experiment, proteomic analysis was performed on day 1 after irradiation. The peptides prepared from HGFs were analyzed by a hybrid ion trap-Fourier transform mass spectrometer, Mascot search engine, and UniProtKB database. A significant increase in cell proliferation without cell damage after irradiation was observed. Among the total identified 377 proteins, 59 proteins, including galectin-7, which was associated with the process of wound healing, were upregulated and 15 proteins were downregulated in laser-treated HGFs. In the third experiment, the increase in messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of galectin-7 in the irradiated HGFs was validated by various analytical techniques. In addition, the effect of recombinant human galectin-7 on the modulation of HGFs proliferation was confirmed. The results indicate that low-level Er:YAG laser irradiation can promote HGF proliferation and induce a significant change in protein expression and the upregulation of galectin-7 expression may partly contribute to the increase in cell proliferation.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Nov 28

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25429773

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The dose-dependence biological effect of laser fluence on rabbit fibroblasts derived from urethral scar.

Yang Y, Yu B, Sun D, Wu Y, Xiao Y

Department of Urology, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, No. 51 Fucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100048, China, yongyang301@163.com.

Two-micrometer laser vaporization resection has been used in clinic for years, but some patients received the treatment are still faced with excessive and abnormal wound repair which leads to the recurrent of urethral stricture eventually. Fibroblasts play a key role in the processes of “narrow-expansion/operation-restenosis” recurring problems. Here, we investigated the effect of laser fluence biomodulation on urethral scar fibroblasts as well as the underlying mechanism. Urethral scar fibroblasts were isolated and cultured, and laser irradiation (2 mum) was applied at different laser fluence or doses (0, 0.125, 0.5, 2, 8, 32 J/cm2) with a single exposure in 1 day. The effect of 2-mum laser irradiation on cell proliferation, viability, and expression of scar formation related genes were investigated. Two-micrometer laser irradiation with intermediate dose (8 J/cm2) promoted scar fibroblasts proliferation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, while higher doses of 32 J/cm2 are suppressive as it decreased the survival rate, viability, and proliferation of fibroblasts. In addition, qRT-PCR and Western blotting results both proven that collagen type I, collagen IV, MMP9, and CTGF display significant increase, yet the TGF-beta1 expression was severely reduced at intermediate dose (8 J/cm2) group when compared with the others groups. Our findings suggest the scar formation-related genes are sensitive to intermediate laser irradiation dose, the most in scar fibroblasts. We revealed the bioeffect and molecular mechanism of 2-mum laser irradiation on rabbit urethral scar fibroblasts. Our study provides new insights into the mechanisms which involved in the excessive and abnormal wound repair of 2-mum laser vaporization resection. These results could potentially contribute to further study on biological effects and application of 2-mum laser irradiation in urethral stricture therapy.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Nov 12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25388915

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Effects of 915 nm GaAs diode laser on mitochondria of human dermal fibroblasts: analysis with confocal microscopy.

Belletti S, Uggeri J, Mergoni G, Vescovi P, Merigo E, Fornaini C, Nammour S, Manfredi M, Gatti R

Unit of Anatomy Histology and Embryology-Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences (S.Bi.Bi.T), University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is widely used in tissue regeneration and pain therapy. Mitochondria are supposed to be one of the main cellular targets, due to the presence of cytochrome C oxidase as photo-acceptor. Laser stimulation could influence mitochondria metabolism affecting mainly transmembrane mitochondrial potential (Deltapsim). The aim of our study is to evaluate “in vitro” the early mitochondrial response after irradiation with a 915 GaAs laser. Since some evidences suggest that cellular response to LLLT can be differently modulated by the mode of irradiation, we would like to evaluate whether there are changes in the mitochondrial potential linked to the use of the laser treatments applied with continuous wave (CW) in respect to those applied with pulsed wave (PW). In this study, we analyzed effects of irradiation with a 915-nm GaAs diode laser on human dermal fibroblast. We compared effects of irradiation applied with either CW or PW at different fluences 45-15-5 J/cm(2) on Deltapsim. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) was used in living cells to detect ROS (reactive oxygen species) using calcein AM and real-time changes of and Deltapsim following distribution of the potentiometric probe tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM). At higher doses (45-15 J/cm(2)), fibroblasts showed a dose-dependent decrement of Deltapsim in either the modalities employed, with higher amplitudes in CW-treated cells. This behavior is transient and not followed by any sign of toxicity, even if reactive oxygen species generation was observed. At 5 J/cm(2), CW irradiation determined a little decrease (5 %) of the baseline level of Deltapsim, while opposite behavior was shown when cells were irradiated with PW, with a 10 % increment. Our results suggest that different responses observed at cellular level with low doses of irradiation, could be at the basis of efficacy of LLLT in clinical application, performed with PW rather than CW modalities.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 375-81

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25351448

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Different doses of low-level laser irradiation modulate the in vitro response of osteoblast-like cells.

Incerti Parenti S, Checchi L, Fini M, Tschon M

University of Bologna, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Unit of Periodontology and Orthodontics, via San Vitale 59, 40125 Bologna, Italy. University of Bologna, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Unit of Periodontology and Orthodontics, via San Vitale 59, 40125 Bologna, Italy. Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Laboratory of Preclinical and Surgical Studies, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, ItalycRizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Laboratory of Biocompatibility, Technological Innovations and Advanced Therapies, Research, Innovation. Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Laboratory of Preclinical and Surgical Studies, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, ItalycRizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Laboratory of Biocompatibility, Technological Innovations and Advanced Therapies, Research, Innovation.

Because osteoblasts play a key role in bone remodeling and the influence of low-level laser therapy on this process is not clear, Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells were irradiated by a gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser (915 nm) for 10, 48, 96, 193, and 482 s using doses 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 J/cm2, respectively. A control group was not irradiated. Morphology, viability, and cytotoxicity analyses were carried out after 1 hr, 1 day, and 3 days. Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) content and release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were evaluated. Viability was modulated by laser irradiation in a dose-dependent manner, with 10 J/cm2 inducing a biostimulatory response and 20 to 50 J/cm2 determining a bioinhibitory and cytotoxic effect. Accordingly, DNA content was generally increased for the 10 J/cm2 dose and decreased for the 50 J/cm2 dose. A rapid and transitory trend toward increased RANKL/OPG ratio and a tendency toward a delayed increase in VEGF release for doses of 1 to 10 J/cm2 was found. Further investigations using the biostimulatory dose of 10 J/cm2 emerged from this study are needed to establish the ideal treatment regimens in the laboratory as well as in clinical practice.

J Biomed Opt 2014 Oct 19(10) 108002

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25279541

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Second messengers mediating the proliferation and collagen synthesis of tenocytes induced by low-level laser irradiation.

Chen MH, Huang YC, Sun JS, Chao YH, Chen MH

Department of Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

For decades, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has widespread applications in tendon-related injuries. Although the therapeutic effect of LLLT could be explained by photostimulation of target tissue and cells, how tenocytes sense photonic energy and convert them into cascades of cellular and molecular events is still not well understood. This study was designed to elucidate the effects of LLLT on cell proliferation and collagen synthesis by examining the associated second messengers including ATP, Ca(2+), and nitric oxide using rat Achilles tenocytes. Moreover, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) related to cell proliferation and matrix metabolism were also studied. The results showed that 904 nm GaAs laser of 1 J/cm(2) could significantly increase the MTT activity and collagen synthesis of tenocytes. Second messengers including ATP and intracellular Ca2+ were increased after laser treatment. Quantitative PCR analysis of tenocytes treated with laser revealed up-regulated expression of PCNA, type I collagen, and TGF-beta1. Besides, laser-induced TGF-beta1 expression was significantly inhibited by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) specific inhibitor (PD98059). The findings suggested that LLLT stimulated ATP production and increased intracellular calcium concentration. Directly or indirectly via production of TGF-beta1, these second messengers mediated the proliferation of tenocytes and synthesis of collagen.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 263-72

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25231827

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Effect of LLLT on endothelial cells culture.

Goralczyk K, Szymanska J, Lukowicz M, Drela E, Kotzbach R, Dubiel M, Michalska M, Goralczyk B, Zajac A, Rosc D

Department of Pathophysiology, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, The Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (NCU), Ul. M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 9, 85-094, Bydgoszcz, Poland, krzyg@cm.umk.pl.

Growth factors as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), produced by the endothelial cells, take an essential part in pathological and physiological angiogenesis. The possibility of angiogenesis modulation by application of laser radiation may contribute to the improvement of its use in this process. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the proliferation of endothelial cells, secretion of VEGF-A and presence of soluble VEGF receptors (sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2) in the medium after in vitro culture. Isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were irradiated using a diode laser at a wavelength of 635 nm and power density of 1,875 mW/cm(2). Depending on radiation energy density, the experiment was conducted in four groups: I 0 J/cm(2) (control group), II 2 J/cm(2), III 4 J/cm(2), and IV 8 J/cm(2). The use of laser radiation wavelength of 635 nm, was associated with a statistically significant increase in proliferation of endothelial cells (p = 0.0041). Moreover, at 635-nm wavelength, all doses of radiation significantly reduced the concentration of sVEGFR-1 (p = 0.0197).

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 273-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25231826

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on the gene expression of collagen and vascular endothelial growth factor in a culture of fibroblast cells in mice.

Martignago CC, Oliveira RF, Pires-Oliveira DA, Oliveira PD, Pacheco Soares C, Monzani PS, Poli-Frederico RC

Rehabilitation Science, North Parana University (UNOPAR), Londrina, Parana, Brazil.

Low-level laser therapy treatment (LLLT) is widely used in rehabilitation clinics with the aim of accelerating the process of tissue repair; however, the molecular bases of the effect of LLLT have not been fully established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the exposure of different doses of LLLT on the expression of collagen genes type I alpha 1 (COL1alpha1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the fibroblast cells of mice (L929) cultivated in vitro. Fibroblast cells were irradiated with a Gallium-Arsenide laser (904 nm) every 24 h for 2 consecutive days, stored in an oven at 37 degrees C, with 5 % CO2 and divided into 3 groups: G1-control group, G2-irradiated at 2 J/cm(2), and G3-irradiated at 3 J/cm(2). After irradiation, the total RNA was extracted and used in the complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis. The gene expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The cells irradiated in G2 exhibited a statistically significant growth of 1.78 in the expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) of the COL1alpha1 gene (p = 0.036) in comparison with G1 and G3. As for the VEGF gene, an increase in expression was observed in the two irradiated groups in comparison with the control group. There was an increase in expression in G2 of 2.054 and G3 of 2.562 (p = 0.037) for this gene. LLLT (904 nm) had an influence on the expression of the genes COL1alpha1 (2 J/cm(2)) and VEGF (2 e 3 J/cm(2)) in a culture of the fibroblast cells of mice.

Lasers Med Sci 2015 Jan 30(1) 203-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25171833

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The Use of Low-Level Energy Laser Radiation in Basic and Clinical Research.

Rola P, Doroszko A, Derkacz A

Department and Clinic of Internal and Occupational Diseases and Hypertension, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland. Department and Clinic of Internal and Occupational Diseases and Hypertension, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland. Department and Clinic of Internal and Occupational Diseases and Hypertension, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Laser radiation has specific attributes: monochromaticity, high coherence and polarization. These properties result in the extensive use of lasers in medicine. Laser devices can be assigned into three basic groups by means of their level of energy: high, medium and low energy. All of these types of radiation are used in medicine. However, the most commonly used, in basic science and clinical studies, is low-energy radiation. Molecular effects of low energy laser irradiation on cells are generally described as “fotobiostimulation” and “fotobiomodulation”. These phenomena consequently lead to attempts to exploit this kind of radiation as a treatment method (low-level laser therapy-LLLT). Areas in which LLLT is used are: regenerative medicine (for healing wounds and ulcers); aesthetic medicine (to improve appearance of scars); dentistry (to accelerate healing of implants); physiotherapy (to reduce chronic pain syndromes), orthopedics (in bone healing) and cardiology (as a prevention of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention). This paper discusses the medical applications of LLLT which are used in daily clinical practice as well as those used in basic science.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2014 September-October 23(5) 835-842

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25491701

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Lightening up Light Therapy: Activation of Retrograde Signaling Pathway by Photobiomodulation.

Kim HP

Ajou University, School of Pharmacy, Suwon 443-749, Republic of Korea.

Photobiomodulation utilizes monochromatic (or quasimonochromatic) light in the electromagnetic region of 600 approximately 1000 nm for the treatment of soft tissues in a nondestructive and nonthermal mode. It is conceivable that photobiomodulation is based upon the ability of the light to alter cell metabolism as it is absorbed by general hemoproteins and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in particular. Recently it has been suggested radiation of visible and infrared (IR) activates retrograde signaling pathway from mitochondria to nucleus. In this review, the role of COX in the photobiomodulation will be discussed. Further a possible role of water as a photoreceptor will be suggested.

Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2014 Nov 22(6) 491-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25489415

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Introduction to Therapeutic Lasers in a Rehabilitation Setting.

Marie Gross D

Wizard of Paws Physical Rehabilitation for Animals, LLC, Colchester, CT, USA. Electronic address: deb@wizardofpaws.net.

Laser therapy, or photobiostimulation, is becoming a popular modality in the animal rehabilitation setting. It is used widely for the treatment of pain reduction, reduction of inflammation, and wound care and healing. Applications in the rehabilitation setting include postoperative cases, osteoarthritis, treatment of pain of a known origin, soft tissue injuries, and wounds.

Top Companion Anim Med 2014 Jun 29(2) 49-53

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25454376

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Therapeutic Laser in Veterinary Medicine.

Pryor B, Millis DL

LiteCure LLC, 250 Corporate Boulevard, Suite 8, Newark, DE 19702, USA. Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Electronic address: dmillis@utk.edu.

Laser therapy is an increasingly studied modality that can be a valuable tool for veterinary practitioners. Mechanisms of action have been studied and identified for the reduction of pain and inflammation and healing of tissue. Understanding the basics of light penetration into tissue allows evaluation of the correct dosage to deliver for the appropriate condition, and for a particular patient based on physical properties. New applications are being studied for some of the most challenging health conditions and this field will continue to grow. Additional clinical studies are still needed and collaboration is encouraged for all practitioners using this technology.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015 Jan 45(1) 45-56

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25432681

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Non-surgical treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Sims SE, Miller K, Elfar JC, Hammert WC

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 665, Rochester, NY 14642 USA. University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 601, Rochester, NY 14642 USA. Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 665, Rochester, NY 14642 USA. Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 665, Rochester, NY 14642 USA.

BACKGROUND: Non-surgical approaches to treatment of lateral epicondylitis are numerous. The aim of this systematic review is to examine randomized, controlled trials of these treatments. METHODS: Numerous databases were systematically searched from earliest records to February 2013. Search terms included “lateral epicondylitis,” “lateral elbow pain,” “tennis elbow,” “lateral epicondylalgia,” and “elbow tendinopathy” combined with “randomized controlled trial.” Two reviewers examined the literature for eligibility via article abstract and full text. RESULTS: Fifty-eight articles met eligibility criteria: (1) a target population of patients with symptoms of lateral epicondylitis; (2) evaluation of treatment of lateral epicondylitis with the following non-surgical techniques: corticosteroid injection, injection technique, iontophoresis, botulinum toxin A injection, prolotherapy, platelet-rich plasma or autologous blood injection, bracing, physical therapy, shockwave therapy, or laser therapy; and (3) a randomized controlled trial design. Lateral epicondylitis is a condition that is usually self-limited. There may be a short-term pain relief advantage found with the application of corticosteroids, but no demonstrable long-term pain relief. Injection of botulinum toxin A and prolotherapy are superior to placebo but not to corticosteroids, and botulinum toxin A is likely to produce concomitant extensor weakness. Platelet-rich plasma or autologous blood injections have been found to be both more and less effective than corticosteroid injections. Non-invasive treatment methods such as bracing, physical therapy, and extracorporeal shockwave therapy do not appear to provide definitive benefit regarding pain relief. Some studies of low-level laser therapy show superiority to placebo whereas others do not. CONCLUSIONS: There are multiple randomized controlled trials for non-surgical management of lateral epicondylitis, but the existing literature does not provide conclusive evidence that there is one preferred method of non-surgical treatment for this condition. Lateral epicondylitis is a condition that is usually self-limited, resolving over a 12- to 18-month period without treatment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of level of evidence.

Hand (N Y) 2014 Dec 9(4) 419-46

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25414603

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Reduction of diabetic foot ulcer healing times through use of advanced treatment modalities.

Mulder G, Tenenhaus M, D’Souza GF

University of California Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA. University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA mtenenhaus@ucsd.edu m.tenenhaus@sbcglobal.net. University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA.

Diabetic wounds are a major health care problem associated with delayed healing and high amputation rates. This review systematically evaluated newer wound care therapies for the treatment of diabetic wounds. More recent means of approaching diabetic foot ulcers include various dressings, off-loading shoes, and bioengineered skin constructs and growth factors. Electrical stimulation, phototherapy, electromagnetic fields, and shockwave therapy have been further proposed as potential treatments. A brief overview of these treatments is presented using peer-reviewed evidenced-based literature. A review of the literature demonstrated that treatment of diabetic wounds has focused on either prevention of the wounds in the form of off-loading shoes or adequate protective dressings or on direct treatment of wounds with bioengineered skin constructs, growth factors, or medical devices that accelerate wound healing. The authors’ conclusion, following extensive literature review, is that although excellent national and international guidelines exist regarding suggested approaches to the treatment of the diabetic foot ulcer, there is no definitive or universal consensus on the choice of specific treatment modalities. The importance of optimizing comorbidities and the disease state, hemodynamics, local and peripheral skin and wound care, and metabolic challenges while reducing biological and bacterial burden and minimizing trauma remain the primary approach, followed by choice of the most appropriate treatment material or product.

Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2014 Dec 13(4) 335-46

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25384916

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Analgesic effect of manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture for lateral epicondylalgia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Chang WD, Lai PT, Tsou YA

Department of Sports Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Lateral epicondylalgia is a common orthopedic disorder. In traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture is often used for treating lateral epicondylalgia. Laser acupuncture, compared with manual acupuncture, has more advantages because it is painless, aseptic and safe. However, the analgesic effect of manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture on lateral epicondylalgia has rarely been explored. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the analgesic effect of laser acupuncture and manual acupuncture for the treatment of lateral epicondylalgia. We investigated studies published in the Medline, PubMed, and CINAHL databases from January 1980 to December 2013. This review included 9 randomized articles. Six of them examined manual acupuncture and the others focused on laser acupuncture. We analyzed the meta-analysis results regarding the analgesic effect of the treatment, and observed substantial differences in 4 articles related to manual acupuncture. Manual acupuncture is effective in short-term pain relief for the treatment of lateral epicondylalgia; however, its long-term analgesic effect is unremarkable. A suitable acupuncture point and depth can be used to treat lateral epicondylalgia. Manual acupuncture applied on lateral epicondylalgia produced stronger evidence of an analgesic effect than did laser acupuncture, and further study on the analgesic effect of laser acupuncture is required.

Am J Chin Med 2014 42(6) 1301-14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25384448

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Low-level laser therapy for androgenic alopecia.

Tin SS, Wiwanitkit V

Medical Center, Shantou, China. Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Int J Trichology 2014 Oct 6(4) 189

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25368481

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Does Nonsurgical Treatment Improve Longitudinal Outcomes of Lateral Epicondylitis Over No Treatment? A Meta-analysis.

Sayegh ET, Strauch RJ

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, PH11-1119, New York, NY, 10032-3784, USA.

BACKGROUND: Lateral epicondylitis is a painful tendinopathy for which several nonsurgical treatment strategies are used. Superiority of these nonsurgical treatments over nontreatment has not been definitively established. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We asked whether nonsurgical treatment of lateral epicondylitis compared with observation only or placebo provides (1) better overall improvement, (2) less need for escape interventions, (3) better outcome scores, and (4) improved grip strength at intermediate- to long-term followup. METHODS: The English-language literature was searched using PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any form of nonsurgical treatment with either observation only or placebo at followup of at least 6 months were included. Nonsurgical treatments included injections (corticosteroid, platelet-rich plasma, autologous blood, sodium hyaluronate, or glycosaminoglycan polysulfate), physiotherapy, shock wave therapy, laser, ultrasound, corticosteroid iontophoresis, topical glyceryl trinitrate, or oral naproxen. Methodologic quality was assessed with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist, and 22 RCTs containing 2280 patients were included. Pooled analyses were performed to evaluate overall improvement; requirement for escape interventions (treatment of any kind, outside consultation, and surgery); outcome scores (Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation [PRTEE]; DASH; Pain-Free Function Index [PFFI]; EuroQoL [EQ]-5D; and overall function); and maximum and pain-free grip strength. Sensitivity analyses were performed using only trials of excellent or good quality. Heterogeneity analyses were performed, and funnel plots were constructed to assess for publication bias. RESULTS: Nonsurgical treatment was not favored over nontreatment based on overall improvement (risk ratio [RR] = 1.05 [0.96-1.15]; p = 0.32), need for escape treatment (RR = 1.50 [0.84-2.70]; p = 0.17), PRTEE scores (mean difference [MD] = 1.47, [0.68-2.26]; p < 0.001), DASH scores (MD = -2.69, [-15.80 to 10.42]; p = 0.69), PFFI scores (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.25, [-0.32 to 0.81]; p = 0.39), overall function using change-from-baseline data (SMD = 0.11, [-0.14 to 0.36]; p = 0.37) and final data (SMD = -0.16, [-0.79 to 0.47]; p = 0.61), EQ-5D scores (SMD = 0.08, [-0.52 to 0.67]; p = 0.80), maximum grip strength using change-from-baseline data (SMD = 0.12, [-0.11 to 0.35]; p = 0.31) and final data (SMD = 4.37, [-0.65 to 9.38]; p = 0.09), and pain-free grip strength using change-from-baseline data (SMD = -0.20, [-0.84 to 0.43]; p = 0.53) and final data (SMD = -0.03, [-0.61 to 0.54]; p = 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Pooled data from RCTs indicate a lack of intermediate- to long-term clinical benefit after nonsurgical treatment of lateral epicondylitis compared with observation only or placebo. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, therapeutic study.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2014 Oct 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25352261

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[Importance of modern treatment procedures for infected and colonized wounds in dermatology].

Daeschlein G, Lutze S, Arnold A, von Podewils S, Junger M

Department of Dermatology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Sauerbruchstrasse, 17489, Greifswald, Deutschland, georg.daeschlein@uni-greifswald.de.

In the coming years increasing numbers of patients with chronic ulcers and tumor wounds are to be expected, both of which are typically multifaceted diseases requiring complex and increasingly long-term ambulatory therapy. Therefore, in recent years special medical emphasis has been placed on efficacious therapies with good tolerability and also suitability regarding feasibility for outpatient treatment. Some of these methods, such as cold plasma therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), water-filtered infrared therapy (wIRA), electrostimulation (ES) and low level laser therapy (LLLT) have a good chance of success when applied as an adjuvant method in the multimodal treatment concept for patients with recalcitrant wounds. All of these methods have at least indirect antimicrobial properties which can be advantageous in cases of microbial infiltration of wounds. As for all other methods for treating recalcitrant wounds, the promising application of the aforementioned methods requires great expertise in wound healing together with a broad and continuous interdisciplinary diagnostics and therapy (wound center).

Hautarzt 2014 Nov 65(11) 949-59

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25336295

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Radiosurgical options in neuro-oncology: a review on current tenets and future opportunities. Part I: therapeutic strategies.\Scleroderma and evidence based non-pharmaceutical treatment modalities for digital ulcers: a systematic review.

Ganau M, Foroni RI, Gerosa M, Zivelonghi E, Longhi M, Nicolato A, Moran ME

Assistant Professor; Department of Occupational Therapy Kean University 1000 Morris Avenue Union, New Jersey 0708.

Stereotactic radiosurgery can nowadays be considered not only as a potential adjuvant to surgical treatment of several neuro-oncological pathologies, including primary tumors and metastatic lesions, but in some cases also as a valuable alternative tailored option. In Part I of the review, we propose a dissertation focused on the different irradiation stereotactic radiosurgery techniques to date available for clinical indications more relevant to oncologists and oncologic surgeons, such as high-grade and low-grade gliomas, metastases and meningiomas. It is noteworthy that the most recent body of literature correlated with this topic shows that the therapeutic results presently achievable are revolutionizing the way patients are diagnosed and managed worldwide. As we sought to shed light on the current potentialities of stereotactic radiosurgery, we must consider that to exploit all the benefits provided by this shift in clinical practice, a profound awareness by all practitioners involved in the care of neoplastic patients is certainly warranted.\OBJECTIVE: Digital ulcers are difficult to heal, increasing the chance of infection, gangrene, amputation and limited functional use of hands. They are a complication in scleroderma or systematic sclerosis (SSc) and occur in approximately 50% of patients. This is a systematic review of the evidence supporting the use of non-pharmaceutical therapeutic modalities and their effectiveness to facilitate the healing of chronic digital ulcers in patients with scleroderma. METHOD: A comprehensive review of computerised databases from 2000-2013: PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Pedro, OT Seeker, OT Search, OVID, and Proquest as well as manual review of other resources was completed using the following search terms scleroderma or systemic sclerosis and/or digital ulcers, specific modalities (low level laser therapy, electrical stimulation, intermittent compression, ultrasound, vitamin E, myofascial release, wound dressings, iontophoresis, negative pressure therapy, and exercise), chronic wounds, and wound care. English language studies, from 2000 to January 2013, which used therapeutic modalities to facilitate healing of digital ulcers and use healing of the digital ulcer as an outcome measure were reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 403 identified articles, only 11 studies addressed non-pharmaceutical treatment modalities to facilitate healing for digital ulcers. Exercise had no direct effect on healing ulcers. The following studies were positive but have limitations in design and sample size:: hyperbaric oxygen therapy (n=2), negative pressure therapy (n=1), intermittent compression (n=27) and acoustic pressure wound healing (n=1). Vitamin E gel showed a significant difference compared to a control group (n=27). Iontophoresis studies have shown that the modality increases blood flow but the results in five different studies are mixed and the application and intensity were inconsistent. CONCLUSION: No one modality was proven to be the most effective. Larger efficacy studies on treating digital ulcers are needed in order to develop appropriate care guidelines to improve outcomes, promote function and lower health-care costs.

Tumori J Wound Care 2014 Jul-Aug 2014 Oct 100(4) 23(10) 459-65-510-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25296597

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Transcranial laser therapy in acute stroke treatment: results of neurothera effectiveness and safety trial 3, a phase III clinical end point device trial.

Hacke W, Schellinger PD, Albers GW, Bornstein NM, Dahlof BL, Fulton R, Kasner SE, Shuaib A, Richieri SP, Dilly SG, Zivin J, Lees KR

From the Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (W.H.); Department of Neurology, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Minden, Germany (P.D.S.); Department of Neurology, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA (G.W.A.); Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (N.M.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenski University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden (B.L.D.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (R.F., K.R.L.); Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.E.K.); Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (A.S.); Banyan Biomarkers, San Diego, CA (S.P.R.); Allergen Research Cooperation, San Mateo, CA (S.G.D.); and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego (J.Z.). werner.hacke@med.uni-heidelberg.de. From the Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (W.H.); Department of Neurology, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Minden, Germany (P.D.S.); Department of Neurology, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA (G.W.A.); Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (N.M.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenski University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden (B.L.D.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (R.F., K.R.L.); Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.E.K.); Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (A.S.); Banyan Biomarkers, San Diego, CA (S.P.R.); Allergen Research Cooperation, San Mateo, CA (S.G.D.); and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego (J.Z.). From the Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (W.H.); Department of Neurology, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Minden, Germany (P.D.S.); Department of Neurology, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA (G.W.A.); Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (N.M.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenski University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden (B.L.D.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (R.F., K.R.L.); Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.E.K.); Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (A.S.); Banyan Biomarkers, San Diego, CA (S.P.R.); Allergen Research Cooperation, San Mateo, CA (S.G.D.); and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego (J.Z.). From the Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (W.H.); Department of Neurology, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Minden, Germany (P.D.S.); Department of Neurology, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA (G.W.A.); Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (N.M.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenski University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden (B.L.D.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (R.F., K.R.L.); Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.E.K.); Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (A.S.); Banyan Biomarkers, San Diego, CA (S.P.R.); Allergen Research Cooperation, San Mateo, CA (S.G.D.); and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego (J.Z.). From the Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (W.H.); Department of Neurology, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Minden, Germany (P.D.S.); Department of Neurology, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA (G.W.A.); Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (N.M.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenski University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden (B.L.D.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (R.F., K.R.L.); Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.E.K.); Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (A.S.); Banyan Biomarkers, San Diego, CA (S.P.R.); Allergen Research Cooperation, San Mateo, CA (S.G.D.); and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego (J.Z.). From the Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (W.H.); Department of Neurology, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Minden, Germany (P.D.S.); Department of Neurology, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA (G.W.A.); Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (N.M.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenski University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden (B.L.D.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (R.F., K.R.L.); Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.E.K.); Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (A.S.); Banyan Biomarkers, San Diego, CA (S.P.R.); Allergen Research Cooperation, San Mateo, CA (S.G.D.); and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego (J.Z.). From the Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (W.H.); Department of Neurology, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Minden, Germany (P.D.S.); Department of Neurology, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA (G.W.A.); Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (N.M.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenski University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden (B.L.D.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (R.F., K.R.L.); Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.E.K.); Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (A.S.); Banyan Biomarkers, San Diego, CA (S.P.R.); Allergen Research Cooperation, San Mateo, CA (S.G.D.); and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego (J.Z.). From the Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (W.H.); Department of Neurology, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Minden, Germany (P.D.S.); Department of Neurology, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA (G.W.A.); Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (N.M.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenski University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden (B.L.D.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (R.F., K.R.L.); Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.E.K.); Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (A.S.); Banyan Biomarkers, San Diego, CA (S.P.R.); Allergen Research Cooperation, San Mateo, CA (S.G.D.); and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego (J.Z.). From the Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (W.H.); Department of Neurology, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Minden, Germany (P.D.S.); Department of Neurology, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA (G.W.A.); Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (N.M.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenski University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden (B.L.D.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (R.F., K.R.L.); Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.E.K.); Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (A.S.); Banyan Biomarkers, San Diego, CA (S.P.R.); Allergen Research Cooperation, San Mateo, CA (S.G.D.); and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego (J.Z.). From the Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (W.H.); Department of Neurology, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Minden, Germany (P.D.S.); Department of Neurology, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA (G.W.A.); Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (N.M.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenski University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden (B.L.D.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (R.F., K.R.L.); Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.E.K.); Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (A.S.); Banyan Biomarkers, San Diego, CA (S.P.R.); Allergen Research Cooperation, San Mateo, CA (S.G.D.); and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego (J.Z.). From the Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (W.H.); Department of Neurology, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Minden, Germany (P.D.S.); Department of Neurology, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA (G.W.A.); Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (N.M.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenski University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden (B.L.D.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (R.F., K.R.L.); Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.E.K.); Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (A.S.); Banyan Biomarkers, San Diego, CA (S.P.R.); Allergen Research Cooperation, San Mateo, CA (S.G.D.); and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego (J.Z.). From the Department of Neurology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany (W.H.); Department of Neurology, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden, Minden, Germany (P.D.S.); Department of Neurology, Stanford Stroke Center, Palo Alto, CA (G.W.A.); Department of Neurology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (N.M.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenski University Hospital Ostra, Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden (B.L.D.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Gardiner Institute, Western Infirmary and Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (R.F., K.R.L.); Department of Neurology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.E.K.); Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (A.S.); Banyan Biomarkers, San Diego, CA (S.P.R.); Allergen Research Cooperation, San Mateo, CA (S.G.D.); and Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego (J.Z.).

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: On the basis of phase II trials, we considered that transcranial laser therapy could have neuroprotective effects in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We studied transcranial laser therapy in a double-blind, sham-controlled randomized clinical trial intended to enroll 1000 patients with acute ischemic stroke treated
Stroke 2014 Nov 45(11) 3187-93

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25293665

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Implantable photonic devices for improved medical treatments.

Sheinman V, Rudnitsky A, Toichuev R, Eshiev A, Abdullaeva S, Egemkulov T, Zalevsky Z

Bar-Ilan University, Faculty of Engineering, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel. Bar-Ilan University, Faculty of Engineering, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel. Institute of Medical Problems, Southern Branch of National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic, 723506 Osh, Kyrgyz Republic. Regional Clinical Hospital of Osh, 723504 Osh, Kyrgyz Republic. Regional Clinical Hospital of Osh, 723504 Osh, Kyrgyz Republic. Regional Clinical Hospital of Osh, 723504 Osh, Kyrgyz Republic. Bar-Ilan University, Faculty of Engineering, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel.

An evolving area of biomedical research is related to the creation of implantable units that provide various possibilities for imaging, measurement, and the monitoring of a wide range of diseases and intrabody phototherapy. The units can be autonomic or built-in in some kind of clinically applicable implants. Because of specific working conditions in the live body, such implants must have a number of features requiring further development. This topic can cause wide interest among developers of optical, mechanical, and electronic solutions in biomedicine. We introduce preliminary clinical trials obtained with an implantable pill and devices that we have developed. The pill and devices are capable of applying in-body phototherapy, low-level laser therapy, blue light (450 nm) for sterilization, and controlled injection of chemicals. The pill is also capable of communicating with an external control box, including the transmission of images from inside the patient’s body. In this work, our pill was utilized for illumination of the sinus-carotid zone in dog and red light influence on arterial pressure and heart rate was demonstrated. Intrabody liver tissue laser ablation and nanoparticle-assisted laser ablation was investigated. Sterilization effect of intrabody blue light illumination was applied during a maxillofacial phlegmon treatment.

J Biomed Opt 2014 Oct 19(10) 108001

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25279540

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Absorption of monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the visible and near IR by both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial photoacceptors results in photobiomodulation.

Passarella S, Karu T

Dipartimento di Medicina e Scienze per la Salute, Universita del Molise, Via De Sanctis, I-86100 Campobasso, Italy. Electronic address: passarel@unimol.it. Institute of Laser and Information Technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 142190 Troitsk, Moscow Region, Russian Federation. Electronic address: tkaru@isan.troitsk.ru.

In addition to the major functions performed by in the cell, mitochondria play a major role in cell-light interaction. Accordingly it is generally accepted that mitochondria are crucial in cell photobiomodulation; however a variety of biomolecules themselves proved to be targets of light irradiation. We describe whether and how mitochondria can interact with monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the red and near IR optical regions with dissection of both structural and functional effects likely leading to photobiostimulation. Moreover we also report that a variety of biomolecules localized in mitochondria and/or in other cell compartments including cytochrome c oxidase, some proteins, nucleic acids and adenine nucleotides are light sensitive with major modifications in their biochemistry. All together the reported investigations show that the elucidation of the mechanism of the light interaction with biological targets still remains to be completed, this needing further research, however the light sensitivity of a variety of molecules strongly suggests that photobiomodulation could be used in both in photomedicine and in biotechnology.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2014 Nov 140C 344-358

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=25226343

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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