45 new LLLT research papers – August 2009

45 new LLLT research papers published including

  • Intraoral vs extraoral LLLT treatment of trismus and facial swelling post lower third molar extraction.
  • laser therapy versus ultrasound therapy in the treatment of  subacromial impingement syndrome
  • Low Level Laser Therapy on Myonecrosis Induced by Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom.
  • Phototherapy for reducing the symptoms of hay fever.
  • Low-Level Laser for Knee Osteoarthritis


Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of the effect two different low-level laser therapies (LLLT)-intraoral and extraoral-on trismus and facial swelling following surgical extraction of the lower third molar.

Aras MH, Gungormus M

Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey, mutanhamdi@hotmail.com.

The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of extraoral and intraoral low-level laser therapies (LLLT) on postoperative trismus and oedema following the removal of mandibular third molars. Forty-eight patients who were to undergo surgical removal of their lower third molars were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups: extraoral LLLT, intraoral LLLT, or placebo. In the study, a Ga-Al-As diode laser device with a continuous wavelength of 808 nm was used, and the laser therapy was applied by using a 1 x 3-cm handpiece. The flat-top laser beam profile was used in this therapy. For both of the LLLT groups, laser energy was applied at 100 mW (0.1 W) for a total of 120 s (0.1 W x 120 s = 12 J). Patients in the extraoral-LLLT group (n = 16) received 12-J (4 J/cm(2)) low-level laser irradiation, and the laser was applied at the insertion point of the masseter muscle immediately after the operation. Patients in the intraoral-LLLT group (n = 16) received 12-J (4 J/cm(2)) low-level laser irradiation intraorally at the operation site 1 cm from the target tissue. In the placebo group (n = 16), the handpiece was inserted intraorally at the operation site and then was touched extraorally to the masseter muscle for 1 min at each site (120 s total), but the laser was not activated. The size of the interincisal opening and facial swelling were evaluated on the second and seventh postoperative days. At the second postoperative day, trismus (29.0 +/- 7.6 mm [p = 0.010]) and swelling (105.3 +/- 5.0 mm [p = 0.047]) in the extraoral-LLLT group were significantly less than in the placebo group (trismus: 21.1 +/- 7.6 mm, swelling: 109.1 +/- 4.4 mm). Trismus (39.6 +/- 9.0 mm [p = 0.002]) in the extraoral-LLLT group at the seventh postoperative day was also significantly less than in the placebo group (29.0 +/- 6.2 mm). However, at the seventh postoperative day in the intraoral-LLLT group, only trismus (35.6 +/- 8.5 [p = 0.002]) was significantly less than in the placebo group (29.0 +/- 6.2 mm). This study demonstrates that extraoral LLLT is more effective than intraoral LLLT for the reduction of postoperative trismus and swelling after extraction of the lower third molar.

Lasers Med Sci 2009 May 31

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19484402

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Short-term effects of high-intensity laser therapy versus ultrasound therapy in the treatment of people with subacromial impingement syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.

Santamato A, Solfrizzi V, Panza F, Tondi G, Frisardi V, Leggin BG, Ranieri M, Fiore P

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

BACKGROUND: Subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS) is a painful condition resulting from the entrapment of anatomical structures between the anteroinferior corner of the acromion and the greater tuberosity of the humerus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) versus ultrasound (US) therapy in the treatment of SAIS. DESIGN: The study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. SETTING: The study was conducted in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Seventy patients with SAIS were randomly assigned to a HILT group or a US therapy group. INTERVENTION: Study participants received 10 treatment sessions of HILT or US therapy over a period of 2 consecutive weeks. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS), a visual analog scale (VAS), and the Simple Shoulder Test (SST). RESULTS: For the 70 study participants (42 women and 28 men; mean [SD] age=54.1 years [9.0]; mean [SD] VAS score at baseline=6.4 [1.7]), there were no between-group differences at baseline in VAS, CMS, and SST scores. At the end of the 2-week intervention, participants in the HILT group showed a significantly greater decrease in pain than participants in the US therapy group. Statistically significant differences in change in pain, articular movement, functionality, and muscle strength (force-generating capacity) (VAS, CMS, and SST scores) were observed after 10 treatment sessions from the baseline for participants in the HILT group compared with participants in the US therapy group. In particular, only the difference in change of VAS score between groups (1.65 points) surpassed the accepted minimal clinically important difference for this tool. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by sample size, lack of a control or placebo group, and follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Participants diagnosed with SAIS showed greater reduction in pain and improvement in articular movement functionality and muscle strength of the affected shoulder after 10 treatment sessions of HILT than did participants receiving US therapy over a period of 2 consecutive weeks.

Phys Ther 2009 Jul 89(7) 643-52

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19482902

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Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Myonecrosis Induced by Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom.

Barbosa AM, Villaverde AB, Sousa LG, Munin E, Fernandez CM, Cogo JC, Zamuner SR

1 Laboratory of Inflammation, Institute of Research and Development, University of Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP) , Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The aim of this work was to investigate the capacity of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) alone or in combination with antivenom (AV) to reduce myonecrosis induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom. Background Data: Myonecrosis is the most pronounced local effect caused by B. jararacussu venom. AV therapy and other first-aid treatments do not reverse these local effects. Material and Methods: Male Swiss mice were used. Myonecrosis was induced by injection of 0.6 mg/kg of B. jararacussu venom in the right gastrocnemius muscle and was evaluated at 3 or 24 h after venom injection. The site of venom administration was irradiated for 29 s with a low power semiconductor laser (685 nm) at a dose of 4.2 J/cm(2). Intravenous AV therapy (0.5 mL dose) was administered at different times: 30 min before venom injection or 0, 1, or 3 h afterward. Both AV therapy and LLLT treatments were duplicated in mice groups killed at 3 or 24 h. Results: B. jararacussu venom caused a significant myonecrotic effect 3 and 24 h after venom injection. LLLT significantly reduced myonecrosis by 83.5% at 24 h (p < 0.05) but not at 3 h, and AV therapy alone was ineffective for reducing myonecrosis at 3 and 24 h. Conclusion: Only LLLT significantly reduced myonecrosis of the envenomed muscle, suggesting that LLLT is a potentially therapeutic approach for treating the local effects of B. jararacussu venom.

Photomed Laser Surg 2009 Jun 16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19530909

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Pollen challenge study of a phototherapy device for reducing the symptoms of hay fever.

Emberlin JC, Lewis RA

National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, University of Worcester, Worcester, UK. j.emberlin@worc.ac.uk

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the effect of intranasal phototherapy delivered by a phototherapy device (allergy reliever SN-206) on symptoms of hay fever (seasonal rhinitis) due to grass pollen in adults. This registered class IIA medical device had been on sale for 15 months with no adverse effects reported but there had been no assessment of efficacy. Previous research had indicated that phototherapy could alleviate symptoms of allergic rhinitis but no double-blind, placebo-controlled trails had been done. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The trial is a double-blind, placebo-controlled grass pollen challenge conducted out of the pollen season, on 101 adult male and female hay fever sufferers. Subjects were assigned to placebo or active groups by stratified random sampling using responses to a baseline questionnaire. All subjects used active or placebo devices three times a day for 14 days before pollen challenge. Subjects were monitored for 2.5 h after challenge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measures were observed severity scores for sneezing, running eyes, running nose, and the amount of eosinophil cationic proteins (ECP) in nasal secretions. Secondary outcome measures were symptom scores by subject report (itching eyes, itching nose, itching throat, itching mouth/palate), and nasal peak inspiratory flow (PIFn) and peak expiratory flow (PEFn). RESULTS: Significant reductions in severity of symptom scores were found for sneezing, running nose, running eyes and itchy mouth/palate (p < or = 0.05). No significant differences were found in the results for itchy eyes, itchy nose, itchy throat, ECPs, PIFn and PEFn. No adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the device significantly reduced some hay fever symptoms. The study would have been improved if compliance was monitored electronically and if nasal congestion was monitored by report. The mode of action is unclear. The study does not consider long-term implications of the therapy.

Curr Med Res Opin 2009 Jul 25(7) 1635-44

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19476405

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The Effect of Low-Level Laser in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Hegedus B, Viharos L, Gervain M, Galfi M

1 Physio- and Balneotherapy Center , Oroshaza-Gyoparos, Hungary .

Abstract Introduction: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is thought to have an analgesic effect as well as a biomodulatory effect on microcirculation. This study was designed to examine the pain-relieving effect of LLLT and possible microcirculatory changes measured by thermography in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Materials and Methods: Patients with mild or moderate KOA were randomized to receive either LLLT or placebo LLLT. Treatments were delivered twice a week over a period of 4 wk with a diode laser (wavelength 830 nm, continuous wave, power 50 mW) in skin contact at a dose of 6 J/point. The placebo control group was treated with an ineffective probe (power 0.5 mW) of the same appearance. Before examinations and immediately, 2 wk, and 2 mo after completing the therapy, thermography was performed (bilateral comparative thermograph by AGA infrared camera); joint flexion, circumference, and pressure sensitivity were measured; and the visual analogue scale was recorded. Results: In the group treated with active LLLT, a significant improvement was found in pain (before treatment [BT]: 5.75; 2 mo after treatment : 1.18); circumference (BT: 40.45; AT: 39.86); pressure sensitivity (BT: 2.33; AT: 0.77); and flexion (BT: 105.83; AT: 122.94). In the placebo group, changes in joint flexion and pain were not significant. Thermographic measurements showed at least a 0.5 degrees C increase in temperature-and thus an improvement in circulation compared to the initial values. In the placebo group, these changes did not occur. Conclusion: Our results show that LLLT reduces pain in KOA and improves microcirculation in the irradiated area.

Photomed Laser Surg 2009 Jun 16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19530911

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The potential of light therapy for central nervous system injury and disease.

Anders JJ

Photomed Laser Surg 2009 Jun 27(3) 379-80

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19569951

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High-tech bandages lighten the load of light therapy.

Evans J

Nat Med 2009 Jul 15(7) 713

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19584845

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Phototherapy promotes healing of chronic diabetic leg ulcers that failed to respond to other therapies.

Minatel DG, Frade MA, Franca SC, Enwemeka CS

Department of Biotechnology, University of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that combined 660 and 890 nm LED phototherapy will promote healing of diabetic ulcers that failed to respond to other forms of treatment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A double-blind randomized placebo controlled design was used to study 23 diabetic leg ulcers in two groups of 14 patients. Group one ulcers were cleaned, dressed with 1% silver sulfadiazine cream and treated with “placebo” phototherapy (<1.0 J cm(-2)) twice per week, using a Dynatron Solaris 705(R) device. Group two ulcers were treated similarly but received 3 J cm(-2) dose. RESULTS: At each of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days of healing, mean ulcer granulation and healing rates were significantly higher for group two than the “placebo” group (P < 0.02). While “placebo” treated ulcers worsened during the initial 30 days, group two ulcers healed rapidly; achieving 56% more granulation and 79.2% faster healing by day 30, and maintaining similarly higher rates of granulation and healing over the “placebo” group all through. By day 90, 58.3% of group two ulcers had healed fully and 75% had achieved 90-100% healing. In contrast, only one “placebo” treated ulcer healed fully by day 90; no other ulcer attained > or =90% healing. CONCLUSION: Combined 660 and 890 nm light promotes rapid granulation and healing of diabetic ulcers that failed to respond to other forms of treatment.

Lasers Surg Med 2009 Aug 41(6) 433-41

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19588536

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Effects of low-level laser therapy after Corticision on tooth movement and paradental remodeling.

Kim SJ, Moon SU, Kang SG, Park YG

Department of Orthodontics, Oral Biology Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Both Corticision and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) are known to affect the rate of tooth movement. Our objective was to investigate the combined effects of Corticision and LLLT on the tooth movement rate and paradental remodeling in beagles. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: The maxillary second premolars (n = 24) of 12 beagles were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 per group) based on the treatment modality: group A, only orthodontic force (control); group B, orthodontic force plus Corticision; group C, orthodontic force plus LLLT; group D, orthodontic force plus Corticision and LLLT. RESULTS: Ratios of second premolar-to-canine movement were greater by 2.23-fold in group B and 2.08-fold in group C, but 0.52-fold lesser in group D than in group A. The peak velocity was observed at an earlier stage of tooth movement in group B but at a later stage in group C during the 8-week treatment period. At week 8, both tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts on the compression side and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive osteoblasts on the tension side increased significantly (P<.05) in group C but decreased in group D. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that the mean apposition length of newly formed mineralized bone during the 8 weeks of treatment significantly increased in both group B (2.8-fold) and group C (2.2-fold). In group D, the labeling lines on lamina dura were thin and discontinuous, but intratrabecular remodeling and lamellation were found to be active. CONCLUSION: Periodic LLLT after Corticision around a moving tooth decreased the tooth movement rate and alveolar remodeling activity. Lasers Surg. Med. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Lasers Surg Med 2009 Jul 28

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19639625

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Effects of diode laser therapy on the acellular dermal matrix.

Soares LP, de Oliveira MG, de Almeida Reis SR

Department of Oralmaxillofacial Surgery, PUCRS School of Dentistry, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, liviaps@ibest.com.br.

Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) was subcutaneously implanted into calvarian skin of male Wistar rats (n = 40). Low-level laser (lambda 685 nm, 4 J/cm(2)) was locally applied in experimental group (n = 20) above the skin flap. Grafts were harvested at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after surgery and underwent histological analyses. In treated animals, the extent of edema and the number of inflammatory cells were reduced (P < 0.05). The amount of collagen in graft treated with low-level laser were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.05) and were statistically more prominent on the 14th day after surgery. The mean count of fibroblasts was significantly higher in the low-laser therapy group within the 3rd day, showing a marked influx of fibroblasts into area. In conclusion, wound healing of the ADM appear to be positively affected by laser therapy.

Cell Tissue Bank 2009 Jul 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19593638

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In vitro effect of carboplatin, cytarabine, paclitaxel, vincristine, and low-power laser irradiation on murine mesenchymal stem cells.

Horvat-Karajz K, Balogh Z, Kovacs V, Drrernat AH, Sreter L, Uher F

Second Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, 1088 Budapest, Hungary. karoly.horvat-karajz@oncology.hu

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising for use in regenerative medicine. Cytostatics can decrease, but low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) can increase the growth of MSCs. The interaction of LPLI, MSCs and cytostatics is not known. This study investigated the effect of four cytostatics (carboplatin, cytarabine, paclitaxel, vincristine), LPLI, and combination of a cytostatic drug and LPLI on murine MSCs (mMSCs). STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: MMSCs were exposed to LPLI (660 nm diode laser; 60 mW output power; range of power density: 76-156 mW/cm(2); range of energy density: 1.9-11.7 J/cm(2)) and/or a cytostatic drug (carboplatin: 2, 10, 50; cytarabine: 0.4, 10, 50; paclitaxel: 0.4, 2, 10; vincristine: 0.02, 0.1, 0.5 microg/ml, respectively). Cell proliferation was measured after 24, 48, or 72 hours incubation. RESULTS: LPLI at 1.9 J/cm(2) dose increased the proliferation rate with 41% after 48 hours. However, 11.7 J/cm(2) LPLI caused 42% inhibition and cytostasis was still detectable after 72 hours. LPLI caused equivalent stimulation in single or in divided doses (3.8 vs. double 1.9 J/cm(2) in a 24-hour period). The cytotoxicity of 50 microg/ml carboplatin was eliminated, the inhibitory power of 0.1 microg/ml vincristine was attenuated by 1.9 J/cm(2) LPLI even 3 days post-treatment (attenuation >10%). The 11.7 J/cm(2) LPLI enhanced the cytotoxicity of 50 microg/ml cytarabine (from 48% to 73%) and 10 microg/ml paclitaxel (from 37% to 78%). Combination of the ineffective 0.4 microg/ml cytarabine or paclitaxel with the inhibitory 11.7 J/cm(2) LPLI exhibited stronger inhibition than the 11.7 J/cm(2) LPLI alone (69% and 69% vs. 42%). CONCLUSIONS: Low energy density of LPLI increases and high energy density of LPLI decreases the proliferation of mMSCs. Furthermore, LPLI can prevent or attenuate some drug’s cytotoxicity and amplify others’. The result depends on the applied energy density, on the type and concentration of the cytostatics.

Lasers Surg Med 2009 Aug 41(6) 463-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19588531

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Regulation of Skin Collagen Metabolism In Vitro Using a Pulsed 660 nm LED Light Source: Clinical Correlation with a Single-Blinded Study.

Barolet D, Roberge CJ, Auger FA, Boucher A, Germain L

[1] RoseLab Skin Optics Laboratory, Montreal, Quebec, Canada [2] Department of Medicine, Dermatology Division, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

It has been reported that skin aging is associated with a downregulation in collagen synthesis and an elevation in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. This study investigated the potential of light-emitting diode (LED) treatments with a 660 nm sequentially pulsed illumination formula in the photobiomodulation of these molecules. Histological and biochemical changes were first evaluated in a tissue-engineered Human Reconstructed Skin (HRS) model after 11 sham or LED light treatments. LED effects were then assessed in aged/photoaged individuals in a split-face single-blinded study. Results yielded a mean percent difference between LED-treated and non-LED-treated HRS of 31% in levels of type-1 procollagen and of -18% in MMP-1. No histological changes were observed. Furthermore, profilometry quantification revealed that more than 90% of individuals showed a reduction in rhytid depth and surface roughness, and, via a blinded clinical assessment, that 87% experienced a reduction in the Fitzpatrick wrinkling severity score after 12 LED treatments. No adverse events or downtime were reported. Our study showed that LED therapy reversed collagen downregulation and MMP-1 upregulation. This could explain the improvements in skin appearance observed in LED-treated individuals. These findings suggest that LED at 660 nm is a safe and effective collagen-enhancement strategy.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 9 July 2009; doi:10.1038/jid.2009.186.

J Invest Dermatol 2009 Jul 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19587693

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Photomedicine and LLLT Literature Watch.

Carroll JD

Photomed Laser Surg 2009 Jun 27(3) 529-30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19569958

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Phototherapy miracles in a nutshell.

Sommer AP, Zhu D

Photomed Laser Surg 2009 Jun 27(3) 527-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19569957

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Assessment of cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum of fibroblast cells subjected to low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound.

Oliveira DA, De Oliveira RF, Magini M, Zangaro RA, Soares CP

Laboratorio de Dinamica de Compartimento Celular, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IP&D), UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum of L929 cells. Thermal and non-thermal physical mechanisms such as LLLT and LIPUS induce clinically significant responses in cells, tissues, and organs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: L929 fibroblast cell cultures were irradiated with LLLT and subjected to LIPUS. Cultures irradiated with the laser (904 nm) were divided into three groups: group I, control (no irradiation); group II, irradiated at 6 J/cm(2); and group III, irradiated at 50 mJ/cm(2). Cultures subjected to ultrasound were divided into five groups: group I, control (no LIPUS); group II, LIPUS at 0.2 W/cm(2) in pulsed mode at 10% (1:9 duty cycle); group III, LIPUS at 0.6 W/cm(2) in pulsed mode at 10% (1:9 duty cycle); group IV, LIPUS at 0.2 W/cm(2) in pulsed mode at 20% (2:8 duty cycle); and group V, LIPUS at 0.6 W/cm(2) in pulsed mode at 20% (2:8 duty cycle). Each group was irradiated at 24-h intervals, with the following post-treatment incubation times: 24, 48, and 72 h. The effects of LLLT and LIPUS on the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum was evaluated by the use of fluorescent probes and with fluorescence microscopy analysis. RESULTS: The results following LLLT and LIPUS demonstrate that ultrasound was more effective than laser on fibroblast cell cultures when the endoplasmic reticulum was assessed, whereas there was a better distribution of the filaments of the cytoskeleton in the cells subjected to laser irradiation. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that both LLLT and LIPUS promote changes on the cellular level. However, LIPUS was more effective than LLLT at the doses used here, as assessed by fluorescence microscopy, which revealed increased reticulum activity and increased protein synthesis. However, when the organization of actin filaments was assessed, LLLT achieved a better result.

Photomed Laser Surg 2009 Jun 27(3) 461-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19569956

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Effect of low-level laser treatment of tissue-engineered skin substitutes: contraction of collagen lattices.

Ho G, Barbenel J, Grant MH

Exploit Technologies, Biomedical Sciences Division, Agency of Science and Technology (A*STAR), 30 Biopolis Street, #09-02 Matrix, Singapore 138671, Singapore.

Fibroblast-populated collagen lattices (FPCL) are widely used in tissue-engineered artificial skin substitutes, but their main drawback is that interaction of fibroblasts and matrix causes contraction of the lattice, reducing it to about 20% of its original area. The effect of low-level laser treatment (LLLT) on the behavior of 3T3 fibroblasts seeded in collagen lattices containing 20% chondroitin-6-sulphate was investigated to determine whether LLLT could control the contraction of FPCL. A He-Ne laser was used at 632.8 nm to deliver a 5-mW continuous wave with fluences from 1 to 4 Jcm(2). Laser treatment at 3 Jcm(2) increased contraction of collagen lattices in the absence of cells but decreased contraction of cell seeded lattices over a 7-day period. The effect was energy dependent and was not observed at 1, 2, or 4 Jcm(2). There was no alteration in fibroblast viability, morphology, or mitochondrial membrane potential after any laser treatments, but the distribution of actin fibers within the cells and collagen fibers in the matrices was disturbed at 3 Jcm(2). These effects contribute to the decrease in contraction observed. LLLT may offer a means to control contraction of FPCL used as artificial skin substitutes.

J Biomed Opt 2009 May-Jun 14(3) 034002

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19566296

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Wavelength effect in temporomandibular joint pain: a clinical experience.

Carvalho CM, de Lacerda JA, Dos Santos Neto FP, Cangussu MC, Marques AM, Pinheiro AL

Laser Center, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, 40140-110, Salvador, BA, Brazil.

Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are common painful multifactorial conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and whose treatment depends on the type and symptoms. Initially, it requires pain control, and, for this, drugs, biting plates, occlusal adjustment, physiotherapy or their association are used. Lately, laser phototherapy (LPT) has been used in the treatment of pain of several origins, including TMDs. This study reports the treatment of a selected group of 74 patients treated at the Laser Center of the Federal University of Bahia between 2003 and 2008. Following standard anamneses, clinical and imaging examination and with the diagnosis of any type of TMD, the patients were prepared for LPT. No other intervention was carried out during the treatment. Treatment consisted of three sessions a week for 6 weeks. Prior to irradiation, the patients were asked to score their pain using a visual analog scale (VAS). Lasers of wavelength (lambda)780 nm, lambda790 nm or lambda830 nm and/or lambda660 nm were used at each session (30/40 mW; spot (varphi) approximately 3 mm; mean dose per session 14.2 +/- 6.8 J/cm(2); mean treatment dose of 170 +/- 79.8 J/cm(2)). Of the patients, 80% were female ( approximately 46 years old). At the end of the 12 sessions the patients were again examined, and they scored their pain using the VAS. The results were statistically analyzed and showed that 64% of the patients were asymptomatic or had improved after treatment and that the association of both wavelengths was statistically significant (P = 0.02) in the asymptomatic group. It was concluded that the association of red and infrared (IR) laser light was effective in pain reduction on TMJ disorders of several origins.

Lasers Med Sci 2009 Jun 30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19565312

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Radiant Power Determination of Low-Level Laser Therapy Equipment and Characterization of Its Clinical Use Procedures.

Guirro RR, Weis LC

1 Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor System, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University Sao Paulo , Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The main objectives of this study were to characterize low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and the physical therapy clinical procedures for its use. Background Data: There are few scientific studies that characterize the calibration of LLLT equipment. Materials and Methods: Forty lasers at 36 physical therapy clinics were selected. The equipment was characterized through data collected from the owner manuals, direct consultation with the manufacturers, and a questionnaire answered by the users. A digital potency analyzer was used to calibrate released mean potency. Qualitative data were presented throughout the descriptive statistics and quantitative data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher tests (significance, p < 0.05). Results: The laser equipment was either AsGa (70.5%) or HeNe (23.5%), and 60% was analog and acquired over 5 years ago. The majority of the equipment was used 10-15 times per week and the most frequent density level used was 2 to 4 J/cm(2). Protective goggles were available in only 19.4% of the clinics evaluated. The association between the analyzed categories demonstrated that a lower mean potency was correlated both with equipment acquired over 5 years ago and analog technology. The determined mean potency was lower than the one claimed by the manufacturer (p < 0.05). In 30 cases, the analyzed equipment presented a potency between 3 mW and 5.6 mW; in three cases, the potency was >25 mW; and in seven cases, potency was nonexistent. Conclusion: The analyzed equipment was out-dated and periodical maintenance was not conducted, which was reflected in the low irradiated potency.

Photomed Laser Surg 2009 Jun 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19563243

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[Relationship between laser acupuncture analgesia and the function of mast cells]

Cheng K, Shen XY, Ding GH, Wu F

Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai 201203, China. cheng_ker@hotmail.com

OBJECTIVE: To observe the analgesic effects of single-and combined-laser irradiation with low-intensity applied at “Zusanli” (ST 36) in rats, and their relation to degranulation of mast cells. METHODS: Sixty-six SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control group (Group NC), model control group (Group MC), sham irradiation group (Group SI), 10.6 microm laser irradiation group (Group 10.6 microm LI), 650 nm laser irradiation group (Group 650 nm LI) and combined (10.6 microm + 650 nm) laser irradiation group (Group CLI). Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (0.05 mL) was injected into the left ankle joints of all the rats except those in Group NC to cause acute adjuvant-induced arthritis. In treatment, laser irradiation was applied at “Zusanli” (ST 36) for 30 minutes in all the rats except those in Group NC and Group MC. The paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to radian heat was used to compare analgesic effects among the groups. By means of toluidine blue, dyed slices of local tissues of “Zusanli” (ST 36) were used to observe changes of mast cell degranulation before and after laser irradiation. RESULTS: The pain thresholds to irradiation of the rats in Group 650 nm LI and Group CLI were significantly higher than those in Group MC and Group SI (P < 0.01), and the mast cell degranulation rate in Group 650 nm LI and Group CLI were also significantly higher than that in Group MC and Group SI (P < 0.001). The pain threshold and mast cell degranulation rate in Group 10. 6 microm LI were not significantly different from those in Group MC and Group SI. There was a linear correlation between mast cell degranulation rate and PWL with 0. 737 in coefficient (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Single 650 nm laser and combined 650 nm + 10.6 microm laser with low intensity irradiated at “Zusanli” (ST 36) in acute adjuvant rats can provide remarkable analgesic effects, and there was a positive correlation between mast cell degranulation rate and analgesic effects, which plays an important part in laser irradiation-induced analgesia.

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2009 Jun 29(6) 478-83

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19563196

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Laser acupuncture for acute inflammatory, visceral and neuropathic pain relief: An experimental study in the laboratory rat.

Lorenzini L, Giuliani A, Giardino L, Calza L

DIMORFIPA, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (Bologna), Italy.

Laser acupuncture is defined as the stimulation of traditional acupuncture points with low-intensity, non-thermal laser irradiation. We explored the clinical efficacy of a very low level diode laser wavelength 670nm (Biolite LP020, RGM, Genoa, Italy), used to stimulate acupoints ST36 Zu San Li and TH5 Waiguan, on well-established experimental models of acute and persistent pain in the rat, e.g. acute inflammatory pain, muscle pain, visceral pain and neuropathic pain. We report the anti-edema and anti-hyperalgesia effects of laser acupuncture in models of acute inflammatory pain, e.g. CFA-induced inflammation and myofascial pain. We also indicate that spontaneous pain and thermal hyperalgesia are reduced in a neuropathic pain model, e.g. axotomy. On the contrary, no effects due to laser-acupuncture were observed on disconfort indices in a model of visceral pain, e.g. cystitis due to cyclophosphamide. We thus provide evidences that acupoints stimulation using a very low intensity laser irradiation can control pain and edema in specific experimental conditions.

Res Vet Sci 2009 Jun 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19560793

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Imaging membrane intercalating near infrared dyes to track multiple cell populations.

Roy EJ, Sivaguru M, Fried G, Gray BD, Kranz DM

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 USA; Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 USA.

Given the increasing interest in understanding in vivo migration of different cell types, it would be useful to have a simple method for tracking multiple cell populations in animals. Here we evaluated near infrared (NIR) dyes that intercalate into cell membranes as cell tracking labels, using both high-throughput and high-resolution methods. We tracked cells in tissues containing significant autofluorescence. CellVue Burgundy (ex 683/em 707) and CellVue NIR815 (ex 786/em 814) are especially useful because their spectral properties match the laser and detectors of the LI-COR laser scanner. After labeling cells ex vivo and injecting them into tumor-bearing mice, the distribution of cells in tumor and organs could be quantified in tissue sections with high throughput by scanning many slides at once. For example, we compared brain tumor infiltration and organ distribution of naive and activated lymphocytes in single animals. High-resolution microscopic examination of the same tissues could be done by a relatively inexpensive modification of an epifluorescence microscope using a custom designed diode laser light source. Light emitting diodes that emit 685 nm and 780 nm light allowed microscopic visualization of the NIR labeled cells in tissues. The NIR dye-labeled cells were visualized with a greater signal/noise ratio compared to visible wavelength dyes such as CFSE, because of the low levels of autofluorescence in the NIR range. We also describe a simple modification of immunohistochemical procedures that allows combined visualization of the hydrophobic NIR dyes and antibody probes of cell markers in unfixed tissue. In combination these techniques will facilitate cell tracking in vivo.

J Immunol Methods 2009 Jun 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19559026

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[Comparative estimation of lazer devices in complex treatment of oral cavity mucous membrane diseases]

The aim of the study was to compare laser devices “Optodan” and portative laser “Baure” in complex treatment of oral cavity mucous membrane diseases. We studied 90 patients: 54 female (60,0+/-0,77%) and 36 (30,0+/-0,7%) men from 18 to 45 years old. All patients had different forms of oral mucosal diseases: Stomatitis aphtosa chronica recidiva had 36 patients (28,9+/-0,9%); Erythema exudativum multiforme – 10 patients (6,7+/-1,5%), Candidosis angulitis – 26 patients (17,8+/-1,46%), Lichen ruber planus ulceroza – 4 patients (4,44+/-1,03%), Trauma mechanicum acutium – 12 patients (11,06+/-2,8%), Stomatitis herpetica – 28 patients (31,1+/-1,48%). All the patients were practically healthy and had no contraindications for physiotherapy. Before treatment to all patients had been recommended means of individual hygiene and several recommendations. The patients were divided into two groups. Every group consisted of 45 patients. 13 patients with Stomatitis aphtosa chronica recidiva, 14 – Stomatitis herpetica, 3 – Erythema exudativum multiforme, 8 – Candidosis angulitis, 2 – Lichen ruber planus ulceroza, 5 – Trauma mechanicum acutium. All the patients underwent symptomatic treatment according to the form and gravity of disease. Patients in a first group in addition had laserotherapy with a laser device “Optodan”. Patients in a second group underwent laserotherapy with a portative device (Baurer). The positive results were achieved in both groups, though the first group patients mentioned considerable reduce of pain right after procedures. Our research proved the high effectiveness of laserotherapy in complex treatment of oral cavity mucous membrane diseases. Treatment with device “Optodan” is the most preferable.

Georgian Med News 2009 May (170) 27-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19556634

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[The results of the treatment of gunshot wounds by applying laser therapy]

The treatment results of not penetrating in cavities surface gunshot wounds of border regional hospitals are studied. The injured are divided into 3 groups depending on the terms of first surgical processing of wounds. It is mentioned that putting dense sutures is not always justified. Very often inflammatory infiltrate and suppuration is arisen after suturing. Inflammatory process develops into tumoral and cicatricial disorders which are removed by surgical intervention. The gunshot wound processing with helium-neon red ray made favorable conditions for early closing of wound surface by means of saturation with bringing the edges of the wound closer and preventing the development of severe suppuration complications as well as reduced the treatment terms promoting good functional and cosmetic results.

Georgian Med News 2009 May (170) 14-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19556630

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Low-level laser therapy attenuates creatine kinase levels and apoptosis during forced swimming in rats.

Sussai DA, Carvalho PD, Dourado DM, Belchior AC, Dos Reis FA, Pereira DM

Postgraduate Program in Health Science and Development in the Central Western Region, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Rua Abrico do Para, 146, Caranda Bosque, 79032-423, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

Studies suggest that high-intensity physical exercise can cause damage to skeletal muscles, resulting in muscle soreness, fatigue, inflammatory processes and cell apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on a decrease in creatine kinase (CK) levels and cell apoptosis. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two equal groups: group 1 (control), resistance swimming; group 2 (LLLT), resistance swimming with LLLT. They were subjected to a single application of indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP) laser immediately following the exercise for 40 s at an output power of 100 mW, wavelength 660 nm and 133.3 J/cm(2). The groups were subdivided according to sample collection time: 24 h and 48 h. CK was measured before and both 24 h and 48 h after the test. Samples of the gastrocnemius muscle were processed to determine the presence of apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling. (There was a significant difference in CK levels between groups (P < 0.0001) as well as between the 24 h and 48 h levels in the control group, whereas there was no significant intra-group difference in the LLLT group at the same evaluation times. In the LLLT group there were 66.3 +/- 13.2 apoptotic cells after 24 h and 39.0 +/- 6.8 apoptotic cells after 48 h. The results suggest that LLLT influences the metabolic profile of animals subjected to fatigue by lowering serum levels of CK. This demonstrates that LLLT can act as a preventive tool against cell apoptosis experienced during high-intensity physical exercise.

Lasers Med Sci 2009 Jun 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19554361

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Effects of low-level laser therapy on bone formed after distraction osteogenesis.

Hubler R, Blando E, Gaiao L, Kreisner PE, Post LK, Xavier CB, de Oliveira MG

School of Physics, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Av. Ipiranga, 6681, Predio 10, sala 222, Caixa Postal 1429, 90619-900, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

This study evaluated the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the chemical composition, crystallinity and crystalline structure of bone at the site of distraction osteogenesis. Five rabbits were subjected to distraction osteogenesis (latency = 3 days; rate and frequency = 0.7 mm/day for 7 days; consolidation = 10 days), and three were given LLLT with arsenide-gallium-aluminum (AsGaAl; 830 nm, 40 mW): 10 J/cm(2) dose per spot, applied directly to the distraction osteogenesis site during the consolidation stage at 48 h intervals. Samples were harvested at the end of the consolidation stage. X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze chemical composition, crystallinity and crystalline structure of bone at the distraction osteogenesis site. The analysis of chemical composition and calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) ratios revealed greater mineralization in the LLLT group. Diffractograms showed that the crystalline structure of the samples was similar to that of hydroxyapatites. Crystallinity percentages were greater in rabbits that were given LLLT. Crystallinity (41.14% to 54.57%) and the chemical composition of the bone at the distraction osteogenesis site were similar to the that of the control group (42.37% to 49.29%). The results showed that LLLT had a positive effect on the biomodulation of newly formed bone.

Lasers Med Sci 2009 Jun 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19548055

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Comparison of splinting and splinting plus low-level laser therapy in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

Yagci I, Elmas O, Akcan E, Ustun I, Gunduz OH, Guven Z

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

This study aimed to compare the short-term efficacy of splinting (S) and splinting plus low-level laser therapy (SLLLT) in mild or moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) with a prospective, randomized controlled study. The patients with unilateral, mild, or moderate idiopathic CTS who experienced symptoms over 3 months were included in the study. The SLLLT group received ten sessions of laser therapy and splinting while S group was given only splints. The patients were evaluated at the baseline and after 3 months of the treatment. Follow-up parameters were nerve conduction study (NCS), Boston Questionnaire (BQ), grip strength, and clinical response criteria. Forty-five patients with CTS completed the study. Twenty-four patients were in S and 21 patients were in SLLLT group. In the third-month control, SLLLT group had significant improvements on both clinical and NCS parameters (median motor nerve distal latency, median sensory nerve conduction velocities, BQ symptom severity scale, and BQ functional capacity scale) while S group had only symptomatic healing (BQ symptom severity scale). The grip strength of splinting group was decreased significantly. According to clinical response criteria, in SLLLT group, five (23.8%) patients had full and 12 (57.1%) had partial recovery; four (19%) patients had no change or worsened. In S group, one patient (4.2%) had full and 17 (70.8%) partial recovery; six (25%) patients had no change or worsened. Additionally, applied laser therapy provided better outcomes on NCS but not in clinical parameters in patients with CTS.

Clin Rheumatol 2009 Jun 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19544043

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Surgical approach with Er:YAG laser on osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) in patients under bisphosphonate therapy (BPT).

Vescovi P, Manfredi M, Merigo E, Meleti M, Fornaini C, Rocca JP, Nammour S

Oral Medicine and Laser-Assisted Surgery Unit- Section of Dentistry – Department of ENT/Dental/Ophtalmological and Cervico-Facial Sciences, EMDOLA (European Master Degree on Oral Laser Applications) – University of Parma, Parma, Italy, paolo.vescovi@unipr.it.

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) in patients on long-term bisphosphonate Therapy (BPT) has been reported with increasing frequency in literature over the past 4 years. Therapy for this condition is still a dilemma. Temporary suspension of BPT offers no short-term benefits; hyperbaric oxygen has no proven efficacy and therefore is not recommended. Intermittent or continuous antibiotic therapy with surgical debridement can be beneficial to palliate the symptoms. Er:YAG laser can be used to eliminate necrotic bone portions by partial or total resection as an alternative to conventional rotary devices. In our study, 91 patients affected by ONJ-BP lesion, for a total of 115 ONJ sites were observed between January 2004 and May 2008 (Department of Odontostomatology, University of Parma). Fifty-five ONJ sites were considered for this study in four different groups, retrospectively identified on the basis of treatment performed (G1-G4). G1: 13 ONJ-BP sites were treated with medical therapy (amoxicillin 1gr x 3/die per os with metronidazole 250 mg x 2/die per os) for at least 2 weeks; G2: 17 ONJ-BP sites received medical treatment in association with cycles of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applications performed using an Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm) once a week for 2 months; G3: 13 ONJ-BP sites were surgically treated (sequestrectomy of necrotic bone, debridement, corticotomy/surgical removal of alveolar and/or cortical bone); G4: 12 ONJ-BP sites were treated with surgical therapy performed using an Er:YAG laser (2,940 nm) in association with LLLT. Clinical success has been defined for each treatment performed as: (a) complete mucosal healing free from signs and symptoms (classified as stage “0”) or (b) transition from a higher to a lower stage (Ruggiero staging) for at least 3 months. All the ONJ-BP sites treated with Er:YAG laser (G4 group) had a clinical improvement (100%) and 87.5% of sites had a complete mucosal healing with a mean follow-up of 13 months. The result obtained in the G4 is extremely significant in comparison with those obtained by medical treatment alone or in a traditional surgical approach. Thanks to the high degree of affinity of this wavelength for water and hydroxyapatite, both soft and bone tissues can be easily treated. This technique can also be used for conservative operations whereby necrotic bone is vaporized until healthy bone is reached. In addition, an additional advantage of the Er:YAG laser is its bactericidal and possible biostimulatory action, accelerating the healing of both soft tissues and bone tissues, in comparison to conventional treatments. In conclusion, from our experience, it is possible to observe that an early conservative surgical approach with Er:YAG laser associated with LLLT, for BP-induced ONJ could be considered as more efficient in comparison with medical therapy or other conventional techniques.

Lasers Med Sci 2009 Jun 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19543768

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Effectiveness of interventions of specific complaints of the arm, neck, or shoulder (CANS): musculoskeletal disorders of the hand.

van Middelkoop M, Huisstede BM, Glerum S, Koes BW

Department of General Practice, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of (conservative and surgical) interventions for the 4 specific pain disorders of the hand: trigger finger, primary Raynaud’s phenomenon, Dupuytren disease, and De Quervain’s disease. This information can help clinicians in the selection of interventions in daily practice, and may give direction to future research. METHODS: Relevant review publications and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in PubMed were searched. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed. To summarize the results of the included reviews and RCTs, a best-evidence synthesis was used. RESULTS: For primary Raynaud’s phenomenon (1 review, 20 RCTs), we found strong evidence for calcium channel blockers and moderate evidence for laser therapy. Limited evidence was found for Ketanserin, Prozasin, Buflomedil, transdermal glyceryl trinitrate patches, Ginkgo biloba, and behavioral treatment with temperature feedback. Other interventions did not show clear favorable treatment effects. For Trigger finger one very small RCT was found that showed limited evidence for steroid injection. For Dupuytren disease (4 RCTs) limited evidence was found in favor of use of staples versus sutures in the Dupuytren’s surgery, and for intermittent compression on the postoperative hand after surgery. For other interventions no clear positive effects could be demonstrated. For De Quervain’s disease (2 RCTs), we found no efficacy of Nimesulide as addition to a Triamcinolone injection, and no clear differences between a corticosteroid injection and a splint in pregnant patients or patients breast-feeding. DISCUSSION: Well-designed and well-conducted RCTs are clearly needed in this field.

Clin J Pain 2009 Jul-Aug 25(6) 537-52

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19542803

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Reduced axonal transport in Parkinson’s disease cybrid neurites is restored by light therapy.

Trimmer PA, Schwartz KM, Borland MK, De Taboada L, Streeter J, Oron U

University of Virginia, Morris K Udall Parkinson’s Research Center of Excellence and Department of Neurology, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. pat5q@virginia.edu.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that reduced axonal transport contributes to the degeneration of neuronal processes in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Mitochondria supply the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) needed to support axonal transport and contribute to many other cellular functions essential for the survival of neuronal cells. Furthermore, mitochondria in PD tissues are metabolically and functionally compromised. To address this hypothesis, we measured the velocity of mitochondrial movement in human transmitochondrial cybrid “cytoplasmic hybrid” neuronal cells bearing mitochondrial DNA from patients with sporadic PD and disease-free age-matched volunteer controls (CNT). The absorption of low level, near-infrared laser light by components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC) enhances mitochondrial metabolism, stimulates oxidative phosphorylation and improves redox capacity. PD and CNT cybrid neuronal cells were exposed to near-infrared laser light to determine if the velocity of mitochondrial movement can be restored by low level light therapy (LLLT). Axonal transport of labeled mitochondria was documented by time lapse microscopy in dopaminergic PD and CNT cybrid neuronal cells before and after illumination with an 810 nm diode laser (50 mW/cm2) for 40 seconds. Oxygen utilization and assembly of mtETC complexes were also determined. RESULTS: The velocity of mitochondrial movement in PD cybrid neuronal cells (0.175 +/- 0.005 SEM) was significantly reduced (p < 0.02) compared to mitochondrial movement in disease free CNT cybrid neuronal cells (0.232 +/- 0.017 SEM). For two hours after LLLT, the average velocity of mitochondrial movement in PD cybrid neurites was significantly (p < 0.003) increased (to 0.224 +/- 0.02 SEM) and restored to levels comparable to CNT. Mitochondrial movement in CNT cybrid neurites was unaltered by LLLT (0.232 +/- 0.017 SEM). Assembly of complexes in the mtETC was reduced and oxygen utilization was altered in PD cybrid neuronal cells. PD cybrid neuronal cell lines with the most dysfunctional mtETC assembly and oxygen utilization profiles were least responsive to LLLT. CONCLUSION: The results from this study support our proposal that axonal transport is reduced in sporadic PD and that a single, brief treatment with near-infrared light can restore axonal transport to control levels. These results are the first demonstration that LLLT can increase axonal transport in model human dopaminergic neuronal cells and they suggest that LLLT could be developed as a novel treatment to improve neuronal function in patients with PD.

Mol Neurodegener 2009 4 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19534794

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Effects of low intensity laser irradiation during healing of skin lesions in the rat.

Nussbaum EL, Mazzulli T, Pritzker KP, Heras FL, Jing F, Lilge L

Department of Physical Therapy, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, ON, Canada. e.nussbaum@utoronto.ca

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether laser light can improve healing of skin wounds by killing wound bacteria while simultaneously accelerating host tissue activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wounds on the rat dorsum were irradiated or sham-irradiated three times weekly from days 1 to 19 using 635 or 808 nm diode lasers at 1 or 20 J/cm(2). Wound area and bacterial growth were evaluated three times weekly. Histological analysis was performed on days 8 and 19. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on day 19. RESULTS: Wounds that were irradiated using 635 nm light at 1 J/cm(2) healed similarly to controls. Wounds that were irradiated using 808 nm (1 and 20 J/cm(2), P<0.0001) and 808 nm light (1 J/cm(2), P<0.0001; 20 J/cm(2), P = 0.02). In particular, the presence of normal skin flora decreased (P<0.0001-0.0002) and, when using 808 nm light, the presence of S. aureus increased (P = 0.0001). There was histological evidence of advanced repair using 635 nm at 1 J/cm(2) at day 8 (ASL<0.04). In contrast, markers of acute repair were increased and of late repair were decreased at day 19 using 635 nm at 20 J/cm(2) (ASL<0.04). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that while clearing wounds of certain bacteria is feasible it does not necessarily translate into a healing advantage. When normal flora are disturbed, environmental organisms more readily colonize the wound surface. It is not clear when using 808 nm light whether the loss of normal flora in the wound alone is responsible for the proliferation of S. aureus or whether the light adds to the effect by stimulating S. aureus growth.

Lasers Surg Med 2009 Jul 41(5) 372-81

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19533760

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Effect of photodynamic therapy on the healing of cutaneous third-degree-burn: histological study in rats.

Garcia VG, de Lima MA, Okamoto T, Milanezi LA, Junior EC, Fernandes LA, de Almeida JM, Theodoro LH

Study and Research Group in Lasers in Dentistry, Aracatuba School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Jose Bonifacio, 1193, 16015-500, Aracatuba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, vgouveia@foa.unesp.br.

The aim of this study was to conduct a histological assessment of the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the repairing of third-degree-burn wounds made on the backs of rats with a heated scalpel. Ninety-six rats were divided into groups: G1, control (n = 24), cold scalpel; G2, burned, heated scalpel (n = 24); G3, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (n = 24), on burns; and G4, photodynamic therapy (PDT) (n = 24), toluidine-O blue (100 microg/ml) and LLLT treatment on burns. The laser (685 nm) was applied in continuous mode, 50 mW, 4.5 J/cm(2), contact mode at nine points (9 s/point). Eight animals in each group were killed at 3 days, 7 days or 14 days after surgery, and tissue specimens containing the whole wounded area were removed and processed for histological analysis; the results were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests (P < 0.05). The results demonstrated significant differences between G2 and G3, and between G2 and G4, at both 3 days and 7 days, with regard to acute inflammation scores; G1 and G2 showed significant differences when compared with G4 at 3 days, with regard to neo-angiogenesis scores; G1 and G2 were statistically different from G3 and G4 at both 3 days and 7 days, with regard to re-epithelization scores; G2 showed statistically significant differences when compared with G3 and G4 with regard to collagen fiber scores at 7 days. LLLT and PDT acted as a biostimulating coadjuvant agent, balancing the undesirable effect of the burn on the wound healing process, acting mainly in the early healing stages, hastening inflammation and increasing collagen deposition.

Lasers Med Sci 2009 Jun 17

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19533211

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Utilization of Low-Intensity Laser During Healing of Free Gingival Grafts.

Almeida AL, Esper LA, Sbrana MC, Ribeiro IW, Kaizer RO

Department of Periodontology, Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of Sao Paulo , Brazil .

Abstract Objectives: This study evaluates the action of a low-intensity diode laser with gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) active medium on the healing process and analgesia in individuals undergoing free gingival grafts. Material and Method: Ten individuals needing bilateral gingival graft in the mandibular arch were enrolled in a double-blind study. Each individual had a 30-d interval between the two surgeries. The side receiving application of laser was defined as test side and was established upon surgery; laser application was simulated on the control side. The laser was applied in the immediate postoperative period and after 48 h, and patients rated pain on a scale of 0 to 10, representing minimal and maximal pain, respectively. Photographs were obtained at 7, 15, 30, and 60 d postoperatively and evaluated by five periodontists. Results: No statistically significant difference was found at any postoperative period between control and test sides, even though greater clinical improvement associated with treatment was observed at 15 d postoperative. At 30 and 60 d, some examiners observed the same or greater clinical improvement for the control. Only one individual reported mild to moderate pain on the first postoperative day. Conclusions: Low-intensity laser therapy did not improve the healing of gingival grafts and did not influence analgesia.

Photomed Laser Surg 2009 Jun 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19514815

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[Low-intensity laser radiation in the combined treatment of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis]

Kashanskaia EP, Fedorov AA

This study included 89 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis (COB) that were exposed to harmful occupational factors. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects. Chronic obstructive bronchitis is characterized by serious disturbances in the cardiorespiratory system that manifest themselves in the form of bronchogenic pneumosclerosis with moderate lung emphysema and pulmonary hypertension associated with impaired general resistance. Simultaneously, activity of lipid peroxidation reactions decreases. Application of low-intensity laser radiation in combination with other therapeutic modalities for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis accelerates elimination of clinical symptoms, increases its efficiency, promotes drainage function of the bronchi, facilitates normalization of the patient’s immune status, and contributes to the optimization of lipid peroxidation processes.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2009 Mar-Apr (2) 19-22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19514298

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Low level laser therapy in acute dehiscence saphenectomy: therapeutic proposal.

Pinto NC, Pereira MH, Stolf NA, Chavantes MC

Service of Laser Medical Center, Heart Institute – InCor/HC – Faculty of Medicine of the Universitof Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil. nathalicordeiro@hotmail.com

Dehiscence is a feared complication after major surgeries. Patient who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting developed saphenectomy’s dehiscence on lower limb with edema and pain on the 15th postoperative day. Conventional treatment had been initially performed without clinical improvement. On the 30th postoperative day only Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) was applied punctually around surgical wounds edge. The results revealed granulated tissue, reduction of inflammatory process and analgesic effect since the first application. In this pilot study, LLLT has shown a considerable role as a wound healing agent, through a new proposal for efficient, safe and noninvasive therapy.

Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2009 Mar 24(1) 88-91

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19504026

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Cutaneous sensory nerves: mediators of phototherapeutic effects?

Legat FJ, Wolf P

Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 8; A-8036 Austria. franz.legat@meduni-graz.at

Exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) during accidental or voluntary sun exposure or treatment with phototherapy or photochemotherapy have a significant impact on the skin. Many skin diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, or cutaneous T-cell lymphoma significantly improve by photo(chemo)therapy, though the mechanisms behind the therapeutic effects of photo(chemo)therapy are still far from understood. Various pathways and means through which the energy of UVR from natural or artificial sources is ultimately transformed into biologic effects within the skin have been suggested and cutaneous sensory nerves, neuropeptides, neurotrophins, and certain nerve-related receptors have been among them. In fact a three-dimensional network of sensory nerve fibers derived from dorsal root ganglia intersperses all layers of the skin including the epidermis. In this forefront of defense against environmental impacts (including UVR) on the skin, sensory nerve fibers become targets by itself and closely contact resident and infiltrating cutaneous cells. Thus, terminals of cutaneous sensory nerve fibers, and neuropeptides within these fibers, are in a central position to participate in mediating therapeutic effects of photo(chemo)therapy.

Front Biosci 2009 14 4921-31

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19482595

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Intricacies of dose in laser phototherapy for tissue repair and pain relief.

Enwemeka CS

School of Health Professions, New York Institute of Technology, Old Westbury, NY 11568, USA. Enwemeka@nyit.edu

Inaccurate measurement and incorrect reporting of dosages are major shortcomings of phototherapy articles. As many as 30% of published reports in the field either lack relevant information needed to determine a dosage or report dosages that are altogether inaccurate. The high prevalence of dosage-related mistakes in published reports suggests that dosage determination errors are common among clinicians and other end-users. This special article is designed to advance understanding of the relevant parameters used in phototherapy for tissue repair and pain relief, particularly among clinicians and others who may not be completely familiar with the technology. I define and discuss five key parameters that influence dosage, including 1) radiant power, 2) radiant energy, 3) power density, 4) energy density, and 5) wavelength, and use hypothetical cases to demonstrate how factors such as beam spot size, size of lesion, mode of treatment (contact, noncontact, or scanning), frequency of treatment, dose per treatment, and cumulative dose affect dosages and treatment outcomes. The potential effects of patient-related factors, such as etiology, pathology, tissue optical density, depth of target tissue, and skin pigmentation are discussed concurrently and strategies are suggested to improve dosage determination.

Photomed Laser Surg 2009 Jun 27(3) 387-93

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19473073

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Comparing the effects of exercise program and low-level laser therapy with exercise program and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light (bioptron light) on the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy.

Stasinopoulos D, Stasinopoulos I, Pantelis M, Stasinopoulou K

Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Centre, Athens, Greece. d_stasinopoulos@yahoo.gr

BACKGROUND DATA: The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light as supplements to an exercise program has been recommended for the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether an exercise program supplemented with LLLT is more successful than an exercise program supplemented with polarized polychromatic non-coherent light in treating LET. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with unilateral LET for at least 4 wk were sequentially allocated to receive either an exercise program with LLLT or an exercise program with polarized polychromatic non-coherent light. The exercise program consisted of eccentric and static stretching exercises of wrist extensors. In the LLLT group a 904-nm Ga-As laser was used in continuous mode, and the power density was 130 mW/cm(2), and the dose was 0.585 J/point. In the group receiving polarized polychromatic non-coherent light the Bioptron 2 was used to administer the dose perpendicularly to the lateral epicondyle at three points at an operating distance of 5-10 cm for 6 min at each position. The outcome measures were pain and function and were evaluated at baseline, at the end of the treatment (week 4), and 3 mo after the end of treatment (week 16). RESULTS: Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria. At the end of treatment there was a decline in pain and a rise in function in both groups compared with baseline (p < 0.0005 on the paired t-test). There were no significant differences in the reduction of pain and the improvement of function between the groups at the end of treatment and at the 3-mo follow-up (p > 0.0005 on the independent t-test). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the combination of an exercise program with LLLT or polarized polychromatic non-coherent light is an adequate treatment for patients with LET. Further research to establish the relative and absolute effectiveness of such a treatment approach is needed.

Photomed Laser Surg 2009 Jun 27(3) 513-20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19473072

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The use of low-level light for hair growth: part I.

Avram MR, Rogers NE

Cornell Department of Dermatology, New York, NY, USA. dochair@aol.com

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a new therapy for the treatment of hair loss. It has received enormous media attention and tremendous marketing budgets from companies that sell the devices, but no independent, peer-reviewed studies have demonstrated its efficacy in this application. Here we investigate the efficacy of LLLT in enhancing hair growth. METHODS: A total of seven patients were exposed to LLLT twice weekly for 20 minutes each time over a period of 3-6 months. Five patients were treated for a total of 3 months and two were treated for 6 months. Videomicroscopic images were taken at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, and analyzed for changes in vellus hair counts, terminal hair counts, and shaft diameter. Both videomicroscopic and global images underwent blinded review for evidence of subjective improvement. Patients also answered questionnaires assessing hair growth throughout the study. Neither patients nor physicians conducting the study received any financial compensation. RESULTS: The results indicate that on average patients had a decrease in the number of vellus hairs, an increase in the number of terminal hairs, and an increase in shaft diameter. However, paired i-testing indicated that none of these changes was statistically significant. Also, blinded evaluation of global images did not support an improvement in hair density or caliber. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT may be a promising treatment option for patients who do not respond to either finasteride or minoxidil, and who do not want to undergo hair transplantation. This technology appears to work better for some people than for others. Factors predicting who will most benefit are yet to be determined. Larger, longer-term placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings, and demonstrate statistical significance, or refute them altogether.

J Cosmet Laser Ther 2009 Jun 11(2) 110-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19466643

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Effects of low-power laser irradiation on the threshold of electrically induced paroxysmal discharge in rabbit hippocampus CA1.

Kogure S, Takahashi S, Saito N, Kozuka K, Matsuda Y

Department of Bioinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, 1-236 Tangi-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-8577, Japan, kogure@t.soka.ac.jp.

In acute experiments using adult rabbits, we measured the paroxysmal discharge threshold (PADT) elicited by stimulation to the apical dendritic layer of the hippocampal CA1 region before and after low-power laser irradiation. Nd:YVO(4) laser irradiation (wavelength: 532 nm) was introduced into the same region as the stimulation site. The average PADT was 247 +/- 13 muA (n = 18) before laser irradiation, while after 5-min laser irradiation with 50, 75, and 100 mW, PADT was 333 +/- 40 (n = 4), 353 +/- 33 (n = 4) and 367 +/- 27 muA (n = 6), respectively. The latter two increments were statistically significant compared to the control (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). After 10-min laser irradiation with 75 and 100 mW, PADT was 340 +/- 47 (n = 9) and 480 +/- 60 muA (n = 11; p < 0.01), respectively. Laser irradiation with a specific wavelength and average power offers the potential to suppress the generation of paroxysmal discharges in rabbit hippocampus CA1. Correlation analyses suggest that PADT increments are based on photochemical as well as photothermal effects of laser irradiation.

Lasers Med Sci 2009 May 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19462168

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Lung inflammation and endothelial cell damage are decreased after treatment with phototherapy (PhT) in a model of acute lung injury induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in the rat.

Mafra de Lima F, Naves KT, Machado AH, Albertini R, Villaverde AB, Aimbire F

Institute of Research and Development – IP&D, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, 12240-000 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimics the symptoms of acute lung injury (ALI), which is characterized by the accumulation in the lungs of neutrophils producing inflammatory mediators. Because of the lack of information about phototherapy (PhT) effects on ALI, we investigated whether PhT (685nm InGaAlP) attenuates LPS-induced ALI. PhT reduced lung edema, the accumulation of TNF-alpha in the lung, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. However, PhT was not efficient in reducing of TNF-alpha concentration in both serum and neutrophils of blood after LPS. In another series of experiments, in vitro assays of the effects of PhT effect on mouse pulmonary arterial endothelium cells (MPAECs) after TNF-alpha showed that the laser restores the MPAECs damage induced at 6 or 24h after TNF-alpha. These results suggest the PhT effect on ALI is partly due to inhibition of TNF-alpha release from neutrophils and lung cells.

Cell Biol Int 2009 May 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19450696

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Tuberculosis (HIV-negative people).

Ziganshina LE, Garner P

Health Action International, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

INTRODUCTION: About a third of the world’s population has latent tuberculosis. In 2004, over 14 million people had active tuberculosis. Approximately 1.7 million people died from the infection. Over 80% of new cases diagnosed in 2004 were in people in Africa, South-East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent tuberculosis in people without HIV infection at high risk of developing tuberculosis? What are the effects of interventions to prevent tuberculosis in people without HIV infection at high risk of developing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis? What are the effects of different drug regimens in people with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis without HIV infection? What are the effects of different drug regimens in people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis without HIV infection? What are the effects of low-level laser therapy in people with tuberculosis without HIV infection? Which interventions improve adherence to treatment in people with tuberculosis without HIV infection? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). RESULTS: We found 31 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adding pyrazinamide in chemotherapy regimens lasting up to 6 months; adding rifampicin to isoniazid regimens; benefits of different regimens; chemotherapy for less than 6 months; daily chemotherapy; direct observation treatment; intermittent chemotherapy for 6 months or longer; isoniazid; low-level laser therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis; regimens containing quinolones; rifampicin plus isoniazid; substituting rifampicin with ethambutol in the continuous phase; and support mechanisms for directly observed treatment.

Clin Evid (Online) 2009 2009

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19445749

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Comparison between laser therapy and non-surgical therapy for periodontitis in rats treated with dexamethasone.

Garcia VG, Fernandes LA, de Almeida JM, Bosco AF, Nagata MJ, Martins TM, Okamoto T, Theodoro LH

Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic, Division of Periodontics, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Jose Bonifacio 1193, Centro, 16050-300, Aracatuba, SP, Brasil, vg.garcia@uol.com.br.

The aim of this study was to compare low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as adjuvant treatment for induced periodontitis with scaling and root planing (SRP) in dexamethasone-treated rats. One-hundred twenty rats were divided into groups: D group (n = 60), treated with dexamethasone; ND group (n = 60) treated with saline solution. In both groups, periodontal disease was induced by ligature at the left first mandibular molar. After 7 days, the ligature was removed and all animals were subjected to SRP and were divided according to the following treatments: SRP, irrigation with saline solution (SS); SRP + LLLT, SS and laser irradiation (660 nm; 24 J; 0.428 W/cm(2)). Ten animals in each treatment were killed after 7 days, 15 days and 30 days. The radiographic and histometric values were statistically analyzed. In all groups radiographic and histometric analysis showed less bone loss (P < 0.05) in animals treated with SRP + LLLT in all experimental periods. SRP + LLLT was an effective adjuvant conventional treatment for periodontitis in rats treated with dexamethasone.

Lasers Med Sci 2009 May 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19440786

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[Modern aspects of conservative treatment of patients with lymphovenous insufficiency of lower extremities]

Zhukov BN, Iarovenko GV, Katorkin SE, Myshentsev PN

The main aspects of diagnosis and complex treatment of chronic lymphovenous insufficiency of lower extremities are elucidated. Modern methods of physiotherapeutic and rehabilitation measures are described with reference to clinical manifestations and results of different methods of examining patients. The effectiveness of using magnetic fields, laser irradiation and biomechanical pneumovibration stimulation in complex treatment of patients is shown. The individual strategy necessary in treatment of each patient allows improvement of quality of life of patients and effectiveness of medico-social rehabilitation.

Vestn Khir Im I I Grek 2009 168(1) 38-40

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19432143

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[On the treatment of gunshot wounds of extremities in the conditions of local military actions]

Agakhanian NV, Ter-Avetikian ZA, Mkrtchian ME, Amirian EG

Together with the improvement of new types of weapons with more destroying effect, the treatment methods of gunshot wounds including laser therapy, extrafocal osteosynthesis, new antibacterial means are also developing. The application of these methods makes it possible to create optimal conditions for the treatment of different types of injuries of extremities with positive results in 88% cases. These results were received due to early and thorough first surgical processing of wounds by wide usage of helium-neon laser radiation as well as with the help of traumatologists who are the skilled in the new treatment methods including the extrafocal compressional osteosynthesis.

Georgian Med News 2009 Apr (169) 23-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19430037

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Visual perception and imagery: a new molecular hypothesis.

Bokkon I

Semmelweis University, Doctoral School of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, Lang E. 68, H-1238 Budapest, Hungary. bokkoni@yahoo.com

Here, we put forward a redox molecular hypothesis about the natural biophysical substrate of visual perception and visual imagery. This hypothesis is based on the redox and bioluminescent processes of neuronal cells in retinotopically organized cytochrome oxidase-rich visual areas. Our hypothesis is in line with the functional roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in living cells that are not part of haphazard process, but rather a very strict mechanism used in signaling pathways. We point out that there is a direct relationship between neuronal activity and the biophoton emission process in the brain. Electrical and biochemical processes in the brain represent sensory information from the external world. During encoding or retrieval of information, electrical signals of neurons can be converted into synchronized biophoton signals by bioluminescent radical and non-radical processes. Therefore, information in the brain appears not only as an electrical (chemical) signal but also as a regulated biophoton (weak optical) signal inside neurons. During visual perception, the topological distribution of photon stimuli on the retina is represented by electrical neuronal activity in retinotopically organized visual areas. These retinotopic electrical signals in visual neurons can be converted into synchronized biophoton signals by radical and non-radical processes in retinotopically organized mitochondria-rich areas. As a result, regulated bioluminescent biophotons can create intrinsic pictures (depictive representation) in retinotopically organized cytochrome oxidase-rich visual areas during visual imagery and visual perception. The long-term visual memory is interpreted as epigenetic information regulated by free radicals and redox processes. This hypothesis does not claim to solve the secret of consciousness, but proposes that the evolution of higher levels of complexity made the intrinsic picture representation of the external visual world possible by regulated redox and bioluminescent reactions in the visual system during visual perception and visual imagery.

Biosystems 2009 May 96(2) 178-84

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19428983

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. View biography (PDF)
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