THOR Literature watch January – May 2014

173 new LLLT papers for you this month. The big news is that “laser regenerates teeth” (details here) and that LED improves symptoms in chronic Traumatic Brain Injury patients (details here).  There is my latest paper on LLLT in dentistry, an LED vs Laser study on oral mucostits and a cost effectiveness study for OM, laser vs corticosteroid for subacromial impingement syndrome, LLLT reduction of postoperative complications Post Myocardial Revascularization, a single case report on LLLT for retinitis pigmentosa, an RCT on carpal tunnel syndrome, a multicentre RCT on Male and Female Pattern Hair Loss, a study on the effect of LED on resorption during orthodontic treatment, a systematic review of LLLT for accelerating tooth movement during orthodontic treatment, the effect of LED on implant stability, LLLT treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciitis, a TMJ RCT, a wrist fracture RCT, a review of LLLT and photosensitive medication, a fibromyalgia RCT, and another misleading Class IV vs 3B laser study (on knee osteoarthritis).

 

Significant improvements on cognitive performance post- transcranial, red/near-infrared LED treatments in chronic, mild TBI: Open-protocol study.

Naeser MA, Zafonte R, Krengel MH, Martin PI, Frazier J, Hamblin M, Knight JA, Meehan W, Baker EH

VA Boston Healthcare System, 150 So. Huntington Ave., 12-A, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02130, 857-364-4030, 617-739-8926, Boston University School of Medicine, Neurology, 85 E. Concord St, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02118, 857-364-4030, 617-739-8926 ; mnaeser@bu.edu.

This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased ATP important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is non-invasive, painless, and non-thermal (FDA-cleared, non-significant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 Yr, 6M) with non-penetrating head injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (MWF, 6 Wks), starting at 10 Mo to 8 Yr post- mTBI (MVA or sports-related; and one participant, IED blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (2.1″ diameter, 500mW, 22.2mW/cm2) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm2). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre- LED, and at 1 Wk, 1 and 2 Mo post- the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer PTSD symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest placebo controlled studies are warranted.

J Neurotrauma 2014 Feb 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24568233

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Photoactivation of Endogenous Latent Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 Directs Dental Stem Cell Differentiation for Regeneration.

Arany PR, Cho A, Hunt TD, Sidhu G, Shin K, Hahm E, Huang GX, Weaver J, Chen AC, Padwa BL, Hamblin MR, Barcellos-Hoff MH, Kulkarni AB, J Mooney D

Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Leder Human Biology and Translational Medicine, Boston, MA 02115, USA. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, MA 02139, USA. New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Boston, MA 02115, USA. mooneyd@seas.harvard.edu.

Rapid advancements in the field of stem cell biology have led to many current efforts to exploit stem cells as therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. However, current ex vivo cell manipulations common to most regenerative approaches create a variety of technical and regulatory hurdles to their clinical translation, and even simpler approaches that use exogenous factors to differentiate tissue-resident stem cells carry significant off-target side effects. We show that non-ionizing, low-power laser (LPL) treatment can instead be used as a minimally invasive tool to activate an endogenous latent growth factor complex, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), that subsequently differentiates host stem cells to promote tissue regeneration. LPL treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner, which, in turn, activated latent TGF-beta1 (LTGF-beta1) via a specific methionine residue (at position 253 on LAP). Laser-activated TGF-beta1 was capable of differentiating human dental stem cells in vitro. Further, an in vivo pulp capping model in rat teeth demonstrated significant increase in dentin regeneration after LPL treatment. These in vivo effects were abrogated in TGF-beta receptor II (TGF-betaRII) conditional knockout (DSPP(Cre)TGF-betaRII(fl/fl)) mice or when wild-type mice were given a TGF-betaRI inhibitor. These findings indicate a pivotal role for TGF-beta in mediating LPL-induced dental tissue regeneration. More broadly, this work outlines a mechanistic basis for harnessing resident stem cells with a light-activated endogenous cue for clinical regenerative applications.

Sci Transl Med 2014 May 28 6(238) 238ra69

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24871130

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: effect of LED and laser phototherapy treatment protocols.

Freitas AC, Campos L, Brandao TB, Cristofaro M, Eduardo Fde P, Luiz AC, Marques MM, Eduardo Cde P, Simoes A

1 Departamento de Biomateriais e Biologia Oral, Faculdade de Odontologia – Universidade de Sao Paulo , Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil .

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Over the last few decades, many studies have focused on the effect of lasers on the management of oral mucositis in oncologic patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. However, the effect of light-emitting diode (LED) has been poorly studied, and was not compared with that of laser phototherapy (LPT). For this reason, the aim of the present study was to clinically compare the effect of these two therapies on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (CIOM) and pain. METHODS: Forty patients with CIOM were divided into two groups: G1, patients treated with LPT; G2, patients treated with LED. The treatment was administered during 10 consecutive days, with exception of weekends. LPT was applied using an InGaAlP laser (660 nm/40 mW/6.6 J cm-(2)/0.24 J per point/0.036 cm(2) of spot size). LED phototherapy was applied using 0.24 J per point/80 mW/630 nm/1 cm(2) of spot size. CIOM was assessed during each session in accordance to the World Health Organization (WHO) score. The patient self-assessed pain was scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: The mean VAS and WHO scores were significantly smaller in the LED group (p<0.05). However, both groups required the same number of days to reach score zero for mucositis and pain (p>0.05). Moreover, in the group with severe mucositis (score III), there was a lower frequency of patients with complete healing and pain relief, with the exception of analgesia in G2, in which almost all patients were completely relieved from pain. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that LED therapy is more effective than LPT in the treatment of COIM, with the parameters used in the present study.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Feb 32(2) 81-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24476495

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Developments in low level light therapy (LLLT) for dentistry.

Carroll JD, Milward MR, Cooper PR, Hadis M, Palin WM

THOR Photomedicine Ltd., 18A East Street, Chesham HP5 1HQ, UK. Oral Biology, UK. Oral Biology, UK. Biomaterials, University of Birmingham, School of Dentistry, St Chads Queensway, Birmingham B4 6NN, UK. Biomaterials, University of Birmingham, School of Dentistry, St Chads Queensway, Birmingham B4 6NN, UK. Electronic address: w.m.palin@bham.ac.uk.

OBJECTIVES: Low level light/laser therapy (LLLT) is the direct application of light to stimulate cell responses (photobiomodulation) in order to promote tissue healing, reduce inflammation and induce analgesia. There have been significant studies demonstrating its application and efficacy at many sites within the body and for treatment of a range of musculoskeletal injuries, degenerative diseases and dysfunction, however, its use on oral tissues has, to date, been limited. The purpose of this review is to consider the potential for LLLT in dental and oral applications by providing background information on its mechanism of action and delivery parameters and by drawing parallels with its treatment use in analogous cells and tissues from other sites of the body. METHODS: A literature search on Medline was performed on laser and light treatments in a range of dental/orofacial applications from 2010 to March 2013. The search results were filtered for LLLT relevance. The clinical papers were then arranged to eight broad dental/orofacial categories and reviewed. RESULTS: The initial search returned 2778 results, when filtered this was reduced to 153. 41 were review papers or editorials, 65 clinical and 47 laboratory studies. Of all the publications, 130 reported a positive effect in terms of pain relief, fast healing or other improvement in symptoms or appearance and 23 reported inconclusive or negative outcomes. Direct application of light as a therapeutic intervention within the oral cavity (rather than photodynamic therapies, which utilize photosensitizing solutions) has thus far received minimal attention. Data from the limited studies that have been performed which relate to the oral cavity indicate that LLLT may be a reliable, safe and novel approach to treating a range of oral and dental disorders and in particular for those which there is an unmet clinical need. SIGNIFICANCE: The potential benefits of LLLT that have been demonstrated in many healthcare fields and include improved healing, reduced inflammation and pain control, which suggest considerable potential for its use in oral tissues.

Dent Mater 2014 May 30(5) 465-475

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24656472

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser and local corticosteroid injection in the treatment of subacromial impingement syndrome: a controlled clinical trial.

Kelle B, Kozanoglu E

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Objective:To investigate the effectiveness of low-level laser treatment and local corticosteroid injection in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.Design:Controlled clinical trial.Setting:Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation outpatient clinic.Subjects:One hundred thirty-five patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.Intervention:The patients were allocated to three groups: local corticosteroid injection (group I); sham laser treatment (group II); and low-level laser treatment (group III). Low-level laser treatment was performed three times per week for a total of nine sessions. Local corticosteroid injections were administered twice, with an interval of 10 days between each. The patients were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and three and six months after the first visit.Main measures:The primary outcome of the study was pain intensity (visual analog scale) during activity and at rest. The secondary outcomes were, shoulder functional status and quality of life measured by the University of California at Los Angeles rating score (UCLA) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) scale respectively.Results:Significant differences were observed between groups I and II and between groups II and III regarding pain during activity and at rest scores at all of the visits (p<0.05). Nevertheless, significant improvement was observed between groups I and III regarding pain during activity only at post-treatment (p=0.013). The UCLA scores were significantly changed in all three study groups at all of the visits (p<0.05).Conclusion:The effectiveness of low-level laser treatment was similar to that of local corticosteroid injection in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. We concluded that both low-level laser treatment and corticosteroid injection were more effective than sham laser treatment.

Clin Rehabil 2014 Feb 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24519921

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-Level Laser Therapy Prevents Prodromal Signal Complications on Saphenectomy Post Myocardial Revascularization.

Pinto NC, Pereira MH, Tomimura S, de Magalhaes AC, Pomerantzeff PM, Chavantes MC

1 Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery Department of The Heart Institute, General Hospital, Medical School, University of Sao Paulo , Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil .

Abstract Background and objective: One of the most frequent treatments for ischemic heart disease is myocardial revascularization, often applying the saphenous vein as a coronary graft. However, postoperative complications may occur, such as saphenous dehiscence. According to the literature, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in the treatment of several inflammatory processes in patients. Recently, its uses have expanded to include LLLT preventive therapy and postoperative treatment. Despite our department’s successful application of LLLT in the treatment of saphenectomy incisions, many colleagues are still uncertain as to laser theraphy’s benefits. Therefore, the study’s purpose was to evaluate tissue repair of prodromal surgical incisions after the administration of LLLT. Materials and methods: The pilot study included 14 patients, divided into two groups. Both groups of patients received the traditional treatment; additionally, the Laser Group (n=7) received diode laser treatment (lambda=780 nm, fluence=19 J/cm2, pulse=25 mW, time=30 sec, energy=0.75 J, irradiance=625 mW/cm2, beam spot size 0.04 cm2), which was applied on the edges of the saphenectomy incision. The Control Group (n=7) received conventional treatment exclusively. Results: In the Laser Group: all seven patients showed significant improvement, whereas the Control Group had twice as many complications, including critical rates of incisional dehiscence. Conclusions: LLLT was valuable in preventing prodromal complications in saphenectomy post myocardial revascularization.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 May 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24841340

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy improves vision in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa

Ivandic BT, Ivandic T.

University of Heidelberg , Otto Meyerhof Centre, Heidelberg, Germany

OBJECTIVE: This case report describes the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in a single patient with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Background data: RP is a heritable disorder of the retina, which eventually leads to blindness. No therapy is currently available. METHODS: LLLT was applied using a continuous wave laser diode (780 nm, 10 mW average output at 292 Hz, 50% pulse modulation). The complete retina of eyes was irradiated through the conjunctiva for 40 sec (0.4 J, 0.333 W/cm2) two times per week for 2 weeks (1.6 J). A 55-year-old male patient with advanced RP was treated and followed for 7 years. RESULTS: The patient had complained of nyctalopia and decreasing vision. At first presentation, best visual acuity was 20/50 in each eye. Visual fields were reduced to a central residual of 5 degrees. Tritan-dyschromatopsy was found. Retinal potential was absent in electroretinography. Biomicroscopy showed optic nerve atrophy, and narrow retinal vessels with a typical pattern of retinal pigmentation. After four initial treatments of LLLT, visual acuity increased to 20/20 in each eye. Visual fields normalized except for a mid-peripheral absolute concentric scotoma. Five years after discontinuation of LLLT, a relapse was observed. LLLT was repeated (another four treatments) and restored the initial success. During the next 2 years, 17 additional treatments were performed on an “as needed” basis, to maintain the result. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT was shown to improve and maintain vision in a patient with RP, and may thereby have contributed to slowing down blindness

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy with a wrist splint to treat carpal tunnel syndrome: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

Fusakul Y, Aranyavalai T, Saensri P, Thiengwittayaporn S

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand.

The efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was evaluated in a total of 66 patients with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) with a double-blinded randomized controlled study. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. Group I received 15 sessions of a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser treatment at a dosage of 18 J per session over the carpal tunnel area with neutral wrist splint. Group II received placebo laser therapy with neutral wrist splint. The patients were evaluated with the following parameters: (1) clinical parameters which consisted of visual analog scale, symptom severity scale, functional status scale, and pinch strength and grip strength before the treatment and at 5- and 12-week follow-ups and (2) electroneurophysiological parameters from nerve conduction study which were evaluated before the treatment and at 12-week follow-up. Fifty nine patients (112 hands: unilateral CTS = 6 hands and bilateral CTS = 106 hands) completed the study. Both groups I and II had n = 56 hands. Improvements were significantly more pronounced in the LLLT-treated group than the placebo group especially for grip strength at 5- and 12-week follow-ups. At 12-week follow-up, distal motor latency of the median nerve was significantly improved in the LLLT group than the placebo group (p < 0.05). LLLT therapy, as an alternative for a conservative treatment, is effective for treating mild to moderate CTS patients. It can improve hand grip strength and electroneurophysiological parameter with a carry-over effect up to 3 months after treatment for grip strength of the affected hands.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Jan 30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24477392

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Efficacy and Safety of a Low-level Laser Device in the Treatment of Male and Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Multicenter, Randomized, Sham Device-controlled, Double-blind Study.

Jimenez JJ, Wikramanayake TC, Bergfeld W, Hordinsky M, Hickman JG, Hamblin MR, Schachner LA

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 33136, USA, j.jimenez@med.miami.edu.

SIGNIFICANCE: Male and female pattern hair loss are common, chronic dermatologic disorders with limited therapeutic options. In recent years, a number of commercial devices using low-level laser therapy have been promoted, but there have been little peer-reviewed data on their efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment with a low-level laser device, the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb((R)), increases terminal hair density in both men and women with pattern hair loss. METHODS: Randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind clinical trials were conducted at multiple institutional and private practices. A total of 146 male and 188 female subjects with pattern hair loss were screened. A total of 128 male and 141 female subjects were randomized to receive either a lasercomb (one of three models) or a sham device in concealed sealed packets, and were treated on the whole scalp three times a week for 26 weeks. Terminal hair density of the target area was evaluated at baseline and at 16- and 26-week follow-ups, and analyzed to determine whether the hypothesis formulated prior to data collection, that lasercomb treatment would increase terminal hair density, was correct. The site investigators and the subjects remained blinded to the type of device they dispensed/received throughout the study. The evaluator of masked digital photographs was blinded to which trial arm the subject belonged. RESULTS: Seventy-eight, 63, 49, and 79 subjects were randomized in four trials of 9-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 12-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, compared with the sham device, respectively. Nineteen female and 25 male subjects were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 122 female and 103 male subjects in the efficacy analysis, the mean terminal hair count at 26 weeks increased from baseline by 20.2, 20.6, 18.4, 20.9, and 25.7 per cm(2) in 9-beam lasercomb-treated female subjects, 12-beam lasercomb-treated female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb-treated male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb-treated male subjects, respectively, compared with 2.8 (p < 0.0001), 3.0 (p < 0.0001), 1.6 (p = 0.0017), 9.4 (p = 0.0249), and 9.4 (p = 0.0028) in sham-treated subjects (95 % confidence interval). The increase in terminal hair density was independent of the age and sex of the subject and the lasercomb model. Additionally, a higher percentage of lasercomb-treated subjects reported overall improvement of hair loss condition and thickness and fullness of hair in self-assessment, compared with sham-treated subjects. No serious adverse events were reported in any subject receiving the lasercomb in any of the four trials. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: We observed a statistically significant difference in the increase in terminal hair density between lasercomb- and sham-treated subjects. No serious adverse events were reported. Our results suggest that low-level laser treatment may be an effective option to treat pattern hair loss in both men and women. Additional studies should be considered to determine the long-term effects of low-level laser treatment on hair growth and maintenance, and to optimize laser modality.

Am J Clin Dermatol 2014 Apr 15(2) 115-27

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24474647

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment.

Nimeri G, Kau CH, Corona R, Shelly J

Department of Orthodontics, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA. Department of Orthodontics, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA. Department of Orthodontics, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA. Department of Orthodontics, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of 850 nm and an intensity of 60 mW/cm(2) continuous wave. Twenty orthodontic patients were recruited for these experiments, all with class 1 malocclusion and with Little’s Irregularity Index (>2 mm) in either of the arches. Root resorption was detected by measuring changes in tooth length using cone beam computed tomography. These changes were measured before the orthodontic treatment and use of low-level laser therapy and after finishing the alignment level. Little’s Irregularity Index for all the patients was calculated in both the maxilla and mandible and patients were divided into three groups for further analysis, which were then compared to the root resorption measurements. Our results showed that photobiomodulation did not cause root resorption greater than the normal range that is commonly detected in orthodontic treatments. Furthermore, no correlation between Little’s Irregularity Index and root resorption was detected.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dent 2014 6 1-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24470774

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Efficacy of low-level laser therapy for accelerating tooth movement during orthodontic treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ge MK, He WL, Chen J, Wen C, Yin X, Hu ZA, Liu ZP, Zou SJ

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, 14 Section 3 South Ren Min Road, 610041, Chengdu, China.

This review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for accelerating tooth movement during orthodontic treatment. An extensive electronic search was conducted by two reviewers. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs concerning the efficacy of LLLT for accelerating tooth movement during orthodontic treatment were searched in CENTRAL, Medline, PubMed, Embase, China Biology Medicine Disc (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Google Scholar. Six RCTs and three quasi-RCTs, involving 211 patients from six countries, were selected from 173 relevant studies. All nine articles were feasible for the systematic review and meta-analysis, five of which were assessed as moderate risk of bias, while the rest were assessed as high risk of bias. The mean difference and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) of accumulative moved distance of teeth were observed among all the researches. The results showed that the LLLT could accelerate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in 7 days (mean difference 0.19, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.37], p = 0.03) and 2 months (mean difference 1.08, 95 % CI [0.16, 2.01], p = 0.02). Moreover, a relatively lower energy density (5 and 8 J/cm2) was seemingly more effective than 20 and 25 J/cm2 and even higher ones.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Feb 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24554452

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The effect of light-emitting diode photobiomodulation on implant stability and biochemical markers in peri-implant crevicular fluid.

Gokmenoglu C, Ozmeric N, Erguder I, Elgun S

1 Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ordu University , Ordu, Turkey .

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of light-emitting diode photomodulation (LED PBM) on implant osseointegration by measuring implant stability changes by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and measuring interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) levels in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF). BACKGROUND DATA: Light therapy modulates various biological events and allows improved wound healing in ischemic and wounded tissues. Methods: Fifteen patients (8 control, 7 LED) participated in the study. In the LED group, LED device at a wavelength of 626 nm in the near-infrared (NIR) region (treatment array area: 4.80 cm2; average intensity: 38.5 mW/cm2; total power: 185 mW; total energy: 222 J; average density: 46.2 J/cm2) was applied for 20 min over the surgical area during 3 weeks, three times in a week, starting from the operation day. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were recorded at the time of operation, and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. PICF samples were collected in postoperative weeks 4 and 12 and IL-1beta, TGF-beta, PGE2, and NO levels were evaluated. Clinical indices were recorded around implants in postoperative weeks 4 and 12. RESULTS: In the control group, significant reduction of ISQ values from week 2 to week 12 were demonstrated. In the LED group, baseline ISQ values were maintained during the study and no significant changes were observed. Changes in biochemical parameters were found to be similar between groups over time. However, in the LED group, a negative correlation was found between PGE2 and ISQ values. CONCLUSIONS: LED application to surgical area has a positive effect on the osseointegration process, and implant stability can be maintained.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Mar 32(3) 138-45

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24552468

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The last and fond farewell.

Ohshiro T

Laser Ther 2013 Dec 30 22(4) 241-3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24511200

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-Level Laser Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciitis: A Prospective Study.

Jastifer JR, Catena F, Doty JF, Stevens F, Coughlin MJ

Saint Alphonsus Coughlin Foot & Ankle Clinic, Boise, ID, USA.

BACKGROUND: Plantar fasciitis affects nearly 1 million people annually in the United States. Traditional nonoperative management is successful in about 90% of patients, usually within 10 months. Chronic plantar fasciitis develops in about 10% of patients and is a difficult clinical problem to treat. A newly emerging technology, low-level laser therapy (LLLT), has demonstrated promising results for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. METHODS: Thirty patients were administered LLLT and completed 12 months of follow-up. Patients were treated twice a week for 3 weeks for a total of 6 treatments and were evaluated at baseline, 2 weeks post procedure, and 6 and 12 months post procedure. Patients completed the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Foot Function Index (FFI) at study follow-up periods. RESULTS: Patients demonstrated a mean improvement in heel pain VAS from 67.8 out of 100 at baseline to 6.9 out of 100 at the 12-month follow-up period. Total FFI score improved from a mean of 106.2 at baseline to 32.3 at 12 months post procedure. CONCLUSION: Although further studies are warranted, this study shows that LLLT is a promising treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4, case series.

Foot Ankle Int 2014 Feb 7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24510123

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

High-intensity versus low-level laser therapy in the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

Kheshie AR, Alayat MS, Ali MM

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of this randomized controlled study was to compare the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) on pain relief and functional improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). A total of 53 male patients participated in this study, with a mean (SD) age of 54.6 (8.49) years. Patients were randomly assigned into three groups and treated with HILT and exercise (HILT + EX), LLLT and exercise (LLLT + EX), and placebo laser plus exercise (PL + EX) in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The outcomes measured were pain level measured by visual analog scale (VAS) and knee function measured by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Statistical analyses were performed to compare the differences between baseline and posttreatment measurements. The level of statistical significance was set as P < 0.05. The result showed that HILT and LLLT combined with exercise were effective treatment modalities in decreasing the VAS and WOMAC scores after 6 weeks of treatment. HILT combined with exercises was more effective than LLLT combined with exercises, and both treatment modalities were better than exercises alone in the treatment of patients with KOA.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Feb 1

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24487957

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Efficacy of red and infrared lasers in treatment of temporomandibular disorders–a double-blind, randomized, parallel clinical trial.

Pereira TS, Flecha OD, Guimaraes RC, de Oliveira D, Botelho AM, Ramos Gloria JC, Aguiar Tavano KT

AIM: Low-level laser therapy has still not been well established, and it is important to define a standardized protocol for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) using low level laser. There is no consensus on controlled clinical trials concerning the best option for laser therapy with regard to wavelength. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of red and infrared laser therapy in patients with TMD, using a randomized parallel-group double-blind trial. METHODOLOGY: Each hemiface of 19 subjects was randomized to receive intervention, in a total of 116 sensitive points. Pain was measured at baseline and time intervals of 24 hours, 30 days, 90 days, and 180 days after treatment. Irradiation of 4 J/cm2 in the temporomandibular joints and 8 J/cm(2) in the muscles was used in three sessions. RESULTS: Both treatments had statistically significant results (P<0.001); there was statistical difference between them at 180 days in favor of the infrared laser (P=0.039). There was improvement in 24 hours, which extended up to 180 days in both groups. CONCLUSION: Both lasers are effective in the treatment and remission of TMD symptoms.

Cranio 2014 Jan 32(1) 51-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24660647

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Therapeutic outcomes of low-level laser therapy for closed bone fracture in the human wrist and hand.

Chang WD, Wu JH, Wang HJ, Jiang JA

1 Department of Sports Medicine, China Medical University , Taichung City, Taiwan (R.O.C) .

Abstract Objective: The therapeutic outcomes of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on closed bone fractures (CBFs) in the wrist and hand were investigated in this controlled study. Background data: Animal research has confirmed that LLLT increases osteocyte quantity; however, little research has been conducted to determine the effect of LLLT on the treatment of human bone fractures. Methods: In this study, the therapeutic outcomes of administering 830 nm LLLT to treat CBFs in the wrist or hand were examined. Fifty patients with CBFs in the wrist and hand, who had not received surgical treatment, were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups. The laser group underwent a treatment program in which 830 nm LLLT (average power 60 mW, peak power 8 W, 10 Hz, 600 sec, and 9.7 J/cm(2) per fracture site) was administered five times per week for 2 weeks. Participants in a placebo group received sham laser treatment. The pain, functional disability, grip strength, and radiographic parameters of the participants were evaluated before and after treatment and at a 2-week follow-up. Results: After treatment and at the follow-up, the laser group exhibited significant changes in all of the parameters compared with the baseline (p<0.05). The results of comparing the two groups after treatment and at the follow-up indicated significant between-group differences among all of the parameters (p<0.05). Conclusions: LLLT can relieve pain and improve the healing process of CBFs in the human wrist and hand.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Apr 32(4) 212-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24649935

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Tooth movement in orthodontic treatment with low-level laser therapy: a systematic review of human and animal studies.

Carvalho-Lobato P, Garcia VJ, Kasem K, Ustrell-Torrent JM, Tallon-Walton V, Manzanares-Cespedes MC

1 Human Anatomy and Embryology Unit, HUBc, University of Barcelona , Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract Objective: This review attempts to organize the existing published literature regarding tooth movement in orthodontic treatment when low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is applied. Background data: The literature discusses different methods that have been developed to motivate the remodeling and decrease the duration of orthodontic treatment. The application of LLLT has been introduced to favor the biomechanics of tooth movements. However there is disagreement between authors as to whether LLLT reduces orthodontic treatment time, and the parameters that are used vary. Materials and methods: Studies in humans and animals in which LLLT was applied to increase the dental movement were reviewed. Three reviewers selected the articles. The resulting studies were analyzed according to the parameters used in the application of laser and existing changes clinically and histopathologically. Results: Out of 84 studies, 5 human studies were selected in which canine traction had been performed after removing a premolar, and 11 studies in rats were selected in which first premolar traction was realized. There were statistically significant changes in four human studies and eight animal studies. Conclusions: Varying the wavelength with a reasonable dose in the target zone leads to obtaining the desired biological effect and achieving a reduction of the orthodontic treatment time, although there are studies that do not demonstrate any benefit according to their values.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 May 32(5) 302-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24628587

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser therapy and photosensitive medication: a review of the evidence.

Kerstein RL, Lister T, Cole R

Salisbury District Hospital, Odstock Road, Salisbury, SP2 8BQ, UK, ryan.kerstein@gmail.com.

In the 2009 guidelines from the BMLA, the use of non-essential aesthetic lasers was contraindicated in patients receiving medication that causes whole-body photosensitisation as well as those causing local light sensitisation. Following this and anecdotal advice, many laser centres refuse to treat patients who are on known photosensitive medication. Therefore, specific patient cohorts that would benefit from laser therapy are being denied because of medications, such as long-term antibiotics for chronic facial acne. This article reviews the published literature on lasers and photosensitive medications, the mechanisms of photosensitivity and the role of laser in its production. The aim is to analyse the available evidence regarding adverse reactions to laser treatment related to photosensitive medication. A PubMed review of published article titles and abstracts was performed using the search term Laser with each of the following terms individually: photosensitive, photosensitiser, photosensitizer, phototoxicity, photoallergy, complications, case-report, tetracycline, minocycline, amiodarone, nitrofurantoin and medication. Four publications were identified, none of which reported any complication in the use of laser in patients taking photosensitising medication. As there are no published accounts of adverse effects of laser in patients with photosensitive medication, we performed a review of the mechanism of photosensitivity by compiling a list of photosensitive medication and the peak wavelength of radiation required to activate the drug. We recommend a national database of drugs and the wavelengths causing photosensitive reactions of each which a laser department can access prior to treatment.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Mar 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24590242

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcers – a sham controlled, split mouth follow up study.

Aggarwal H, Singh MP, Nahar P, Mathur H, Gv S

Private Practitioner, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Pacific Dental College and Hospital , Udaipur, Rajasthan, India . Professor and HOD, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Pacific Dental College and Hospital , Udaipur, Rajasthan, India . Professor, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Pacific Dental College and Hospital , Udaipur, Rajasthan, India . Senior Lecturer, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Pacific Dental College and Hospital , Udaipur, Rajasthan, India . Senior Lecturer, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Dental Sciences , Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India .

Introduction: Apthous ulcers, commonly referred to as canker sores, are the most common ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa. These are usually painful and are associated with redness, and occasional bleeding from the affected area(s). The aims of treatment are to reduce pain and healing time. Aims: To assess clinically the efficacy of Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on recurrent aphthous ulcers for reduction of pain, lesion size, and healing time and to compare the results with those of a sham control group. Settings and Design: A total of 30 patients who presented with two separate aphthous ulcers were included in the study. Each lesion was randomly allotted to either the active treatment group or the sham control group. Materials and Methods: Lesions which were included in the active group were treated with LLLT in a single sitting, which was divided into four sessions. Lesions in the sham control group were subjected to similar treatment without activating the LASER unit. Each patient was evaluated for pain, lesion size, and complete healing at the following intervals; immediately post LLLT and one day, two days, and three days follow up. Statistical Analysis : The Student’s t-test was used for statistical evaluation of the data. Results: Complete resolution of the ulcers in the active group was 3.05 +/- 1.10 days as compared to 8.90 +/- 2.45 days in the sham control group. Immediately, post the LLLT application, complete pain relief was observed in 28 of the 30 patients of the active group. Conclusion: LLLT was effective in relieving pain and reducing the healing time during the treatment of aphthous ulcers.

J Clin Diagn Res 2014 Feb 8(2) 218-21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24701539

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Cost-effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in head and neck cancer patients submitted to concurrent chemoradiation

H.S. Antunes1, D. Herchenhorn2, I. Small1, C. Araujo3, E. Cabral4, M. Rampini1, P. Rodrigues5, T. Silva4, E. Ferreira6, F. Dias7, N. Teich8, V. Teich9, L. Schluckebier1, C. Ferreira1

1Coordination of Clinical Research, Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2Clinical Oncology Division, Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3Radiotherapy Division, Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4Nursing Division, Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 5Therapy and Technology Development Section, Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 6Oral Medicine, Clínicas Oncológica Integradas (COI), Rio de Janeiro, Bra- zil, 7Head and Neck Surgery Division, Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 8Education and Research Institute, Clínicas Oncológica Integradas (COI), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 9De- cisions in Health Care, Medinsight, São Paulo, Brazil

Introduction: Oral mucositis is a main factor for increasing treatment costs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with chemoradiation (CRT) Objectives: This study was designed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of LLLT to prevent oral mucositis in HNSCC patients submitted to CRT. Methods: From June 2007 to Dec 2010, 94 patients with HNSCC of nasopharynx, oropharynx and hipopharynx entered a prospective, ran- domized, double blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial (47 LLLT (LG) and 47 placebo (PG)). CRT consisted of conventional RT 70.2 Gy (1.8Gy/d, 5 times/week) + concurrent cisplatin 100 mg/m2 every 3 week. The LLLT used daily was a diode InGaAlP (660 nm- 100 mW-4 J/cm2). The cost per laser session was US$ 34.00 for the baseline analysis.. Hospitalization rates associated with the treatment of oropharyngeal or oral mucositis were not documented in the study and were estimated according to previously published data. Results: Under the perspective of the Brazilian public healthcare system (SUS), total costs were higher in PG than LG on opioide use (LG = US$ 29.45; PG = US$143.72, gastrostomy (LG = US$ 41.69; PG = US$107.22) and hospitalization (PG = US$ 63.59). In LG costs were higher with laser therapy (US$ 1.549,50). The total incremental cost associated with the use of LLLT was US$ 1.306,61 per patient. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was US$ 3.838,16 per case of grade 3–4 mucositis avoided when compared with no treatment. Conclusions: Our results indicate that laser group had a smaller morbidity during treatment and LLLT is cost-effective when compared to pacebo under a threshold of at least US$ 4,000 per avoided mucositis case.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?Db=pubmed&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=23604519

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

A randomized clinical trial of the effect of low-level laser therapy before composite placement on postoperative sensitivity in class V restorations.

Moosavi H, Maleknejad F, Sharifi M, Ahrari F

Dental Materials Research Center, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Vakilabad Boulevard, Mashhad, Iran.

This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of low-level laser irradiation when applied just before placement of resin composite on reducing postoperative sensitivity of class V lesions. In this randomized clinical trial, 31 patients with 62 class V cavities were included (two teeth in each participant). The teeth were randomly assigned into laser and placebo groups. After cavity preparation, the teeth in the experimental group were subjected to irradiation from a low-power red laser (630 nm, 28 mW, continuous wave, 60 s, 1.68 J), which was applied for 1 min on the axial wall of the cavity. In the control group, the same procedure was performed but with laser simulation. Then, a self-etch adhesive was applied and the cavities were restored with a microhybrid resin composite. Before treatment and on days 1, 14, and 30 after treatment, tooth sensitivity to a cold stimulus was recorded using a visual analogue scale. Data were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (p < 0.05). Pain scores after restorative procedures were significantly lower in the laser group compared to the placebo application (p < 0.05). Although both groups experienced a significant improvement in pain and discomfort throughout the follow-up periods (p < 0.001), the changes in visual analogue scale (VAS) scores between baseline and each follow-up examination were significantly greater in the laser than the placebo group (p < 0.05). Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) before placement of resin composite could be suggested as a suitable approach to reduce postoperative sensitivity in class V restorations.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 May 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24811085

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy to treat fibromyalgia.

Ruaro JA, Frez AR, Ruaro MB, Nicolau RA

Physical Therapy Department, Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR, Brazil, joaoruaro@gmail.com.

Several clinical treatments have been proposed to manage symptoms of fibromyalgia. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may be a useful tool to treat this dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LLLT in patients with fibromyalgia. A placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was carried out with 20 patients divided randomly into either an LLLT group (n = 10) or a placebo group (n = 10). The LLLT group was treated with a GaAlAs laser (670 nm, 4 J/cm2 on 18 tender points) three times a week over 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, patients were evaluated with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), McGill Pain Questionnaire, and visual analog scale (VAS). Data from the FIQ and McGill questionnaire for the treated and control groups were analyzed by paired t tests, and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze data from the VAS. After LLLT or sham treatment, the number of tender points was significantly reduced in both groups (LLLT, p < 0.0001; placebo, p = 0.0001). However, all other fibromyalgia symptoms showed significant improvements after LLLT compared to placebo (FIQ, p = 0.0003; McGill, p = 0.0078; and VAS, p = 0.0020). LLLT provided relief from fibromyalgia symptoms in patients and should be further investigated as a therapeutic tool for management in fibromyalgia.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 May 7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24801056

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Tooth movement in orthodontic treatment systematic review omitted significant articles.

Carroll JD

THOR Photomedicine Ltd , Chesham, United Kingdom .

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 May 32(5) 310-1

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24786132

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of pre- or post-exercise low-level laser therapy (830 nm) on skeletal muscle fatigue and biochemical markers of recovery in humans: double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

Dos Reis FA, da Silva BA, Laraia EM, de Melo RM, Silva PH, Leal-Junior EC, de Carvalho Pde T

1 Department of Physiotherapy, University Anhanguera-Uniderp , Campo Grande, MS, Brazil .

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) before and after exercise on quadriceps muscle performance, and to evaluate the changes in serum lactate and creatine kinase (CK) levels. METHODS: The study was randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled. PATIENTS: A sample of 27 healthy volunteers (male soccer players) were divided into three groups: placebo, pre-fatigue laser, and post-fatigue laser. The experiment was performed in two sessions, with a 1 week interval between them. Subjects performed two sessions of stretching followed by blood collection (measurement of lactate and CK) at baseline and after fatigue of the quadriceps by leg extension. LLLT was applied to the femoral quadriceps muscle using an infrared laser device (830 nm), 0.0028 cm(2) beam area, six 60 mW diodes, energy of 0.6 J per diode (total energy to each limb 25.2 J (50.4 J total), energy density 214.28 J/cm(2), 21.42 W/cm(2) power density, 70 sec per leg. We measured the time to fatigue and number and maximum load (RM) of repetitions tolerated. Number of repetitions and time until fatigue were primary outcomes, secondary outcomes included serum lactate levels (measured before and 5, 10, and 15 min after exercise), and CK levels (measured before and 5 min after exercise). RESULTS: The number of repetitions (p=0.8965), RM (p=0.9915), and duration of fatigue (p=0.8424) were similar among the groups. Post-fatigue laser treatment significantly decreased the serum lactate concentration relative to placebo treatment (p<0.01) and also within the group over time (after 5 min vs. after 10 and 15 min, p
Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Feb 32(2) 106-12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24456143

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The synergy between lasers and adipose tissues surgery in cervicofacial rejuvenation: histopathological aspects.

Nita AC, Jianu DM, Florescu IP, Filipescu M, Cobani O, Jianu SA, Chirita DA, Bold A

“Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Aesthetic Surgery, ProEstetica Medical Center, Bucharest, Romania; djianu02@gmail.com.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nowadays patients want a long-lasting youthful appearance but through a less invasive approach. Our unique approach, “AdipoLASER reJuvenation (ALJ)”, involves a variety of less invasive techniques based on simultaneous laser resurfacing, and lipolysis together with adipose tissue graft and redistribution. Recently, we added to this platelet-rich plasma therapy. We conducted a study aiming to emphasize the histopathological changes occurred following these procedures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2011-2012, we included 50 patients that were preparing for abdominoplasty (tummy tuck) in which we applied ALJ procedures, in two comparative zones of inferior abdomen. Histological examination varied from 10 days to four months, according to the time of the abdominoplasty. RESULTS: There was a notable histological difference between stimulated and non-stimulated fat graft regarding adipose cells structure and number, neocollagenesis, and dermal matrix remodeling. CONCLUSIONS: The low level laser therapy effect (LLLT) of the fractional CO2 laser combined with the effect of the growth factors derived from activated platelets (PRP) prolonged the life and improved the take of the facial fat graft, increase collagen formation and lead to a better remodeling of the dermal matrix. This unique surgical combination of all four approaches in our ALJ with additional PRP offers a real less invasive but strongly visible – yet natural result – as an alternative to the classic facelift.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2013 54(4) 1039-43

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24398999

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Ultrasound and Laser as Stand-Alone Therapies for Myofascial Trigger Points: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

Manca A, Limonta E, Pilurzi G, Ginatempo F, De Natale ER, Mercante B, Tolu E, Deriu F

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ultrasound (US) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) are commonly employed for myofascial trigger points (MTP) despite lack of evidence for usage as stand-alone treatments. The aim of the study was to determine, on MTP of the upper trapezius muscle (uTM), the effects of US and LLLT per se, as delivered in accordance with the procedures reported by surveys about their usage among physiotherapists. METHODS: Design was set as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Sixty participants with at least one active MTP in uTM (28 women and 32 men; mean age 24.5 +/- 1.44 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to one out of five groups: active US (n = 12), placebo US (n = 12), active LLLT (n = 11), placebo LLLT (n = 11) and no therapy (control, n = 14). The participants and outcome assessor were blinded to the group assignment and therapy delivered. Three outcome measures were assessed at baseline, after a 2-week treatment and 12 weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up): pressure pain threshold, subjective pain on a numerical rating scale and muscle extensibility performing a cervical lateral flexion. All subjects assigned to the intervention groups were treated five times weekly for overall 10 treatments given. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare differences before and after intervention and among groups at each time-point. RESULTS: After the 2-week intervention, all groups showed pressure pain threshold, numerical rating scale and cervical lateral flexion significant improvements (p < 0.05), which were confirmed at the follow-up. When performing multiple comparisons, controls scored significantly less than both the active therapies and placebos, whereas no differences were detected between active therapies and placebos. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound and LLLT provided significant improvements in pain and muscle extensibility, which were superior to no therapy but not to placebos, thus raising concerns about the suitability, both economically and ethically, of administering such common physical modalities as stand-alone treatments in active MTP of the uTM. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Physiother Res Int 2014 Jan 2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24382836

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Efficacy of cryotherapy associated with laser therapy for decreasing severity of melphalan-induced oral mucositis during hematological stem-cell transplantation: a prospective clinical study.

de Paula Eduardo F, Bezinelli LM, da Graca Lopes RM, Nascimento Sobrinho JJ, Hamerschlak N, Correa L

Unit of Bone Marrow Transplantation, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Melphalan followed by hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is the standard treatment for multiple myeloma and other hematopoietic neoplasms. However, high doses of melphalan cause severe oral mucositis (OM). The objective was to verify the efficacy of cryotherapy plus laser therapy on reduction of OM severity. HSCT patients undergoing melphalan chemotherapy (n = 71) were randomly divided into two groups according to OM treatment: oral cryotherapy performed with ice chips for 1 h 35 min followed by low-level laser therapy (InGaAIP, 660 nm, 40 mW, 6 J/cm2 ) (n = 54) and laser therapy alone with the same protocol (n = 17). A control group (n = 33) was composed of HSCT patients treated with melphalan who received no specific treatment for OM. OM scores and clinical information were collected from D0 to D + 11. The cryotherapy/laser therapy group showed the lowest OM scores (maximum Grade I) and the lowest mean number of days (8 days) with OM in comparison with the other groups (p < 0.001). OM Grades III and IV were present with high frequency only in the control group. The association of cryotherapy with laser therapy was effective in reducing OM severity in HSCT patients who underwent melphalan conditioning. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hematol Oncol 2014 Feb 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24519448

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effectiveness of occlusal splints and low-level laser therapy on myofascial pain.

Demirkol N, Sari F, Bulbul M, Demirkol M, Simsek I, Usumez A

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey, dt_nerminhamdemirci@hotmail.com.

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser (Nd:YAG) therapy and occlusal splints in patients with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) characterized with myofascial pain (MP). A total of 30 patients were selected after being diagnosed with MP according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TDM). The patients were divided into three groups. The first group was occlusal splint (OS) group A (n = 10), the second was low-level laser therapy (LLLT) group B (n = 10), and the last group C was placebo (n = 10). LLLT (1,064 nm, 8 j/cm2, 250 mW, Fotona) was applied to the patients in the study group once a day for 10 days, for a total of ten sessions. The same parameters and application times were used for placebo group, but the patients were not irradiated. The application was on the trigger points. The patients in the OS group were instructed to wear occlusal splints 12 h/day for 3 weeks. Functional examination was based on RDC/TDM, and pressure pain values were obtained with the Visual Analog Scale. Comparisons were made between the groups before and after the treatment according to Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The pain score values decreased significantly after both LLLT (p < 0.05) and occlusal splint therapy (p < 0.05) compared to placebo group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between LLLT and OS groups after treatment (p > 0.05). OS and LLLT are effective for decreasing MP. In addition, this particular type of LLLT is as effective as occlusal splint for pain relief.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Feb 7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24504660

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of low-level laser on guided tissue regeneration performed with equine bone and membrane in the treatment of intrabony defects: a clinical study.

Emrem Dogan G, Demir T, Orbak R

Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ataturk University , Erzurum Turkey .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical results of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) after the application of equine bone and membrane alone or combined with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for the treatment of periodontal defects. Materials and methods: This study was an intra-individual longitudinal study of 6 months’ duration conducted using a split-mouth and randomized design. In 13 periodontitis patients with bilateral intrabony periodontal defects, while one defect site was treated with GTR plus LLLT (1064 nm, 100 mW, with energy density of 4 J/cm(2)), the contralateral defect site was treated with guided GTR alone. GTR was performed with a combination of equine bone and membrane. LLLT was used both intra- and postoperatively. Clinical probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), clinical gingival recession level (REC), plaque index (PI) score, and sulcus blooding index (SBI) score were recorded at the time of surgery, and at the 3rd and 6th months after operation. Results: The treatment of periodontal intrabony defects with equine bone and membrane in the operation of GTR alone or GTR plus LLLT in combination led to statistically significant PPD reduction, CAL gain, and lower SBI score at the end of the study (p<0.05). In addition, between the two groups, GTR plus LLLT resulted in statistically significant lower REC (p=0.025), lower SBI (p=0.008) score, more reduction of PPD (p=0.009) and CAL gain (p=0.002) compared with GTR alone at 6th month control. Conclusions: This study showed that GTR is an effective treatment for periodontal regeneration, and that LLLT may improve the effects of GTR in the treatment of periodontal defects.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Apr 32(4) 226-31

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24661107

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy for management of TMJ osteoarthritis.

Madani AS, Ahrari F, Nasiri F, Abtahi M, Tuner J

AIMS: This study investigated the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for the management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. METHODOLOGY: In a double-blind clinical trial, 20 patients with TMJ osteoarthritis were randomly divided into laser and placebo groups. The patients in the laser group received irradiation from an 810 nm low-level laser (Peak power 80 W, average power 50 mW, 1500 Hz, 1 micro s pulse width, 120 seconds, 6 J, 3.4 J/cm(2) per point), which was applied on four points around the TMJs and on painful muscles three times a week for 4 weeks. In the placebo group, the treatment was the same as that in the laser group, but with laser simulation. The patients were evaluated before laser therapy (T1), after 6 (T2) and 12 (T3) laser applications and 1 month after the last application (T4), and the amount of mouth opening and the pain intensity were recorded. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in mouth opening either between the study groups or between the different evaluation times in each group (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in pain symptoms of the masticatory muscles and TMJ between the laser and the placebo groups (P>0.05), but some significant within-group improvements were present for Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores of the body of the masseter and TMJ in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT using the present laser parameters was no more effective than the placebo treatment for reducing pain and improving mouth opening in patients with TMJ osteoarthritis.

Cranio 2014 Jan 32(1) 38-44

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24660645

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Five-day, low-level laser therapy for sports-related lower extremity periostitis in adult men: a randomized, controlled trial.

Chang CC, Ku CH, Hsu WC, Hu YA, Shyu JF, Chang ST

Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Periostitis in the lower leg caused by overexercise is a universal problem in athletes and runners. The purpose of this study was to observe the functional improvement of the lower limbs upon rehabilitation low-level laser therapy (LLLT). All medical data were gathered from enrolled adults with sports-related lower leg pain. A total of 54 patients underwent triple-phase bone scans using skeletal nuclear scintigraphy, which confirmed periostitis in their lower limbs. The patients were then randomly divided into two groups: one group received laser therapy (N = 29) and the other group (N = 25) received an equivalent placebo treatment (a drug or physical therapy). Treatment protocol commenced with rehabilitation intervention and LLLT was performed three times daily for 5 days at a dosage of 1.4 J/cm2. A Likert-type pain scale was used to evaluate the severity of pain. Balance function, including postural stability testing (PST) and limits of stability (LOS), was also performed to evaluate the function outcome. Patients experienced a significant improvement in pain by day 2 or day 5 after starting LLLT, but here was no significant difference in pain scale between the measurements before (baseline) and after LLLT. Comparing the PST, the group differences of dynamic vs. static testings ranged from -18.54 to -50.22 (compared 12, 8, 4, 3, 2, 1 to 0, all p < 0.0001), and the PST after LLLT were 3.73 units (p = 0.0258) lower than those of before LLLT. Comparing the LOS, the group differences of dynamic vs. static testing were similar to those in PST, and the relationship between LOS and groups only varied with the direction control during dynamic testing in direction at backward/right vs. right (p < 0.0001). LLLT had a positive effect on proprioception in patients with lower limb periostitis. Larger, better controlled studies are needed to determine what specific effects LLLT has on the function of proprioception.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Mar 13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24622816

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser effect in patients with neurosensory impairment of mandibular nerve after sagittal split ramus osteotomy. Randomized clinical trial, controlled by placebo.

Fuhrer-Valdivia A, Noguera-Pantoja A, Ramirez-Lobos V, Sole-Ventura P

Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Odontologia, Monsenor Alvaro del Portillo N 12.455, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile, drpedrosole@gmail.com.

Objective: Evaluate the effect on the application of low level laser therapy, in patients that have been previously intervened with a sagittal ramus split osteotomy and present neurosensory impairment due to this surgery, compared with placebo. Study Design: This preliminary study is a randomized clinical trial, with an experimental group (n=17) which received laser light and a control group (n=14), placebo. All participants received laser applications, divided after surgery in days 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 14, 21 and 28. Neurosensory impairment was evaluated clinically with 5 tests; visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and sensitivity, directional and 2 point discrimination, thermal discrimination, each one of them performed before and after surgery on day 1, and 1, 2 and 6 months. Participants and results evaluator were blinded to intervention. Variables were described with absolute frequencies, percentages and medians. Ordinal and dichotomous variables were compared with Mann Whitney’s and Fisher’s test respectively. Results: Results demonstrate clinical improvement in time, as well as in magnitude of neurosensory return for laser group; VAS for sensitivity reached 5 (normal), 10 participants recovered initial values for 2 point discrimination (62,5%) and 87,5% recovered directional discrimination at 6 months after surgery. General VAS for sensitivity showed 68,75% for laser group, compared with placebo 21,43% (p-value = (0.0095)). Left side sensitivity (VAS) showed 3.25 and 4 medians for placebo and laser at 2 months, respectively (p-value = (0.004)). Conclusion: Low-level laser therapy was beneficial for this group of patients on recovery of neurosensory impairment of mandibular nerve, compared to a placebo.

Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2014 Mar 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24608207

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Clinical and scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser therapy for treating dentine hypersensitivity: short-term, randomised, controlled study.

Yilmaz HG, Bayindir H

Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Near East University, Mersin 10, Turkey.

Er,Cr:YSGG laser is a rising treatment option for dentine hypersensitivity (DH). However, there is no data available concerning the scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation of the clinical application of Er,Cr:YSGG laser in the treatment of DH. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the desensitising and tubule occlusion effects of Er,Cr:YSGG laser with different power settings. Twenty patients (60 teeth) participated in this study. For each patient, teeth were randomised to 3 groups. In groups 1 and 2, patients were treated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 0.25 and 0.5 W, respectively. In control group, same laser was applied without laser emission. DH was assessed for all groups with a visual analogue scale (VAS). When compared with the baseline data and control group, in both active treatment groups laser irradiation provided a desensitising effect immediately after treatment (P < 0.001). In group 2, VAS scores were significantly lower than group 1. The tubule diameters in the both laser groups were significantly smaller than the control group (P < 0.01). When group 1 compared with group 2, group 2 showed significantly smaller tubule diameters (P < 0.001). Both 0.25 and 0.5 W laser irradiation were effective for the treatment of DH; however, 0.5 W laser irradiation showed best results for the decrease in VAS scores. The SEM findings of the reduction in number/patency of dentine tubules seem to be related to the clinical findings, which were associated with improvement in treatment efficacy.

J Oral Rehabil 2014 May 41(5) 392-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24602082

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and pain management with low-level laser therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

Albrektson M, Hedstrom L, Bergh H

Public Dental Services Varberg, Varberg, Sweden. Public Dental Services Varberg, Varberg, Sweden. Electronic address: lennart.hedstrom@regionhalland.se. Research & Development Unit, County of Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has an analgesic effect in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). STUDY DESIGN: A randomized single-blinded placebo-controlled trial was conducted with LLLT (wavelength, 809 nm; power, 60 mW; pulse frequency, 1800 Hz; duration, 80 seconds per treatment; dose, 6.3 J/cm(2)) in 40 patients with RAS. The intervention group was treated with LLLT on 3 occasions, with a 1-day interval. The control group was treated similarly, without any laser power. Pain perception (visual analog scale [VAS] rating) and patients’ experience of eating, drinking, and brushing teeth was registered. RESULTS: VAS rating decreased (day 0 until day 2) from 84.7 to 31.5 (LLLT) and from 81.7 to 76.1 (placebo) (P < .0001). LLLT also relieved the difficulty of drinking, eating, and brushing teeth. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT reduced the pain and the inconvenience of eating, drinking, and brushing teeth for patients with RAS, compared with placebo.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2014 May 117(5) 590-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24725989

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[The influence of laser therapy on selected functional parameters of patients with spondyloarthrosis of the lower section of the spine].

Zdrodowska B, Leszczynska-Filus M, Leszczynski R, Blaszczyk J

Spondyloarthrosis is a quickly growing disease in highly civilized communities. It is one of the most frequent causes for movement limitations and is listed as the main reason for the incapacitation for work among people of the working age. The following symptoms can be observed in patients with spondyloarthrosis: pain, limited spine mobility, increased muscle tone. Chronic pain and the associated limitation of movement underlie the quest for an effective therapy. Using laser therapy as part of physical therapy prompts research into the effectiveness of the measure in patients with spondyloarthrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of laser therapy on spondyloarthrosis of the lumbar spine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 60 patients suffering from chronic low back pain, diagnosed with a lumbar disc herniation with no nerve root symptoms, received laser therapy (820 nm, 400 mW, 6-12 J/cm2. Every patient underwent examinations before and after rehabilitation. Subjective pain assessment was carried out using a modified Laitinen questionnaire and visual analogue scale of pain intensity. Spine mobility was evaluated using Schober’s test and the fingertip-to-floor-test. The obtained results were subject to a statistical analysis. RESULTS: Laser therapy was effective in the therapy of lumbar disc herniation. The results of the analysis showed that the intensity and frequency of pain decreased, as well as the use of painkillers. A vast improvement in global spine mobility and lumbosacral flexion and extension could be observed, too. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed a slight analgesic effect and a substantial increase in spine mobility through laser biostimulation.

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2014 Feb 36(212) 101-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24720105

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Does low-level laser therapy decrease swelling and pain resulting from orthognathic surgery?

Gasperini G, Rodrigues de Siqueira IC, Rezende Costa L

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Goias, Goiania, Goias, Brazil. Electronic address: gasperinibuco@gmail.com. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Goias, Goiania, Goias, Brazil. Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Goias, Goiania, Goias, Brazil.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) could be an alternative for the treatment of swelling and pain after orthognathic surgery, but there is a paucity of data in the literature on the effects of its use. This study verified the efficacy of an LLLT protocol to reduce swelling and pain after orthognathic surgery. Ten healthy patients who underwent a bilateral sagittal split with Le Fort I osteotomy were randomly selected for this study. The LLLT protocol consisted of intraoral and extraoral application to one side of the face after surgery (irradiated side); application to the other side was simulated (non-irradiated side). The irradiated and non-irradiated sides were compared regarding the swelling coefficient and were assessed for pain using a visual analogue scale. There were no significant differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides regarding swelling and pain in the immediate postoperative assessment. Swelling decreased significantly on the irradiated side in the postoperative assessments on days 3, 7, 15, and 30. Self-reported pain was less intense on the irradiated side at the 24-h (1.2 vs. 3.4) and 3-day (0.6 vs. 2.1) assessments, but at 7 days after surgery neither side showed pain. This LLLT protocol can improve the tissue response and reduce the pain and swelling resulting from orthognathic surgery.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014 Mar 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24679851

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Adjunctive use of combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes phototherapy on nonspecific knee pain: double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Leal-Junior EC, Johnson DS, Saltmarche A, Demchak T

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Rua Vergueiro 235, 01504-001, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, ernesto.leal.junior@gmail.com.

Phototherapy with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) has arisen as an interesting alternative to drugs in treatments of musculoskeletal disorders. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the effects of combined use of different wavelengths from different light sources like lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in skeletal muscle disorders. With this perspective in mind, this study aimed to investigate the effects of phototherapy with combination of different light sources on nonspecific knee pain. It was performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Eighty-six patients rated 30 or greater on the pain visual analogue scale (VAS) were recruited and included in study. Patients of LLLT group received 12 treatments with active phototherapy (with 905 nm super-pulsed laser and 875 and 640 nm LEDs, Manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical, Solon, OH, USA) and conventional treatment (physical therapy or chiropractic care), and patients of placebo group were treated at same way but with placebo phototherapy device. Pain assessments (VAS) were performed at baseline, 4th, 7th, and 10th treatments, after the completion of treatments and at 1-month follow-up visit. Quality of life assessments (SF-36(R)) were performed at baseline, after the completion of treatments and at 1-month follow-up visit. Our results demonstrate that phototherapy significantly decreased pain (p < 0.05) from 10th treatment to follow-up assessments and significantly improved (p < 0.05) SF-36(R) physical component summary at posttreatments and follow-up assessments compared to placebo. We conclude that combination of super-pulsed laser, red and infrared LEDs is effective to decrease pain and improve quality of life in patients with knee pain.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 May 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24844921

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The influence of Multiwave Locked System (MLS) laser therapy on clinical features, microcirculatory abnormalities and selected modulators of angiogenesis in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon.

Kuryliszyn-Moskal A, Kita J, Dakowicz A, Chwiesko-Minarowska S, Moskal D, Kosztyla-Hojna B, Jablonska E, Klimiuk PA

Department of Rehabilitation, Medical University of Bialystok, M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 24A, 15-276, Bialystok, Poland, akuryl@umb.edu.pl.

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the Multiwave Locked System (MLS) laser therapy on clinical features, microvascular changes in nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) and circulating modulators releasing as a consequence of vascular endothelium injury such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) in patients with primary and secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon. Seventy-eight RP patients and 30 healthy volunteers were recruited into the study. All patients with RP received MLS laser irradiation for 3 weeks. Clinical, NVC and laboratory investigations were performed before and after the MLS laser therapy. The serum concentration of VEGF and Ang-2 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After 3 weeks of MLS laser therapy, the clinical improvement manifested by decreasing of the number of RP attacks, mean duration of Raynaud’s attack and pain intensity in RP patients was observed. After MLS laser therapy in 65 % of patients with primary and in 35 % with secondary RP, an increase in the loop number and/or a reduction in avascular areas in NVC were observed. In comparison with a control group, higher serum concentration of VEGF and Ang-2 in RP patients was demonstrated. After MLS laser therapy, a reduction of Ang-2 in both groups of RP patients was found. Our results suggest that NVC may reflect microvascular changes associated with clinical improvement after MLS laser therapy in patients with primary and secondary RP. Ang-2 serum levels may be a useful marker of microvascular abnormalities in RP patients treated with MLS laser therapy.

Clin Rheumatol 2014 May 13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24820143

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Class IV laser therapy as treatment for chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in onco-haematological paediatric patients: a prospective study.

Chermetz M, Gobbo M, Ronfani L, Ottaviani G, Zanazzo GA, Verzegnassi F, Treister NS, Di Lenarda R, Biasotto M, Zacchigna S

Division of Oral Medicine and Pathology, Department of Dental Science, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

BACKGROUND: Oral mucositis is a debilitating side effect of chemotherapy. Laser therapy has recently demonstrated efficacy in the management of oral mucositis (OM). AIM: This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of class IV laser therapy in patients affected by OM. DESIGN: Eighteen onco-haematological paediatric patients receiving chemotherapy and/or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, prior to total body irradiation, affected by OM, were enrolled in this study. Patients were treated with class IV laser therapy for four consecutive days; the assessment of OM was performed through WHO Oral Mucositis Grading Objective Scale, and pain was evaluated through visual analogue scale. Patients completed a validated questionnaire, and photographs of lesions were taken during each session. Patients were re-evaluated 11 days after the first day of laser therapy. RESULTS: All patients demonstrated improvement in pain sensation, and all mucositis was fully resolved at the 11-day follow-up visit, with no apparent side effects. Laser therapy was well tolerated with remarkable reduction in pain associated with oral mucositis after 1-2 days of laser therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Given class IV laser therapy appears to be safe, non-invasive, and potentially effective, prospective, randomized, controlled trials are necessary to further assess efficacy and to determine optimal treatment parameters.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2013 Dec 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24372909

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

“Cold” X5 Hairlaser used to treat male androgenic alopecia and hair growth: an uncontrolled pilot study.

Blum K, Han D, Madigan MA, Lohmann R, Braverman ER

Department of Psychiatry and McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA. drd2gene@gmail.com.

BACKGROUND: Various trials have been conducted on the management and treatment of androgenic alopecia (AGA) or male pattern hair loss using a variety of laser and light sources. METHODS: For this feasibility study, the population was composed of males between the ages of 20 and 60 years who have been experiencing active hair loss within the last 12 months and the diagnosis of AGA. They also had a Norwood-Hamilton classification of 3, 3A, 3 V, 4, 4A, or 5 for the hair thinning patterns and skin type I, II, III, or IV on the Fitzpatrick skin type scale. This two-arm randomized, parallel group study design employed stratifying randomization to balance treatment assignment within three investigational centers with at least 2 subjects enrolled in each Fitzpatrick skin type. RESULTS: A statistically significant positive trend in hair growth was observed from this pilot study, to evaluate the efficacy of the novel cold X5 hairlaser device for treating male androgenic alopecia. From the repeated measures analysis of variance, difference in mean hair counts over time was statistically significant (F = 7.70; p-value < 0.0001). Subsequent, linear regression of mean hair counts at each time point was performed, and post-hoc analysis found an increasing trend of hair growth over time that was statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001) with the estimated slope of 1.406. Increased hair counts from the baseline to the end of the 26-week period were found to be strongly significant (p-value = 0.0003). CONCLUSION: Albeit, sham device failure and resultant missing data from the control group, the positive trend hair growth, was observed due to the chronic use of X5hairlaser device. This positive benefit while in full agreement with other low laser hair devices requires intensive further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02067260.

BMC Res Notes 2014 7 103

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24559020

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Application of a diode laser in the reduction of targeted periodontal pathogens.

Gojkov-Vukelic M, Hadzic S, Dedic A, Konjhodzic R, Beslagic E

Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Institute of Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology, Clinical center of Sarajevo University, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

INTRODUCTION: Periodontal disease belongs to a group of diseases with more than one cause, it is a disease of a multifactorial etiology. Although bacteria are the main cause of the disease, immunoinflammatory reaction of the host is responsible for the majority of destructive changes in periodontal tissue. The main issue in the evaluation of the success of periodontal therapy is the pluralism of the bacteria and their dynamic changes during the duration, on the one hand, and the possible inaccuracy of classical microbiological analysis in determination of the dominant role of a microorganism, or the success of its reduction or elimination, on the other. Thanks to advances of microbiology and technological development, it is possible to make an assessment of specific microorganisms in a large number of samples of sub-gingival plaque with extreme precision, using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization and method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The development of laser technology and the discovery of its significant antimicrobial effects have introduced and presented this treatment modality as a possible auxiliary method of periodontitis treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample for the study estimating the efficiency of application of diode lasers in the reduction of periodontal pockets consisted of 1164 periodontal pockets in 24 subjects of both sexes. For laser irradiation of periodontal pockets a diode laser was used, a low-power laser (SmilePro 980, Biolitec, Germany), working in a mode precisely tuned for treatment of periodontal pockets. All subjects underwent: general anamnesis, periodontal status, and orthopantogram radiograph analysis. Following a standard periodontal preparation, a sample of subgingival plaque was collected for molecular-biological analysis (real-time PCR method) prior to laser irradiation of periodontal pockets, immediately following the irradiation, and during the control examination 3 months after irradiation. RESULTS: The results of the molecular-biological analysis of target periodontal pathogens Actinobacillus (Aggregatibacter) actinomycetemcomitans (AA) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG) isolated from periodontal pockets prior to laser irradiation, immediately after laser irradiation, and at the control examination after 3 months were processed statistically (using real-time PCR method). The results showed that there was a statistically significant decrease in CT values for the tested bacteria immediately after treatment and the control examination, compared with the level of CT values for the same bacteria before treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the obtained results, we concluded that diode laser irradiation reduces the number of active periodontal pathogens. We believe that the use of diode lasers, as a supplementary method in the treatment of periodontal disease, is extremely useful and efficient, and can be recommended as part of standard clinical practice.

Acta Inform Med 2013 Dec 21(4) 237-40

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24554796

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Do laser and led phototherapies influence mast cells and myofibroblasts to produce collagen?

De Castro IC, Rocha CA, Gomes Henriques AC, Cavalcanti de Sousa AP, Lisboa MV, Sotero DD, Pinheiro AL, Cury PR, Santos JN

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, Salvador, Bahia, CEP 40110-150, Brazil, isabeledecastro@gmail.com.

Laser and LED phototherapies accelerate tissue repair. Mast cells induce the proliferation of fibroblasts and the development of local fibrosis. Increased numbers of myofibroblasts and mast cells are frequently found together in a normal wound repair, suggesting that mediators produced by the mast cells could play a role in the regulation of myofibroblast differentiation and function. The aim of this study was to analyze the involvement of mast cells on the synthesis of collagen and their influence on myofibroblast differentiation in the late phase of tissue repair on wounds treated with LLLT (lambda 660 nm, 10 J/cm2, 40 mW, 252 s) or LED (lambda 630 +/- 10 nm, 10 J/cm2, 115 mW, 87 s). A 1 x 1-cm surgical wound was created on the dorsum of 30 rats divided into three groups of ten animals each: control, laser, and LED. The animals of each group were irradiated and sacrificed 7 and 14 days after injury. The statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests. Laser light improved the collagen deposition rate along the time points (p = 0.22), but when compared to the control groups during the periods studied, the number of mast cells decreased significantly (p
Lasers Med Sci 2014 Feb 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24554451

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The use of phototherapy in peripheral nerve regeneration: an updated critical review.

Al-Shenqiti AM, Oldham JA

Faculty of Medical Rehabilitation Sciences, Taibah University, Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia.

This review describes the possible factors that may have contributed to the variability of the results between studies that have assessed the effects of phototherapy on peripheral nerve regeneration. Furthermore, it aims to make recommendations to overcome the methodological shortcomings identified. A search of the literature was conducted. In vitro and in vivo experimental studies and clinical trials were included. Twenty five studies were critically reviewed and showed considerable variability in irradiation parameters, techniques, approaches, length of irradiation courses, experimental injury tools and procedures. Many studies that have investigated the use of phototherapy in nerve regeneration produce positive results. However, the majority of these studies suffered from a number of shortcomings: no evidence of blinding and/or randomizing procedures, lack of specification of irradiation parameters, unspecified and/or inadequate tests in their experimental injury procedures, inappropriate irradiation parameters and/or poor experimental conditions.

Expert Rev Neurother 2014 Apr 14(4) 397-409

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24552573

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

A clinical efficacy of using CO2 laser irradiating to transparent gel on aphthous stomatitis patients.

Sattayut S, Trivibulwanich J, Pipithirunkarn N, Danvirutai N

Oral Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry and Lasers in Dentistry Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Thailand: Dental student, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University. Dental student, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University. Dental student, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University.

Background and aims: Regarding the laser energy delivery with non-tissue alteration when irradiating CO2 laser to the transparent gel, it was worth exploring the clinical efficacy of pain relief on oral ulceration using aphthous stomatitis as a model for painful oral ulcer. The aims of this study were to compare pain scores, daily activity-disturbance scores and sizes of the ulcers between the laser group and the placebo group. Subjects and methods: The double blind- randomized- placebo- controlled trial was conducted in 14 patients with aphthous ulcers. The subjects were allocated into 2 groups; namely, the laser group and the placebo group. The two baselines were measured on the day before and the treatment day. Then the lesions were covered with the transparent gel and irradiated by either 2 W defocused CO2 laser for 5 seconds or the sham laser. The outcomes were collected immediately, on day 1, 3, 5 and 7 after treatment. Results: The means of pain and daily activity-disturbance scores of the laser group were lesser than the placebo group in every episode. A statistically significant difference between the groups was found only the pain score on day 3 after treatment (P-value<0.001, 95% CI of the difference = 8.8 to 19.20 mm). There were no statistically significant differences in the daily activity-disturbance scores and the sizes of the ulcers between the groups (P value > 0.05). Conclusion: The CO2 laser therapy used in this clinical study was able to relieve pain from aphthous stomatitis compared with the placebo on the day 3 after treatment.

Laser Ther 2013 Dec 30 22(4) 283-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24511206

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Augmentation of cognitive brain functions with transcranial lasers.

Gonzalez-Lima F, Barrett DW

Department of Psychology and Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX, USA. Department of Psychology and Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX, USA.

Front Syst Neurosci 2014 8 36

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24672439

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

KTP laser therapy as an adjunctive to scaling and root planing in treatment of chronic periodontitis.

Dilsiz A, Sevinc S

Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ataturk University , Erzurum , Turkey.

Abstract Objective. The main goal of periodontal treatment is to control infection and, thereby, curb disease progression. Recent studies have suggested that the use of a laser as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) might improve the effectiveness of conventional periodontal treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical effects of potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser therapy in the treatment of chronic periodontitis in combination with traditional SRP. Materials and methods. Twenty-four patients with untreated chronic periodontitis were treated using a split-mouth study design in which each side was randomly treated by SRP alone (control group) or KTP laser (0.8W, time on 50 ms, time off 50 ms, 30 s, 532 nm) followed by SRP (test group). In the distribution of the teeth (total = 124 teeth) in the patients, 106 (86%) were molars and 18 (14%) were premolars. The selected teeth were probed with a pressure-controlled probe, guided by stents. Clinical periodontal parameters including plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and probing attachment level (PAL) were recorded at baseline and at 2 and 12 months following therapy. Results. Statistical analysis demonstrated no differences between groups at baseline for all parameters (p > 0.05). BOP and PPD reductions and PAL gains were statistically significant both between baseline and 2 months and between baseline and 12 months in both groups (p < 0.05). The test group showed a greater reduction in PPD compared to the control group (p < 0.05). In addition, the test group showed a greater probing attachment gain compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions. In patients with chronic periodontitis, clinical outcomes of conventional periodontal treatment can be improved by using an adjunctive KTP laser.

Acta Odontol Scand 2014 Mar 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24646100

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Development of the theragnostic optical system for a high-intensity laser therapy (HILT).

Lee S, Kim TH, Youn JI

Department of Internal Medicine and Neuroscience, College of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, 570-749, South Korea.

Recently, high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) has been introduced for muscle disorders, but its efficacy has not been confirmed due to the absence of quantitative assessments and treatment feedback data in real-time. In this clinical study, a theragnostic optical system comprised of a high-intensity laser and a non-invasive optical monitoring system was developed to assess spasticity. To avoid interference between the two different light sources, the therapeutic wavelength for HILT was selected at 808 nm, one of the isosbestic points. The monitoring system based on a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was utilized for measuring hemoglobin concentrations according to a modified Beer-Lambert’s law. The transitory HILT effect was evaluated from patients experiencing spasticity after stroke. Our results showed the proportionate relationship between manual muscle testing grades and the HILT effect on hemiplegic patients. The developed system proved to be useful for the simultaneous assessment and treatment of spasticity, and it holds promise for real-time monitoring of hemoglobin concentrations during laser therapy.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Mar 15

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24633922

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low Level Laser Therapy for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Critical Survey.

Beckmann KH, Meyer-Hamme G, Schroder S

HanseMerkur Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany. HanseMerkur Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany. HanseMerkur Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Diabetic foot ulcers as one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus are defined as nonhealing or long-lasting chronic skin ulcers in diabetic patients. Multidisciplinary care for the diabetic foot is common, but treatment results are often unsatisfactory. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound areas as well as on acupuncture points, as a noninvasive, pain-free method with minor side effects, has been considered as a possible treatment option for the diabetic foot syndrome. A systematic literature review identified 1764 articles on this topic. Finally, we adopted 22 eligible references; 8 of them were cell studies, 6 were animal studies, and 8 were clinical trials. Cell studies and animal studies gave evidence of cellular migration, viability, and proliferation of fibroblast cells, quicker reepithelization and reformed connective tissue, enhancement of microcirculation, and anti-inflammatory effects by inhibition of prostaglandine, interleukin, and cytokine as well as direct antibacterial effects by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The transferral of these data into clinical medicine is under debate. The majority of clinical studies show a potential benefit of LLLT in wound healing of diabetic ulcers. But there are a lot of aspects in these studies limiting final evidence about the actual output of this kind of treatment method. In summary, all studies give enough evidence to continue research on laser therapy for diabetic ulcers, but clinical trials using human models do not provide sufficient evidence to establish the usefulness of LLLT as an effective tool in wound care regimes at present. Further well designed research trials are required to determine the true value of LLLT in routine wound care.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 2014 626127

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24744814

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Interventions for iatrogenic inferior alveolar and lingual nerve injury.

Coulthard P, Kushnerev E, Yates JM, Walsh T, Patel N, Bailey E, Renton TF

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Coupland III Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK, M13 9PL.

BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic injury of the inferior alveolar or lingual nerve or both is a known complication of oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures. Injury to these two branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve may result in altered sensation associated with the ipsilateral lower lip or tongue or both and may include anaesthesia, paraesthesia, dysaesthesia, hyperalgesia, allodynia, hypoaesthesia and hyperaesthesia. Injury to the lingual nerve may also affect taste perception on the affected side of the tongue. The vast majority (approximately 90%) of these injuries are temporary in nature and resolve within eight weeks. However, if the injury persists beyond six months it is deemed to be permanent. Surgical, medical and psychological techniques have been used as a treatment for such injuries, though at present there is no consensus on the preferred intervention, or the timing of the intervention. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of different interventions and timings of interventions to treat iatrogenic injury of the inferior alveolar or lingual nerves. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group’s Trial Register (to 9 October 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 9 October 2013) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 9 October 2013). No language restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving interventions to treat patients with neurosensory defect of the inferior alveolar or lingual nerve or both as a sequela of iatrogenic injury. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We performed data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias independently and in duplicate. We contacted authors to clarify the inclusion criteria of the studies. MAIN RESULTS: Two studies assessed as at high risk of bias, reporting data from 26 analysed participants were included in this review. The age range of participants was from 17 to 55 years. Both trials investigated the effectiveness of low-level laser treatment compared to placebo laser therapy on inferior alveolar sensory deficit as a result of iatrogenic injury.Patient-reported altered sensation was partially reported in one study and fully reported in another. Following treatment with laser therapy, there was some evidence of an improvement in the subjective assessment of neurosensory deficit in the lip and chin areas compared to placebo, though the estimates were imprecise: a difference in mean change in neurosensory deficit of the chin of 8.40 cm (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.67 to 13.13) and a difference in mean change in neurosensory deficit of the lip of 21.79 cm (95% CI 5.29 to 38.29). The overall quality of the evidence for this outcome was very low; the outcome data were fully reported in one small study of 13 patients, with differential drop-out in the control group, and patients suffered only partial loss of sensation. No studies reported on the effects of the intervention on the remaining primary outcomes of pain, difficulty eating or speaking or taste. No studies reported on quality of life or adverse events.The overall quality of the evidence was very low as a result of limitations in the conduct and reporting of the studies, indirectness of the evidence and the imprecision of the results. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: There is clearly a need for randomised controlled clinical trials to investigate the effectiveness of surgical, medical and psychological interventions for iatrogenic inferior alveolar and lingual nerve injuries. Primary outcomes of this research should include: patient-focused morbidity measures including altered sensation and pain, pain, quantitative sensory testing and the effects of delayed treatment.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 4 CD005293

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24740534

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The effect of low-level laser therapy on knee osteoarthritis: prospective, descriptive study.

Soleimanpour H, Gahramani K, Taheri R, Golzari SE, Safari S, Esfanjani RM, Iranpour A

Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Daneshgah Street, Tabriz, 51664, Iran, soleimanpourh@tbzmed.ac.ir.

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common joint disorders in the elderly which could be associated with considerable physical disability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a descriptive, prospective study, 33 patients enrolled in the study from which 15 people were excluded due to incomplete course of treatment, leaving the total number of 18 patients with knee osteoarthritis. Gal-Al-As diode laser device was used as a source of low-power laser. Patients were performed laser therapy with a probe of LO7 with a wavelength of 810 nm and 50 mW output power in pulse radiation mode (F = 3,000, peak power = 80 W, Deltat = 200 ns, density = 0.05 W/cm2, dose = 6 J/cm2, area = 1 cm2) and also a probe of MLO1K with a power output of 30 mW and a wavelength of 890 nm in pulse radiation mode (F = 3,000 Hz, peak power = 50 W, Deltat = 200 ns, density = 0.017 W/cm2, total dose = 10 J/cm2), and were given low-level laser therapy (LLLT) three times a week with a total number of 12 sessions. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 15, and the obtained data were reported as mean +/- SD and frequency (%). To analyze the data, repeated measurement and marginal homogeneity approaches were used. RESULTS: In the current study, a significant reduction was observed regarding the nocturnal pain, pain on walking and ascending the steps, knee circumference, distance between the hip and heel, and knee to horizontal hip to heel distance at the end of the treatment course. CONCLUSIONS: In brief, the current study focuses on the fact that LLLT is effective in reducing pain in knee osteoarthritis.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Apr 15

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24733283

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity with a low-level laser-emitting toothbrush: double-blind randomised clinical trial of efficacy and safety.

Ko Y, Park J, Kim C, Park J, Baek S, Kook Y

Department of Periodontics, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is defined as pain derived from exposed dentin in response to chemical, thermal, tactile, or osmotic stimuli that cannot be explained as having arisen from any other dental defect or disease. The aim of this trial was to test the efficacy and the safety of a low-level laser-emitting toothbrush on management of DH. A prospective, double blind, randomised clinical trial was designed; 96 individuals with hypersensitive teeth without caries or fracture were selected as subjects. The subjects were randomly allocated to either the test group with the 635 nm per 6 mW laser-emitting toothbrush, or the control group with the 635 nm per 12.9 muW light-emitting diode (LED) toothbrush. An air blast was applied with a dental air syringe held 3 mm away from the selected tooth and a visual analogue scale (VAS: 0-10) was used to quantify subjective pain. Assessments were completed at a screening visit and after 2-week and 4-week of using a test/control toothbrush. Results demonstrated that the use of both control and test toothbrushes resulted in decreased discomfort after 4 weeks. In the test group, pain intensity scores decreased from 5.8 +/- 1.2 to 2.3 +/- 1.6, and in the control group, the scores decreased from 6.4 +/- 1.3 to 5.5 +/- 2.0 (P < 0.05). This decrease was significantly greater in the test group. There were no significant adverse events or side effects. It was concluded that the use of the low-level laser emitting toothbrush is a safe and effective treatment option for the management of DH.

J Oral Rehabil 2014 Apr 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24717149

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Intravenous laser blood irradiation and tocilizumab in a patient with juvenile arthritis.

Chiran DA, Weber M, Ailioaie LM, Moraru E, Ailioaie C, Litscher D, Litscher G

Faculty of Medicine, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 16 Universitatii Street, 700115 Iasi, Romania. Institute for Laser Therapy and Acupuncture, Sohnreystrasse 6, 37697 Lauenforde, Germany. Department of Medical Physics, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, 11 Carol I Boulevard, 700506 Iasi, Romania ; Laser Clinic, 83 Arcu Street, 700135 Iasi, Romania. Faculty of Medicine, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 16 Universitatii Street, 700115 Iasi, Romania ; Second Pediatric Clinic, Street Mary Emergency Hospital for Children, 62 Vasile Lupu St., 700309 Iasi, Romania. Faculty of Medicine, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 16 Universitatii Street, 700115 Iasi, Romania ; Laser Clinic, 83 Arcu Street, 700135 Iasi, Romania ; Second Pediatric Clinic, Street Mary Emergency Hospital for Children, 62 Vasile Lupu St., 700309 Iasi, Romania. Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria. Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and TCM Research Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 29, 8036 Graz, Austria.

This study presents effects of intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) in a transient immunodeficiency patient with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) treated with an interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor (Tocilizumab). Biological agents induce JIA remission, but some patients do not respond favorably to this final therapeutic line of defense. ILBI was performed in a 16-year-old male patient, with JIA and transient immunodeficiency. When ILBI was introduced, the patient was receiving disease-modifying drugs, steroids, tocilizumab, and physical therapy. Because the disease was not well controlled, ILBI was applied in addition to other ongoing therapies. The patient underwent 1 session daily, and 10 successive sessions per month, repeated every 3 months, for 7 months. Patient evaluation was performed before ILBI was started and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ILBI initiation, using the ACR Pediatric response. The outcome was evaluated using Pediatric 50, 70, and 90 responses and compared to initial status, after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. At the end of study, the titre of IgA and IgG levels returned to normal. Synergistic anti-inflammatory effect of ILBI was evident, if applied additionally in combination with tocilizumab, in a patient with a therapy-resistant severe form of JIA and related subacute transient immunodeficiency.

Case Rep Med 2014 2014 923496

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24715926

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of a New Combined Therapy with Nano-Carbonate Apatite and CO Laser on Dentin Hypersensitivity in an in Situ Model.

Han SY, Kim JS, Kim YS, Kwon HK, Kim BI

1 Department of Preventive Dentistry and Public Oral Health, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University , Seoul, Korea.

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the occluding effects of a combination of dentifrice containing nano-carbonate apatite (n-CAP) and CO2 laser on dentinal tubules, and to evaluate the acid resistance of this combination after 4 days of treatment, by using an in situ model. Background data: The synergic effect of this combination was demonstrated in an in vitro study. Methods: This was a two period crossover, single-blind, randomized, four-treatment, split-mouth study. Ten healthy participants wore lower intraoral appliances during the treatment period. Specimens were divided into the following four groups: no treatment (control group), tooth-brushing using 20% n-CAP dentifrice (n-CAP group), CO2 laser irradiation (laser group), and laser irradiation after n-CAP application (combined group). Occluding effects were evaluated on 2 days (days 1 and 2), and then acid challenge was performed using grape juice on 2 days (days 3 and 4). All of the specimen surfaces were evaluated by a scanning electron microscope. Results: The combined group showed a better occluding effect than control group compared with other treatment groups, and this effect was 20% higher than that in the n-CAP group. Also, the combined group had the smallest open dentinal tubular area among all of the treatment groups. Conclusions: The combined therapy is a promising method for ensuring a long-lasting effect of dentin hypersensitivity treatment in clinical practice.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 May 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24854714

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation.

White AR, Rampes H, Liu JP, Stead LF, Campbell J

Primary Care, Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, 25 Room N32, ITTC Building, Tamar Science Park, Plymouth, UK, PL6 8BX.

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation in smoking cessation, in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (which includes trials of smoking cessation interventions identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) and AMED in October 2013. We also searched four Chinese databases in September 2013: Sino-Med, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and VIP. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the intervention and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up.We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks) and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis pooling risk ratios using a fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: We included 38 studies. Based on three studies, acupuncture was not shown to be more effective than a waiting list control for long-term abstinence, with wide confidence intervals and evidence of heterogeneity (n = 393, risk ratio [RR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98 to 3.28, I(2) = 57%). Compared with sham acupuncture, the RR for the short-term effect of acupuncture was 1.22 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.38), and for the long-term effect was 1.10 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.40). The studies were not judged to be free from bias, and there was evidence of funnel plot asymmetry with larger studies showing smaller effects. The heterogeneity between studies was not explained by the technique used. Acupuncture was less effective than nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). There was no evidence that acupuncture is superior to psychological interventions in the short- or long-term. There is limited evidence that acupressure is superior to sham acupressure for short-term outcomes (3 trials, n = 325, RR 2.54, 95% CI 1.27 to 5.08), but no trials reported long-term effects, The pooled estimate for studies testing an intervention that included continuous auricular stimulation suggested a short-term benefit compared to sham stimulation (14 trials, n = 1155, RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.16); subgroup analysis showed an effect for continuous acupressure (7 studies, n = 496, RR 2.73, 95% CI 1.78 to 4.18) but not acupuncture with indwelling needles (6 studies, n = 659, RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.69). At longer follow-up the CIs did not exclude no effect (5 trials, n = 570, RR 1.47, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.74). The evidence from two trials using laser stimulation was inconsistent and could not be combined. The combined evidence on electrostimulation suggests it is not superior to sham electrostimulation (short-term abstinence: 6 trials, n = 634, RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.46; long-term abstinence: 2 trials, n = 405, RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.23). AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: Although pooled estimates suggest possible short-term effects there is no consistent, bias-free evidence that acupuncture, acupressure, or laser therapy have a sustained benefit on smoking cessation for six months or more. However, lack of evidence and methodological problems mean that no firm conclusions can be drawn. Electrostimulation is not effective for smoking cessation. Well-designed research into acupuncture, acupressure and laser stimulation is justified since these are popular interventions and safe when correctly applied, though these interventions alone are likely to be less effective than evidence-based interventions.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 1 CD000009

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24459016

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Photobiomodulation and implants: implications for dentistry.

Tang E, Arany P

Cell Regulation and Control Unit, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Cell Regulation and Control Unit, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The use of dental implants has become a mainstay of rehabilitative and restorative dentistry. With an impressive clinical success rate, there remain a few minor clinical issues with the use of implants such as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. The use of laser technology with implants has a fascinating breadth of applications, beginning from their precision manufacturing to clinical uses for surgical site preparation, reducing pain and inflammation, and promoting osseointegration and tissue regeneration. This latter aspect is the focus of this review, which outlines various studies of implants and laser therapy in animal models. The use of low level light therapy or photobiomodulation has demonstrated its efficacy in these studies. Besides more research studies to understand its molecular mechanisms, significant efforts are needed to standardize the clinical dosing and delivery protocols for laser therapy to ensure the maximal efficacy and safety of this potent clinical tool for photobiomodulation.

J Periodontal Implant Sci 2013 Dec 43(6) 262-268

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24455438

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[The influence of low-intensity intravenous laser irradiation of the blood on the endothelial function in the patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

Burduli NM, Balaian MM

The present study included 100 patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) including 68 (68%) women and 32 (32%) men. They were divided into 2 groups, with the study group comprised of 70 patients and the control one containing 30 patients. The objective of the study was to estimate the influence of low-intensity intravenous laser irradiation of the blood on the NO-producing function of vascular endothelium in the patients suffering GERD. The results of the study indicate that traditional medicamental therapy of the patients with GERD does not produce a significant improvement of plasma levels of stable nitric oxide metabolites whereas low-intensity intravenous laser irradiation of the blood results in well apparent normalization of this parameter regardless of its initial value, either high or low.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2013 Sep-Oct (5) 33-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24437206

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Postherpetic neuralgia: case study of class 4 laser therapy intervention.

Knapp DJ

OBJECTIVE: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a neuropathic sequelae in 8% to 27% of individuals with prior varicella zoster virus infection and herpes zoster resulting in retrograde demyelination, neurotoxic reactive oxygen species levels, and proinflammatory cytokine activation of microglia. Pain management strategies are well documented, but not always effective. Laser therapy has shown utility in nerve injury-related pain disorders and was considered a potentially efficacious intervention. DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: Class 4 therapeutic laser treatment was applied with a dual wavelength GaAlAs (810 nm), GaAl (980 nm) laser, 2 to 4 W, 50% duty cycle, 10 Hz pulse active phase, 2.5 cm diameter aperture, scanning technique with skin contact, 10-minute treatment, 600 to 1200 J total, energy density of 3.5 to 7.1 J/cm average per session, and power density from 0.41 to 0.82 W/cm for 8 treatments. Outcome measures included the Neuropathy Pain Scale Questionnaire as the primary outcome measure, with the Numeric Pain Scale and total area of allodynia touch sensitivity as secondary outcome measurements. RESULTS: The author reports a case of PHN of 15-year duration resistant to prior interventions. Weekly laser therapy treatment over 8 weeks resulted in reduced 0 to 10 Numeric Pain Scale score from 8 to 0, Neuropathy Pain Scale Questionnaire total score from 39 to 4, and allodynia over a 60 cm surface area of the upper trunk and posterior arm totally resolved, with resolution continued at 14-month follow-up. DISCUSSION: Theoretically, laser therapy induced tissue changes in this case occurring at and below the skin surface altering inflammatory and excitatory peripheral mechanisms noted to take place in the PHN patient. Peripheral nociceptor firing must be brought back to normal thresholds to resolve such chronic neuropathic pain and inhibit the possible central sensitization component. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, nitric oxide, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and other mechanisms stimulated by laser therapy as noted in medical literature may be central to the favorable response seen in this patient. Controlled clinical trials of class 4 laser therapy in the PHN patient population with similar doses would be beneficial to determine if this is an effective treatment option in PHN.

Clin J Pain 2013 Oct 29(10) e6-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24384987

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of laser acupuncture and auricular acupressure in a child with trismus as a sequela of medulloblastoma.

Ferreira DC, De Rossi A, Torres CP, Galo R, Paula-Silva FW, Queiroz AM

Department of Pediatric Clinics, School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, , Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

In several countries the most common cause of death in young people is cancer. Patients with head and neck cancer often have complications after cancer treatment. Radiation therapy can cause oral trismus, which is related to high doses of radiation. Although acupuncture is reported to be effective and is widely used for the treatment of peripheral facial paralysis by promoting an improvement of motor functions, few reports in the literature demonstrate its effectiveness. We report a case in which the symptoms of a patient with facial paralysis after surgical cancer treatment associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy improved after laser treatment at acupuncture points. Ten weekly sessions of laser therapy were conducted, using the Twin laser device, applied to systemic acupuncture points (LR3, LI4, LI18, LI19, LI20, SI17, SI19, ST4, ST6, ST7, GV20), together with 10 weekly sessions of auricular acupressure. Significant improvement of the trismus was seen, confirmed by the increase in mouth opening from 33.26 to 53.3 mm. The patient’s family also noted reduced anxiety and hyperactivity. These results suggest that laser acupuncture and auricular acupressure for trismus and facial paralysis following cancer treatment is worth further investigation.

Acupunct Med 2014 Apr 32(2) 190-3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24384541

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[Improved results of the trachea scar stenosis treatment by inclusion in the complex therapy of combined application diprospan and low-intensity infrared laser radiation].

Israfilova SB, Gasymov EM

The experience of treating 61 patients over the rumen of stenosis of the trachea was summarizes. To improve the results suggested inclusion complex diprospan treatment in combination with low intensity infrared laser radiation. The advantages of the proposed method of treatment of tracheal stenosis scarring are reduced severity of chronic inflammation, reducing the proliferation of granulation tissue.

Klin Khir 2013 Sep (9) 47-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24501929

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of caries removal techniques on the bond strength of adhesives to caries-affected primary dentin in vitro.\Medium-level laser in chronic tinnitus treatment.

Yildiz E, Sirinkaraarslan E, Yegin Z, Cebe MA, Tosun G, Dejakum K, Piegger J, Plewka C, Gunkel A, Thumfart W, Kudaibergenova S, Goebel G, Kral F, Freysinger W

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey. ENT Department, Regional Hospital, Endach 27, 6330 Kufstein, Austria.

AIM: The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the effects of three different caries removal techniques on the microtensile bond strength of adhesive materials to caries-affected dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty primary molar teeth were used. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to the caries removal technique employed: conventional steel bur (group 1); Er:YAG laser (group 2); chemomechanical method (group 3). Each group was divided into two subgroups according to bonding agents: one-step self-etch adhesive and etch-and-rinse adhesive. The teeth were restored with composite resin. Vertical sticks were obtained and subjected to tensile stress. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey’s test and an independent samples t-test. RESULTS: The values for the laser groups were significantly lower than those of the bur groups for both bonding agents (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the bur and chemomechanical groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Bur and chemomechanical techniques in primary teeth were found more successful. Similar results were found according to the adhesives used for each caries removal techniques.\The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of medium-level laser therapy in chronic tinnitus treatment. In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial, either active laser (450 mW, 830 nm combined Ga-Al-As diode laser) or placebo irradiation was applied through the external acoustic meatus of the affected ear towards the cochlea. Fourty-eight patients with chronic tinnitus were studied. The main outcome was measured using the Goebel tinnitus questionnaire, visual analogue scales measuring the perceived loudness of tinnitus, the annoyance associated with tinnitus, and the degree of attention paid to tinnitus as well as psycho-acoustical matches of tinnitus pitch and loudness. The results did show only very moderate temporary improvement of tinnitus. Moreover, no statistically relevant differences between laser and placebo group could be found. We conclude that medium-level laser therapy cannot be regarded as an effective treatment of chronic tinnitus in our therapy regime considering the limited number of patients included in our study.

Eur J Paediatr Dent Biomed Res Int 2013 Sep 2013 14(3) 2013 209-14-324234

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24295006

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Comprehensive treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders.

Navratil L, Navratil V, Hajkova S, Hlinakova P, Dostalova T, Vranova J

AIMS: Changing lifestyles, decreasing physical activity, which is increasing the number of degenerative joint diseases of various etiology, and certain dental procedures are increasing the number of patients complaining of pain in their temporomandibular joints. The aim of the study was to assess the benefits of comprehensive physiotherapy sessions in order to decrease the number of temporomandibular joint problems, thereby improving the patient’s quality of life. METHODOLOGY: An examination by a dentist determined each patient’s treatment plan, which consisted of a medical exam, physical therapy and education. Each form of treatment was applied 10 times at intervals of 7-14 days. The main goal of the therapeutic physical education was to redress the muscle imbalance in the mandibular joint. This was achieved by restoring balance between the masticatory muscles, along with releasing the spastic shrouds found in the masticatory muscles. The aim of education was to teach the patient exercises focused on the temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscles. The intensity of the exercises and their composition were individually adjusted and adapted to their current state. Physical therapy consisted of the application of pulsed magnetic therapy, laser therapy, and non-invasive positive thermotherapy. RESULTS: The above procedure was conducted on a therapeutic group of 24 patients (3 men and 20 women). In the course of therapy, there were no complications, and all patients adhered to the prescribed regime. None reported any side effects. The mean treatment duration was 123 +/- 66 days. The outcome of the therapy was evaluated as described in the methodology, the degree of pain affecting the joint, and the opening ability of the mouth. In both parameters, there was a significant decline in patient pain. CONCLUSIONS: In a study devoted to tactics of rehabilitation treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders, the need for comprehensive long-term therapy, involving education, and learning proper chewing habits was made apparent for recovery and pain reduction. A priority in physical therapy, and combinations of pulsed magnetic therapy and hyperthermia-positive peloids, are also beneficial.

Cranio 2014 Jan 32(1) 24-30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24660643

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Phototherapy for vulvar lichen simplex chronicus: an ‘off-label use’ of a comb light device.

Virgili A, Minghetti S, Borghi A, Corazza M

Dermatology Section, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2014 Mar 3

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24588451

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

What is the ideal dose and power output of low-level laser therapy (810 nm) on muscle performance and post-exercise recovery? Study protocol for a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

de Oliveira AR, Vanin AA, De Marchi T, Antonialli FC, Grandinetti Vdos S, de Paiva PR, Albuquerque Pontes GM, Santos LA, Aleixo Junior Ide O, de Carvalho Pde T, Bjordal JM, Leal-Junior EC

Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Rua Vergueiro 235, Sao Paulo, SP 01504-001, Brazil. ernesto.leal.junior@gmail.com.

BACKGROUND: Recent studies involving phototherapy applied prior to exercise have demonstrated positive results regarding the attenuation of muscle fatigue and the expression of biochemical markers associated with recovery. However, a number of factors remain unknown, such as the ideal dose and application parameters, mechanisms of action and long-term effects on muscle recovery. The aims of the proposed project are to evaluate the long-term effects of low-level laser therapy on post-exercise musculoskeletal recovery and identify the best dose andapplication power/irradiation time. DESIGN AND METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial with be conducted. After fulfilling the eligibility criteria, 28 high-performance athletes will be allocated to four groups of seven volunteers each. In phase 1, the laser power will be 200 mW and different doses will be tested: Group A (2 J), Group B (6 J), Group C (10 J) and Group D (0 J). In phase 2, the best dose obtained in phase 1 will be used with the same distribution of the volunteers, but with different powers: Group A (100 mW), Group B (200 mW), Group C (400 mW) and Group D (0 mW). The isokinetic test will be performed based on maximum voluntary contraction prior to the application of the laser and after the eccentric contraction protocol, which will also be performed using the isokinetic dynamometer. The following variables related to physical performance will be analyzed: peak torque/maximum voluntary contraction, delayed onset muscle soreness (algometer), biochemical markers of muscle damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. DISCUSSION: Our intention, is to determine optimal laser therapy application parameters capable of slowing down the physiological muscle fatigue process, reducing injuries or micro-injuries in skeletal muscle stemming from physical exertion and accelerating post-exercise muscle recovery. We believe that, unlike drug therapy, LLLT has a biphasic dose-response pattern. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol for this study is registered with the Protocol Registry System, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01844271.

Trials 2014 15 69

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24576321

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The Antidepressant Effect of Laser Acupuncture: A Comparison of the Resting Brain’s Default Mode Network in Healthy and Depressed Subjects During Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Quah-Smith I, Suo C, Williams MA, Sachdev PS

School of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales (UNSW) , Australia . ; Neuropsychiatric Institute (NPI) , Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia . Brain and Ageing Research Program, Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales , New South Wales, Australia . Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Sciences, Macquarie University , Sydney, Australia . School of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales (UNSW) , Australia . ; Neuropsychiatric Institute (NPI) , Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia . ; Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, NPI, Euroa Centre, Prince of Wales Hospital , New South Wales, Australia .

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the antidepressant effect of laser acupuncture involves modulation of the default mode network (DMN) or resting state network (RSN). In this study, the authors investigated changes in the DMN during laser acupuncture in depressed and nondepressed participants. OBJECTIVE: To aim of this study was to determine if the modulation of the DMN effects by laser acupuncture in depressed participants are different from those of nondepressed participants. DESIGN: Randomized stimulation was performed with laser acupuncture on four putative antidepressant acupoints (LR 14, LR 8, CV 14, and HT 7) in a block on-off design, while the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI response was recorded from each subject’s whole brain on a 3T scanner. DMN patterns of the participants were identified, using an independent component analysis. The identified DMN components from both the nondepressed group and the depressed group were then analytically compared using SPM5. SETTING: This study took place at a research institute. SUBJECTS: Ten nondepressed participants and 10 depressed participants (DS) as confirmed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) participated in this study. INTERVENTION: Low Intensity Laser Acupuncture. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Significant DMN patterns in one group were greater than those in the other group. RESULTS: The nondepressed participants had significant modulation of DMN in the frontal region at the medial frontal gyrus (verum laser>rest, p<0.001) for three acupoints (LR 14, LR 8, and CV 14). For the depressive participants, the DMN modulation occurred at the inferior parietal cortex and the cerebellum (verum laser>rest, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Laser acupuncture on LR 8, LR 14, and CV 14 stimulated both the anterior and posterior DMN in both the nondepressed and depressed participants. However, in the nondepressed participants, there was consistently outstanding modulation of the anterior DMN at the medial frontal gyrus across all three acupoints. In the depressed participants, there was wider posterior DMN modulation at the parieto-temporal-limbic cortices. This is part of the antidepressant effect of laser acupuncture.

Med Acupunct 2013 Apr 25(2) 124-133

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24761169

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy on isokinetic muscle performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Gomes CA, Leal-Junior EC, Biasotto-Gonzalez DA, El-Hage Y, Politti F, Gonzalez Tde O, Dibai-Filho AV, de Oliveira AR, Frigero M, Antonialli FC, Vanin AA, de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho P

Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Av, Dr, Adolfo Pinto, 109, Agua Branca, Sao Paulo, SP 05001-100, Brazil. cid.andre@gmail.com.

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, also known non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most prevalent type of the disease and involves defects in the secretion and action of insulin. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on muscle performance of the quadriceps femoris in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS/DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial will be carried out in two treatment phases. In the first phase, quadriceps muscle performance will be evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer and the levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (biochemical markers of muscle damage) will be determined. The participants will then be allocated to four LLLT groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: Group A (4 Joules), Group B (6 Joules), Group C (8 Joules) and Group D (0 Joules; placebo). Following the administration of LLLT, the participants will be submitted to an isokinetic eccentric muscle fatigue protocol involving the quadriceps muscle bilaterally. Muscle performance and biochemical markers of muscle damage will be evaluated again immediately after as well as 24 and 48 hours after the experimental protocol. One week after the last evaluation the second phase will begin, during which Groups A, B and C will receive the LLLT protocol that achieved the best muscle performance in phase 1 for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of this period, muscle performance will be evaluated again. The protocol for this study is registered with the World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number U1111-1146-7109. DISCUSSION: The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise LLLT on the performance of the quadriceps muscle (peak torque, total muscle work, maximum power and fatigue index – normalized by body mass) in individuals with DM-2. The study will support the practice of evidence-based to the use of LLLT in improving muscle performance in Individuals with DM-2. Data will be published after the study is completed.

Trials 2014 15(1) 116

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24716713

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Photobiomodulation in the treatment of patients with non-center-involving diabetic macular oedema.

Tang J, Herda AA, Kern TS

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Prairie Village, Kansas, USA.

PURPOSE: Far-red/near-infrared phototherapy or photobiomodulation (PBM) has recently been reported to be an effective and non-invasive treatment method to inhibit lesions of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in animals. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of PBM in diabetic patients to treat non-center-involving diabetic macular oedema (NCDME). METHODS: This was a non-randomised, consecutive, case series, where 4 patients with type 2 diabetes with NCDME were treated for 160 s per day with PBM for 2-9 months. Demographic data including age, sex, HbA1c%, electronic ETDRS visual acuity, and retinal and macular thickness were measured using spectral domain ocular coherence tomography (SD-OCT) before and after treatment. RESULTS: Four eyes of 4 patients were treated, with fellow eyes serving as untreated controls. Daily PBM treatment for only 80 s per treatment twice daily caused a significant reduction in focal retinal thickening in all 4 treated eyes. No adverse effects attributable to therapy were noted by the patients or study investigators during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: PBM potentially offers a non-invasive and cost-effective therapeutic option for patients with NCDME. Further studies of this therapeutic option in DR are warranted.

Br J Ophthalmol 2014 Mar 28

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24682183

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of laser acupuncture on salivary flow rate in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome.

Cafaro A, Arduino PG, Gambino A, Romagnoli E, Broccoletti R

Department of Surgical Sciences, CIR-Dental School, University of Turin, Via Nizza 230, 10126, Turin, Italy.

Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is a multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by hypofunction of the salivary and lacrimal glands, frequently relieved with symptomatic treatments, such as saliva substitutes, eye lubricants, and cholinergic stimulators. The aim of this pilot randomized placebo-controlled study was to estimate the effects of laser acupuncture on salivary flow rates in patients with severe hyposalivation due to SS. A prospective cohort of 26 female patients affected by SS has been evaluated. The laser therapy equipment used was the Pointer Pulse, emitting light in the red visible spectrum (650 nm), with a power of 5 mW and an irradiation time of 120 s per acupoint, in an area of 3.14 mm2 (fluence = 19.2 J/cm2, power density = 0.16 W/cm2, total dose = 0.6 J). The following acupuncture points were stimulated bilaterally: LI 2 Erjian, ST 5 Daying, ST 6 Jiache, ST 7 Xiaguan, SI 19 Tinggong, and BL 13 Feishu. True laser acupuncture led to a significantly higher amount of saliva production, measured after the end of the protocol (5 weeks), and during the 6-month follow-up period. The results are stable from the end of the protocol until the 3rd month of follow-up; during the last control, a slight but significant decrease in production has also been shown. This preliminary study proposes laser acupuncture as a possible treatment for improving salivary flow rates in patients with SS, but further validation on a larger sample is still necessary.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 May 13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24820476

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[Low level laser therapy in inflammatory and infectious oral diseases].

Andre CV, Bosc R, Chader H, Lange F, Hermeziu O, Meningaud JP

Service de chirurgie plastique, reconstructrice et esthetique, CHU-hopital Henri-Mondor, 51, avenue du Marechal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94000 Creteil, France. Electronic address: charlesvictorandre@gmail.com. Service de chirurgie plastique, reconstructrice et esthetique, CHU-hopital Henri-Mondor, 51, avenue du Marechal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94000 Creteil, France. Service de chirurgie plastique, reconstructrice et esthetique, CHU-hopital Henri-Mondor, 51, avenue du Marechal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94000 Creteil, France. Service de chirurgie plastique, reconstructrice et esthetique, CHU-hopital Henri-Mondor, 51, avenue du Marechal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94000 Creteil, France. Service de chirurgie plastique, reconstructrice et esthetique, CHU-hopital Henri-Mondor, 51, avenue du Marechal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94000 Creteil, France. Service de chirurgie plastique, reconstructrice et esthetique, CHU-hopital Henri-Mondor, 51, avenue du Marechal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94000 Creteil, France.

PURPOSE: Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is an increasingly studied technique. The authors of a meta-analysis published in 2012 had already confirmed the effectiveness of LLLT for radio-induced mucitis. Our purpose was to check its indication for similar pathologies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The articles were selected with the PubMed engine. The selected terms were “Low Level Laser Therapy”, “oral surgery”, “oral infection”, “oral inflammation”, “oral mucosal lesions”, “oral mucosal disease”, “stomatitis”, “aphtous”, “Herpes”, “oral lichen planus”, and “oral ulceration”. The analysis was made on the following criteria: assessment criteria, methodological quality, and bias. We estimated the level of proof according to Sackett’s modified score. RESULTS: Six articles were selected. Two focused on the effectiveness of LLLT for Herpes simplex virus 1 oral symptoms. Two focused on the effectiveness of LLLT for oral lichen planus. One focused on the effectiveness of LLLT for recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The last one focused on the usefulness of LLLT to control stomatitis pain in the hand-foot-and-mouth disease. CONCLUSION: All the selected studies were assessed with a Sackett’s score of IV. No study presented the required quality standards to recommend the treatment of LLLT for the selected indications.

Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac Chir Orale 2014 Feb 115(1) 22-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24461647

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Efficacy of low-level laser therapy applied at acupuncture points in knee osteoarthritis: a randomised double-blind comparative trial.

Al Rashoud AS, Abboud RJ, Wang W, Wigderowitz C

Institute of Motion Analysis and Research, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK. Institute of Motion Analysis and Research, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK. Institute of Motion Analysis and Research, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK. Institute of Motion Analysis and Research, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK. Electronic address: c.a.wigderowitz@dundee.ac.uk.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to acupuncture points on the knee joint in combination with exercise and advice in patients with knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, comparative clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-nine patients with knee osteoarthritis were assigned at random into two groups: active laser group (n=26) and placebo laser group (n=23). INTERVENTION: Using a gallium aluminium arsenide laser device, patients received either active or placebo LLLT at five acupuncture points on the affected knee during nine sessions. OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Saudi Knee Function Scale (SKFS) at baseline, the fifth treatment session, the last treatment session, 6 weeks post intervention and 6 months post intervention. RESULTS: VAS scores showed a significant improvement in the active laser group compared with the placebo laser group at 6 weeks post intervention [mean difference -1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference -2.4 to -0.3; P=0.014] and 6 months post intervention (mean difference -1.8, 95% CI of the difference -3.0 to -0.7; P=0.003) using the independent samples test. SKFS scores also showed a significant improvement in the active laser group compared with the placebo laser group at the last treatment session (median difference -15, 95% CI of the difference -27 to -2; P=0.035) and 6 months post intervention (median difference -21, 95% CI of the difference -34 to -7; P=0.006) using the Mann-Whitney U test. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that short-term application of LLLT to specific acupuncture points in association with exercise and advice is effective in reducing pain and improving quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Physiotherapy 2013 Nov 15

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24418801

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Chiropractic management of Bell palsy with low level laser and manipulation: a case report.

Rubis LM

Chiropractor, ANEW Medical and Rehabilitation, Joliet, IL.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic management including the use of cold laser and chiropractic manipulation in the treatment of a patient with Bell palsy. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 40-year-old male patient had a 10-day history of facial paralysis on his left side, including the inability to close his left eye, which also had tearing and a burning sensation. The patient had trouble lifting his left lip and complained of drooling while brushing his teeth. There was no previous history of similar symptoms or a recent infection. Prior treatment had included oral steroids. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: The patient was treated with low-level laser therapy and chiropractic manipulation 2 times in 4 days. The laser was applied along the course of the facial nerve for 30 seconds at each point and for 1 minute at the stylomastoid foramen. The laser used was a GaAs class 4 laser with a wavelength of 910 nm. The patient perceived a 70% to 80% improvement of facial movement after the first treatment. After the second treatment, the patient reported full control of his facial movements. CONCLUSION: A patient with acute facial paralysis appeared to have complete resolution of his symptoms following the application of low-level laser therapy and chiropractic manipulation.

J Chiropr Med 2013 Dec 12(4) 288-91

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24396332

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Conservative surgical management of stage I bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw.

Vescovi P, Merigo E, Meleti M, Manfredi M, Fornaini C, Nammour S, Mergoni G, Sarraj A, Bagan JV

Unit of Oral Pathology and Laser-Assisted Oral Surgery, Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, 43100 Parma, Italy. Unit of Oral Pathology and Laser-Assisted Oral Surgery, Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, 43100 Parma, Italy. Unit of Oral Pathology and Laser-Assisted Oral Surgery, Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, 43100 Parma, Italy. Unit of Oral Pathology and Laser-Assisted Oral Surgery, Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, 43100 Parma, Italy. Unit of Oral Pathology and Laser-Assisted Oral Surgery, Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, 43100 Parma, Italy. Universite de Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium. Unit of Oral Pathology and Laser-Assisted Oral Surgery, Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, 43100 Parma, Italy. Unit of Oral Pathology and Laser-Assisted Oral Surgery, Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, 43100 Parma, Italy. University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

Purpose. To report the efficacy of conservative surgical treatment for stage I bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Materials and Methods. This study reports the clinical outcomes of 63 patients treated for BRONJ stage I (according to Ruggiero’s staging system) at the Oral Pathology and Laser-Assisted Surgery Unit of the University of Parma between January 2004 and January 2011. Surgical interventions were performed, under local analgesia, in patients unresponsive for a period of six months to noninvasive treatments such as cycles of local or systemic antibacterial therapy combined or not to low level laser therapy, ozone therapy, or Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. All interventions were performed after the consultation of oncologist or physician. Results. In our experience, conservative surgical treatment is associated with the highest number of BRONJ healed sites in stage I disease. Complete healing was observed in 92.6% of sites surgically treated. Conclusions. This study confirms that treatment of patients affected by minimal bone exposition, (stage I of BRONJ), through conservative surgical strategies, possibly with laser, may result in a high control of the disease in the long term.

Int J Dent 2014 2014 107690

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24648841

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Adjunctive use of the diode laser in non-surgical periodontal therapy: exploring the controversy.

Porteous MS, Rowe DJ

PURPOSE: Despite the controversy regarding clinical efficacy, dental hygienists use the diode laser as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy. The technique to maximize successful laser therapy outcome is controversial as well. The purpose of this review is to explore the scientific foundation of the controversy surrounding the use of the diode laser as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy. Further, this paper addresses the weaknesses in study design, the heterogeneity of methodology in the published clinical studies, especially the laser parameters, and how these issues impact the collective clinical and microbial data, and thus conclusions regarding clinical efficacy. Evaluation of the literature identifies possible mechanisms that could contribute to the varied, often conflicting results among laser studies that are the foundation of the controversy surrounding clinical efficacy. These mechanisms include current paradigms of periodontal biofilm behavior, tissue response to laser therapy being dependent on tissue type and health, and that the successful therapeutic treatment window is specific to the target tissue, biofilm composition, laser wavelength, and laser energy delivered. Lastly, this paper discusses laser parameters used in the various clinical studies, and how their diversity contributes to the controversy. Although this review does not establish clinical efficacy, it does reveal the scientific foundation of the controversy and the need for standardized, well designed randomized controlled clinical trials to develop specific guidelines for using the laser as an adjunct to non-surgical periodontal therapy. Using evidence-based laser guidelines would allow dental hygienists to provide more effective non-surgical periodontal care.

J Dent Hyg 2014 Apr 88(2) 78-86

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24771772

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser liposuction and hypertriglyceridemia.

Weisman A, Lewis GF

Objective: To report what we believe is the first case of severe hypertriglyceridemia induced by noninvasive liposuction. Case Report: We had been following a 64-year-old man for 15 years for type 2 diabetes and combined hyperlipidemia; his triglyc- eride level was typically between 2.3 and 3.4 mmol/L (200 and 300 mg/dL). During a routine clinic visit, his triglyceride level was 16.2 mmol/L (1435 mg/dL), with a total cholesterol level of 5.90 mmol/L (228 mg/dL) and a high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 0.96 mmol/L (37 mg/dL); his low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level could not be calculated. His medical history included microalbuminuria, hypertension, inflammatory bowel disease (currently in remission), obstructive sleep apnea, gout, enlarged prostate, and depression. His medications were rosuvastatin, 10 mg/d; NovoMix 30, 30 U with breakfast and 40 U with dinner; metformin, 1 g twice daily; aspirin; amlodipine; cilazapril–hydrochlorothiazide; allopurinol; mesalamine; bupropion; venlafaxine; tamsulosin; and a dietary supplement containing -3 fatty acids. He had no recent changes in medications, medication adher- ence, diet, physical activity, glycemic control (a recent hemoglobin A1c level was 7.6%), or alcohol consumption, and he was not ill. Five days earlier, he had completed the last of 8 sessions of abdominal low-level laser therapy for body sculpting. Fourteen days after his final session, his triglyceride level decreased to 2.9 mmol/L (257 mg/dL), without any change in medical therapy. Discussion: Some devices that provide low-level laser therapy have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for noninvasive liposuction. Laser light is applied to the target area for 10 to 20 minutes, and this procedure is repeated over 6 to 12 treat- ment sessions. Low-level laser therapy does not alter tissue tempera- ture, visibly change the tissue structure at the macroscopic level, or result in adipocyte destruction or lipolysis. Rather, temporary struc- tural damage to adipocyte membranes allows release of triglycerides into the interstitial space and then into the circulation, where they can be metabolized (3). Low-level laser therapy has been shown in placebo-controlled, randomized trials to statistically and clinically significantly decrease waist circumference (3, 4). Only 1 study has evaluated serum triglyceride levels in patients having low-level laser therapy. These levels decreased after this pro- cedure in 63% of participants. However, all of the participants had normal triglyceride levels before the procedure (mean triglyceride level, 0.9 mmol/L [80 mg/dL]) (4). In contrast, patients with mild or moderate hypertriglyceridemia frequently have suboptimum triglyc- eride clearance and are susceptible to markedly elevated triglyceride levels in conditions of increased endogenous or exogenous triglycer- ide input into the circulation (5). Therefore, preexisting mild hyper- triglyceridemia, which was present in the patient we followed—his usual triglyceride level was between 2.3 and 3.4 mmol/L (200 and 300 mg/dL) (normal level, 1.7 mmol/L [ 150 mg/dL])—might have predisposed him to develop severe hypertriglyceridemia after low-level laser therapy. That a patient having noninvasive liposuction is likely to have an elevated body mass index, which itself is associated with hypertri- glyceridemia, is particularly concerning. On the basis of our experi- ence, we believe that a baseline screening lipid profile might be in- dicated in patients with risk factors for hypertriglyceridemia before having low-level laser therapy because these patients may have in- creased risk for acute severe hypertriglyceridemia associated with this procedure.

Ann Intern Med 2014 Feb 18 160(4)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24727847

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Use of low level laser therapy for oral lichen planus: report of two cases.

Mahdavi O, Boostani N, Jajarm H, Falaki F, Tabesh A

Dept. of Oral and Maxillo Facial Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Resident, Dept. of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Dept. of Oral Medicine, School of dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Dept. of Oral Medicine, School of dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Resident, Dept. of Oral and Maxillo Facial Medicine, School of dentistry, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Oral Lichen Planus is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Erosive/ ulcerative oral lichen planus is often a painful condition that tends to become malignant, urging appropriate therapy. Laser therapy has recently been suggested as a new treatment option without significant side effects. This article presents two cases of erosive/ ulcerative oral lichen planus, who had not received any treatment before, treated with 630 nm low level laser. Lesion type and pain was recorded before and after treatment. Severity of lesions and pain were reduced after treatment. Low Level Laser Therapy was an effective treatment with no side effects and it may be considered as an alternative therapy for erosive/ulcerative oral lichen planus.

J Dent (Shiraz) 2013 Dec 14(4) 201-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24724146

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Emerging evidence on the crystalline water-light interface in ophthalmology and therapeutic implications in photobiomodulation: first communication.

Rodriguez-Santana E, Santana-Blank L

Fundalas, Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development , Caracas, Venezuela .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to present preliminary evidence of the exclusion zone (EZ) and photobiomodulation (PBM) phenomena relating to ophthalmology. Background data: Water is the main media and fluid found in ocular tissues. Water is also an important photoacceptor and energy storage medium. Eyes are abundantly exposed to environmental radiant energy. Therefore, multiple light-energy-absorption mechanisms may exist, including those associated with the recently discovered fourth phase of water, known as EZ. Methods: Retrospective analysis of published data indicative of EZ phenomena related, in this first communication, to the retina and optic nerve (ON), using surgical microscopy and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Images showing removal of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) aided by preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide (TA) during macular hole surgery show continuous whitish lines indicative of water-layer ordering at the interface between collagen matrices and TA crystals. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) results further exhibit an axis parallel to the ON, which may be an ocular expression of the EZ linked to the steady potential of the eye. Conclusions: Although existing results are still being decoded and analyzed in light of the state of the art studies of light-water interactions, they suggest a new understanding of the eye’s bioenergetic environment, which may have deep implications in ocular physiology as well as in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of blinding diseases using light-based therapies such as photobiomodulation. Research is needed to confirm the interpretation of these findings and validate potential ophthalmic applications.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Apr 32(4) 240-2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24571354

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Scientific rigor and strategic vision are the key points for going forward in photomedicine.

Trelles MA

Instituto Medico Vilafortuny , Tarragona, Spain .

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Apr 32(4) 185

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24661051

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[The early postoperative rehabilitation of the patients presenting with cholelithiasis and experiencing psychoemotional stress].

Poddubnaia OA, Marsheva SI

Early postoperative rehabilitation of the patients presenting with cholelithiasis and experiencing psychoemotional stress is designed to restore the function of bile secretion, enhance their adaptive capabilities, and normalize the psychovegetative status for the purpose of preventing further progress of the disease and reducing the risk of the development of post-cholecystectomy syndrome. The inclusion of drinking mineral water, magnetic laser therapy, and UHF therapy in the combined rehabilitative treatment of such patients results in the appreciable enhancement of all functional abilities of the body manifest as the significant improvement and normalization of clinical and laboratory characteristics (elimination of clinical symptoms of the disease, improvement of general and biochemycal parameters of peripheral blood). Simultaneously, the adaptive capabilities and the psychovegetative status of the patients improved as apparent from the increased lymphocyte count, normalization of the Kerdo and Hildebrandt indices and indices of stress level, decreased psychoemotional stress, enhancement of physical functioning characteristics. Taken together, these changes account for the high effectiveness of the above procedures of early postoperative rehabilitation of the patients presenting with cholelithiasisand experiencing psychoemotional stress (94.7%).

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2013 Nov-Dec (6) 36-41

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24640655

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[The role of magnetolaserotherapy in the correction of the adaptive potential of the brain in the children suffering absence seizures].

We have conducted a course of magnetic laser therapy targeted on the vegetative structures at the neck of the children suffering absence seizures in an attempt to optimize the functioning of the non-specific brain structures. The study has demonstrated that such treatment promotes normalization of the components of the orientation response to sound almost to the level observed in the healthy children. The alpha-index returned to the normal value as well.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2014 Mar-Apr (2) 25-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24864485

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Recharging mitochondrial batteries in old eyes. Near infra-red increases ATP

Gkotsi D, Begum R, Salt T, Lascaratos G, Hogg C, Chau KY, Schapira AH, Jeffery G.

Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, 11-43 Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK. Moorfields Eye Hospital, UK. Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK. Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, 11-43 Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK.

Abstract Progressive accumulation of age related mitochondrial DNA mutations reduce ATP production and increase reactive oxygen species output, leading to oxidative stress, inflammation and degradation. The pace of this is linked to metabolic demand. The retina has the greatest metabolic demand and mitochondrial density in the body and displays progressive age related inflammation and marked cell loss. Near infra-red (670 nm) is thought to be absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase (COX), a key element in mitochondrial respiration and it has been demonstrated that it improves mitochondrial membrane potentials in aged eyes. It also significantly reduces the impact of experimental pathology and ameliorates age related retinal inflammation. We show ATP decline with ageing in mouse retina and brain. Also, in these tissues that ATP is significantly increased by 670 nm exposure in old mice. In the retina this was associated with increased COX and reduced acrolein expression. Acrolein, being a free radical marker of retinal oxidative stress, is up regulated in Alzheimer’s and retinal degeneration. This is the first demonstration of ATP manipulation in vivo and may provide a simple non-invasive route to combating age related tissue decline.

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Assessment of the LED phototherapy on femoral bone defects of ovariectomized rats: a Raman spectral study.

Aciole JM, de Castro IC, Soares LG, Barbosa AF, Aciole GT, Silveira L Jr, Pinheiro AL

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, Salvador, BA, 40110-150, Brazil, jouber_aciole@hotmail.com.

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by the reduction of bone mineral density. LED wavelengths seem to have similar photo-stimulating effects to laser light. The aim of this study was to assess the Raman shifts: approximately 960 (phosphate hydroxyapatite), approximately 1,070 (carbonate hydroxyapatite), and approximately 1,454 cm -1 (lipids and proteins) on bone defects of ovariectomized rats treated or not with LED phototherapy (LED-PT). Thirty female rats were divided into four groups (Basal, OVX, OVX+Clot, and OVX+Clot+LED), then subdivided into two subgroups (15 and 30 days after surgery). Osteoporosis induction by ovariectomy (OVX) was performed in all groups, except for the normal basal group. Following development of osteoporosis, one surgical bone defect (5 mm2) was created on the femur of each animal. Defects were irradiated with LED light (lambda = 850 +/- 10 nm, P = 150 mW, CW, capital EF, Cyrillic = 0.5 cm2, 20.4 J/cm2 per session, t = 128 s, 163.2 J/cm2 per treatment) at 48 h interval during 2 weeks. Raman measurements were taken at the surface of the defects 30 days after surgery. Significant difference between groups Basal, OVX+Clot, and OVX+Clot+LED for the peaks at approximately 960 (p
Lasers Med Sci 2014 Jan 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24474327

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Cumulative effect of low-level laser therapy and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone repair in rats.

Babuccu C, Keklikoglu N, Baydogan M, Kaynar A

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Istanbul University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address: cihanbabuccu@yahoo.com. Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Istanbul University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Istanbul University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey.

Many studies have assessed the effects of either low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on bone repair; however, an evaluation of the combination of these modalities (LLLT+LIPUS) has not yet been considered. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of LLLT+LIPUS on bone repair. Male Wistar rats (n=128; four groups of 32) were used; the animals underwent a partial tibial bone osteotomy. One group had the osteotomized limb treated with LLLT, the second group with LIPUS, and the third group with the combined treatment protocols of the LLLT and LIPUS groups; the fourth group received no further treatment (control). Each group was divided into two subgroups for assessment at two different time-points, 14 and 21 days. After the completion of treatment rats were sacrificed and the tibias submitted to a three-point bending test or to histomorphometric analysis. Histological evaluation showed increased bone trabeculae, increased vascularization, and decreased inflammation in the LLLT+LIPUS group. Mechanical evaluation revealed increased biomechanical properties including maximum force, maximum stress, and stiffness, in the LLLT+LIPUS group. Combined LLLT+LIPUS treatment enhanced bone healing both histologically and mechanically, shortening the length of the treatment period, when compared to treatment with LLLT or LIPUS alone.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014 Jun 43(6) 769-76

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24467933

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Photobiomodulation with near infrared light mitigates Alzheimer’s disease-related pathology in cerebral cortex – evidence from two transgenic mouse models.

Purushothuman S, Johnstone DM, Nandasena C, Mitrofanis J, Stone J

Bosch Institute, University of Sydney NSW 2006, Australia. Daniel.Johnstone@sydney.edu.au.

INTRODUCTION: Previous work has demonstrated the efficacy of irradiating tissue with red to infrared light in mitigating cerebral pathology and degeneration in animal models of stroke, traumatic brain injury, parkinsonism and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Using mouse models, we explored the neuroprotective effect of near infrared light (NIr) treatment, delivered at an age when substantial pathology is already present in the cerebral cortex. METHODS: We studied two mouse models with AD-related pathologies: the K369I tau transgenic model (K3), engineered to develop neurofibrillary tangles, and the APPswe/PSEN1dE9 transgenic model (APP/PS1), engineered to develop amyloid plaques. Mice were treated with NIr 20 times over a four-week period and histochemistry was used to quantify AD-related pathological hallmarks and other markers of cell damage in the neocortex and hippocampus. RESULTS: In the K3 mice, NIr treatment was associated with a reduction in hyperphosphorylated tau, neurofibrillary tangles and oxidative stress markers (4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine) to near wildtype levels in the neocortex and hippocampus, and with a restoration of expression of the mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase in surviving neurons. In the APP/PS1 mice, NIr treatment was associated with a reduction in the size and number of amyloid-beta plaques in the neocortex and hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS: Our results, in two transgenic mouse models, suggest that NIr may have potential as an effective, minimally-invasive intervention for mitigating, and even reversing, progressive cerebral degenerations.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2014 Jan 3 6(1) 2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24387311

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of equal daily doses achieved by different power densities of low-level laser therapy at 635 nm on open skin wound healing in normal and diabetic rats.

Kilik R, Lakyova L, Sabo J, Kruzliak P, Lacjakova K, Vasilenko T, Vidova M, Longauer F, Radonak J

1st Department of Surgery, Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Medical Faculty and Louis Pasteur University Hospital, Trieda SNP1, 040 11 Kosice, Slovakia. 1st Department of Surgery, Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Medical Faculty and Louis Pasteur University Hospital, Trieda SNP1, 040 11 Kosice, Slovakia. Department of Medical and Clinical Biophysics, Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Medical Faculty, Kosice, Slovakia. Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, International Clinical Research Center, St. Anne’s University Hospital and Masaryk University, Pekarska 53, 656 91 Brno, Czech Republic. 1st Department of Internal Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Medical Faculty and Louis Pasteur University Hospital, Kosice, Slovakia. Department of Surgery, Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Medical Faculty and 1st Private Hospital, Kosice-Saca a.s., Kosice, Slovakia. 1st Department of Surgery, Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Medical Faculty and Louis Pasteur University Hospital, Trieda SNP1, 040 11 Kosice, Slovakia. Department of Forensic Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Medical Faculty, Kosice, Slovakia. 1st Department of Surgery, Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Medical Faculty and Louis Pasteur University Hospital, Trieda SNP1, 040 11 Kosice, Slovakia.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that the molecular mechanism of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is not yet known, the exploitation of phototherapy in clinical medicine and surgery is of great interest. The present study investigates the effects of LLLT on open skin wound healing in normal and diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four round full-thickness skin wounds on dorsum were performed in male adult nondiabetic (n = 24) and diabetic (n = 24) Sprague-Dawley rats. AlGaInP (635 nm, wavelength; 5 J/cm(2), daily dose) was used to deliver power densities of 1, 5, and 15 mW/cm(2) three times daily until euthanasia. RESULTS: PMNL infiltration was lower in the irradiated groups (15 mW/cm(2)). The synthesis and organisation of collagen fibres were consecutively enhanced in the 5 mW/cm(2) and 15 mW/cm(2) groups compared to the others in nondiabetic rats. In the diabetic group the only significant difference was recorded in the ratio PMNL/Ma at 15 mW/cm(2). A significant difference in the number of newly formed capillaries in the irradiated group (5, 15 mW/cm(2)) was recorded on day six after injury compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: LLLT confers a protective effect against excessive inflammatory tissue response; it stimulates neovascularization and the early formation of collagen fibres.

Biomed Res Int 2014 2014 269253

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24551842

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte proliferation in association with increased NO synthesis and upregulation of PCNA and cyclins.

Tsai WC, Cheng JW, Chen JL, Chen CY, Chang HN, Liao YH, Lin MS, Pang JH

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Gueishan Township, Taoyuan County, Taiwan.

Low-level laser therapy is commonly used to treat tendinopathy or tendon injury. Tendon healing requires tenocyte migration to the repair site, followed by proliferation and synthesis of the extracellular matrix. There are few evidence to elucidate that low-level laser promote tenocyte proliferation. This study was designed to determine the effect of laser on tenocyte proliferation. Furthermore, the association of this effect with secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclins D1, E, A, and B1 was investigated. Tenocytes intrinsic to rat Achilles tendon were treated with low-level laser (660 nm). Tenocyte proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and immunocytochemistry with Ki-67 stain. NO in the conditioned medium was measured by ELISA. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the protein expressions of PCNA and cyclins D1, E, A, and B1. The results revealed that tenocytes proliferation was enhanced dose dependently by laser. NO secretion was increased after laser treatment. PCNA and cyclins E, A, and B1 were upregulated by laser. In conclusion, low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte proliferation in a process that is mediated by upregulation of NO, PCNA, and cyclins E, A, and B1.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Feb 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24510281

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy inhibits bronchoconstriction, Th2 inflammation and airway remodeling in allergic asthma.

Silva VR, Marcondes P, Silva M, Villaverde AB, Castro-Faria-Neto HC, Vieira RP, Aimbire F, de Oliveira AP

Nove de Julho University – UNINOVE, Laboratory of Pulmonary and Exercise Immunology – LABPEI, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, PO Box 01504-001, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Department of Science and Technology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, PO Box 12231-280, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil. Nove de Julho University – UNINOVE, Laboratory of Pulmonary and Exercise Immunology – LABPEI, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, PO Box 01504-001, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Unicastelo, PO Box 12247-016, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil. Laboratory of Immunopharmacology, IOC, FIOCRUZ, PO Box 21045-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Nove de Julho University – UNINOVE, Laboratory of Pulmonary and Exercise Immunology – LABPEI, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, PO Box 01504-001, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Department of Science and Technology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, PO Box 12231-280, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: flavio.aimbire@unifesp.br. Nove de Julho University – UNINOVE, Laboratory of Pulmonary and Exercise Immunology – LABPEI, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, PO Box 01504-001, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) controls bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) associated with increased RhoA expression as well as pro-inflammatory mediators associated with NF-kB in acute lung inflammation. Herein, we explore if LLLT can reduce both BHR and Th2 cytokines in allergic asthma. Mice were studied for bronchial reactivity and lung inflammation after antigen challenge. BHR was measured through dose-response curves to acetylcholine. Some animals were pretreated with a RhoA inhibitor before the antigen. LLLT (660 nm, 30 mW and 5.4 J) was applied on the skin over the right upper bronchus and two irradiation protocols were used. Reduction of BHR post LLLT coincided with lower RhoA expression in bronchial muscle as well as reduction in eosinophils and eotaxin. LLLT also diminished ICAM expression and Th2 cytokines as well as signal transducer and activator of transduction 6 (STAT6) levels in lungs from challenged mice. Our results demonstrated that LLLT reduced BHR via RhoA and lessened allergic lung inflammation via STAT6.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2014 Apr 1 194 37-48

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24486607

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Ultrastructure and light microscope analysis of intact skin after a varying number of low level laser irradiations in mice.

Iyomasa MM, Leao JC, Rizzi EC, Issa JP, Dias FJ, Watanabe IS, Iyomasa DM

Department of Morphology, Physiology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Cafe, s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-904 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Department of Morphology, Physiology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Cafe, s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-904 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Department of Morphology, Physiology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Cafe, s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-904 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Department of Morphology, Physiology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Cafe, s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-904 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Avenida Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2415, 05508-000 Butanta, SP, Brazil. Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Avenida Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2415, 05508-000 Butanta, SP, Brazil. Department of Morphology, Physiology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Cafe, s/n, Monte Alegre, 14040-904 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.

Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to relieve pain, inflammation, and wound healing processes. Thus, the skin is overexposed to laser and this effect is not completely understood. This study analyzed the effects of the number of laser applications (three, six, and 10) on the intact skin of the masseteric region in mice of strain HRS/J. The animals (n = 30) were equally divided into control (0 J/cm(2)) and irradiated (20 J/cm(2)), and each of these groups was further equally divided according to the number of laser applications (three, six, and 10) and underwent LLLT on alternate days. Samples were analyzed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The animals receiving applications exhibited open channels more dilated between the keratinocytes and photobiomodulation effect on endothelial cells and fibroblasts by TEM. Under the light microscope after 10 laser applications, the type I collagen decreased (P < 0.05) compared to the three and six applications. Under these experimental conditions, all numbers of applications provided photobiomodulatory effect on the epidermis and dermis, without damage. More studies are needed to standardize the energy density and number of applications recommended for laser therapy to have a better cost-benefit ratio associated with treatment.

Biomed Res Int 2014 2014 506051

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24616895

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of low level laser therapy on chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion.

Chen YJ, Wang YH, Wang CZ, Ho ML, Kuo PL, Huang MH, Chen CH

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Orthopaedic Research Center, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Orthopaedic Research Center, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Orthopaedic Research Center, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Medicine, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are vulnerable to physical injury of the intervertebral foramen, and chronic compression of the DRG (CCD) an result in nerve root damage with persistent morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the DRG in a CCD model and to determine the mechanisms underlying these effects. CCD rats had L-shaped stainless-steel rods inserted into the fourth and fifth lumbar intervertebral foramen, and the rats were then subjected to 0 or 8 J/cm2 LLLT for 8 consecutive days following CCD surgery. Pain and heat stimuli were applied to test for hyperalgesia following CCD. The levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were measured via real-time PCR, and protein expression levels were analyzed through immunohistochemical analyses. Our data indicate that LLLT significantly decreased the tolerable sensitivity to pain and heat stimuli in the CCD groups. The expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta were increased following CCD, and we found that these increases could be reduced by the application of LLLT. Furthermore, the expression of GAP-43 was enhanced by LLLT. In conclusion, LLLT was able to enhance neural regeneration in rats following CCD and improve rat ambulatory behavior. The therapeutic effects of LLLT on the DRG during CCD may be exerted through suppression of the inflammatory response and induction of neuronal repair genes. These results suggest potential clinical applications for LLLT in the treatment of compression-induced neuronal disorders.

PLoS One 2014 9(3) e89894

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24594641

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The effect of low-level laser therapy (810 nm) on root development of immature permanent teeth in dogs.

Fekrazad R, Seraj B, Ghadimi S, Tamiz P, Mottahary P, Dehghan MM

Laser Research Center in Medical Sciences, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Traumatic injuries and dental caries can be a big challenge to immature teeth. In these cases, the main purpose of treatment is to maintain the pulp vitality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy on accelerating the rate of dentinogenesis in pulpotomy of immature permanent teeth (apexogenesis). Three dogs, 4-6 months old, were used in this study. One jaw in each dog was randomly assigned to laser irradiation group. All selected teeth were pulpotomized with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and restored with amalgam. In the laser group, the Ga-Al-As laser (810 nm, 0.3 W, 4 J/cm2, 9 s) was used on buccal and lingual gingiva of each tooth in 48 h intervals for 2 weeks. In order to observe the newly formed dentine, tetracycline was injected on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th day after the operation. Then, ground sections of teeth were observed under a fluorescence microscope. The data was analyzed with Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) test. The mean distance between the lines of tetracycline formed on the 1st and 14th day was significantly higher in the laser group (P = 0.005). Within the limitation of this study, irradiation of Ga-Al-As laser (810 nm) can accelerate the rate of dentinogenesis in apexogenesis of immature permanent teeth with MTA in dogs.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 May 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24858234

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Protective effect of light emitting diode phototherapy on fluorescent light induced retinal damage in Wistar strain albino rats.

Ahamed Basha A, Mathangi DC, Shyamala R, Ramesh Rao K

Department of Physiology, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Kelambakkam, Chennai 603103, India. Electronic address: drahamedbasha@gmail.com. Department of Physiology, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Kelambakkam, Chennai 603103, India. Department of Physiology, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Kelambakkam, Chennai 603103, India. Department of Pathology, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Kelambakkam, Chennai 603103, India.

BACKGROUND: Artificial light at night alters retinal physiology. Several studies have shown that light emitting diode phototherapy protects the retina from the damaging effects of acute light exposure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study has been to elucidate the protective effects of 670nm LED light on retinal damage induced by chronic fluorescent light in Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: group 1 were control (CL), group 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to fluorescent light (FL), LED preexposure+fluorescent light exposure (LL) and only LED light exposure (OL) respectively. All animals were maintained in their specific exposure regime for 30 days. Fluorescent light of 1800lx was exposed between 8 pm to 8 am. Rats were exposed to therapeutic LED light of 670nm of 9J/cm2 at 25mW/cm2 for 6min duration. Histopathological changes in the retina were studied. RESULTS: Animals of the FL group showed a significant reduction in the outer nuclear layer thickness and cell count in addition to the total thickness of the retina. LL group which were exposed to 670nm LED prior to exposure to fluorescent light showed a significant decrease in the degree of damage. CONCLUSIONS: 670nm LED light preexposure is protective to retinal cells against fluorescent light-induced damage.

Ann Anat 2014 May 5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24840621

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Red light is necessary to activate the reproductive axis in chickens independently of the retina of the eye.

Baxter M, Joseph N, Osborne VR, Bedecarrats GY

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G2W1, Canada.

Photoperiod is essential in manipulating sexual maturity and reproductive performance in avian species. Light can be perceived by photoreceptors in the retina of the eye, pineal gland, and hypothalamus. However, the relative sensitivity and specificity of each organ to wavelength, and consequently the physiological effects, may differ. The purpose of this experiment was to test the impacts of light wavelengths on reproduction, growth, and stress in laying hens maintained in cages and to determine whether the retina of the eye is necessary. Individual cages in 3 optically isolated sections of a single room were equipped with LED strips providing either pure green, pure red or white light (red, green, and blue) set to 10 lx (hens levels). The involvement of the retina on mediating the effects of light wavelength was assessed by using a naturally blind line (Smoky Joe) of chickens. Red and white lights resulted in higher estradiol concentrations after photostimulation, indicating stronger ovarian activation, which translated into a significantly lower age at first egg when compared with the green light. Similarly, hens maintained under red and white lights had a longer and higher peak production and higher cumulative egg number than hens under green light. No significant difference in BW gain was observed until sexual maturation. However, from 23 wk of age onward, birds exposed to green light showed higher body growth, which may be the result of their lower egg production. Although corticosterone levels were higher at 20 wk of age in hens under red light, concentrations were below levels that can be considered indicative of stress. Because no significant differences were observed between blind and sighted birds maintained under red and white light, the retina of the eye did not participate in the activation of reproduction. In summary, red light was required to stimulate the reproductive axis whereas green light was ineffective, and the effects of stimulatory wavelengths do not appear to require a functional retina of the eye.

Poult Sci 2014 May 93(5) 1289-97

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24795325

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Role of low-intensity laser therapy on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in mice: is nitric oxide a possible candidate mediator?

Ojaghi R, Sohanaki H, Ghasemi T, Keshavarz F, Yousefifard M, Sadeghipour H

Molecular Biology Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA.

In the present study, the potential involvement of nitric oxide (NO) system in attenuating effects of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs was evaluated. A hundred mice were rendered morphine-dependent using three escalating doses of morphine sulfate during three consecutive days. After the last dose on day 4, animals were given naloxone HCl (2 mg/kg s.c) to induce withdrawal signs. The effects of LILT (12.5 J/cm2) and L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/kg) and their coadministration on escape jump count and stool weight as typical withdrawal signs were assessed. LILT and L-NAME (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg) per se significantly decreased escape jump count and stool weight in morphine-dependent naloxone-treated mice (p < 0.01). Coadministration of LILT and L-NAME (20, 50, and 100 mg/kg) also reduced escape jump and stool weight (p < 0.05) but with no synergetic or additive response. Here, LILT at this fluence may show its maximal effects on NO and therefore no noticeable effects appeared during coadministration use. Moreover, LILT and L-NAME follow the same track of changes in escape jump and stool weight. Conceivably, it seems that LILT acts partly via NO system, but the exact path is still obscure and rather intricate. The precise mechanisms need to be clarified.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Apr 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24711009

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Use of a new fibrin sealant and laser irradiation in the repair of skull defects in rats.

Iatecola A, Barraviera B, Junior RS, Santos GR, Neves JI, Cunha MR

Department of Morphology and Pathology, FMJ – Medical School of Jundiai, JundiaiSP, Brazil. CEVAP/UNESP – Center for the Study of Venomous Animals, BotucatuSP, Brazil. CEVAP/UNESP – Center for the Study of Venomous Animals, BotucatuSP, Brazil. Department of Morphology and Pathology, FMJ – Medical School of Jundiai, JundiaiSP, Brazil. International Center for Research, CIPE/A.C. Camargo Hospital, Sao PauloSP, Brazil. Department of Morphology and Pathology, FMJ – Medical School of Jundiai, JundiaiSP, Brazil.

This study evaluated the osteogenic capacity of a new fibrin sealant (FS) combined with bone graft and laser irradiation in the bone repair. Defects were created in the skull of 30 rats and filled with autogenous graft and FS derived from snake venom. Immediately after implantation, low-power laser was applied on the surgical site. The animals were divided in: control group with autogenous graft (G1), autogenous graft and laser 5 J/cm2 (G2), autogenous graft and laser 7 J/cm2 (G3), autogenous graft and FS (G4), autogenous graft, FS and laser 5 J/cm2 (G5), autogenous graft, FS and laser 7 J/cm2 (G6). The animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after implant. Results showed absence of inflammatory infiltrate in the bone defect. New bone formation occurred in all groups, but it was most intense in G6. Thus, the FS and laser 7 J/cm2 showed osteoconductive capacity and can be an interesting resource to be applied in surgery of bone reconstruction.

Braz Dent J 2013 Sep-Oct 24(5) 456-61

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24474284

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Evaluation of nutritional status in head and neck radio-treated patients affected by oral mucositis: efficacy of class IV laser therapy.

Gobbo M, Ottaviani G, Perinetti G, Ciriello F, Beorchia A, Giacca M, Di Lenarda R, Rupel K, Tirelli G, Zacchigna S, Biasotto M

Division of Oral Medicine and Pathology, Ospedale Maggiore, Piazza dell’Ospitale, 34100, Trieste, Italy.

PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the role of class IV laser therapy in the amelioration of nutritional status of patients affected by oral mucositis due to radiotherapy of the head and neck region during oncological treatment. METHODS: Sixty-three oncological patients were included in this study. All patients were affected by tumors in the head and neck region and had developed oral mucositis during radiotherapy. Forty-two patients had been treated by high-power laser therapy whereas 21 patients had been managed with traditional medications. Data collection included weight measurement (kilogram) and body mass index (BMI) calculation (mass (kilogram)/(height) (square meter)) on the first and last day of radiotherapy. In addition, gender, age, pathology, and the kind of oncological treatment have been considered. RESULTS: Laser-treated patients decreased less in BMI during radiotherapy (p = 0.000). Patients treated by combined oncological treatments (radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and/or surgery) had a higher weight loss during radiotherapy (p = 0.015). According to a multivariate regression analysis, the only variable which significantly influenced the reduction of BMI was laser treatment (p = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: Laser therapy is actually considered one of the recommended remedies for the healing of oral mucositis due to cancer treatments. Healing of mucositis can deeply influence the feeding capacity of patients, through reduction of pain and improvement of chewing and swallowing capacities. It also allows lowering the costs for hospitalization and supportive care. Laser therapy should become part of nutritional interventions in oncological patients affected by oral mucositis.

Support Care Cancer 2014 Feb 20

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24554204

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

LED light attenuation through human dentin: a first step toward pulp photobiomodulation after cavity preparation.

Turrioni AP, Alonso JR, Basso FG, Moriyama LT, Hebling J, Bagnato VS, De Souza CC

PURPOSE: To evaluate the transdentinal light attenuation of LED at three wavelengths through different dentin thicknesses, simulating cavity preparations of different depths. METHODS: Forty-two dentin discs of three thicknesses (0.2, 0.5 and 1 mm; n = 14) were prepared from the coronal dentin of extracted sound human molars. The discs were illuminated with a LED light at three wavelengths (450+/-10 nm, 630 +/-10 nm and 850 +/-10 nm) to determine light attenuation. Light transmittance was also measured by spectrophotometry. RESULTS: In terms of minimum (0.2 mm) and maximum (1.0 mm) dentin thicknesses, the percentage of light attenuation varied from 49.3% to 69.9% for blue light, 42.9% to 58.5% for red light and 39.3% to 46.8% for infrared. For transmittance values, an increase was observed for all thicknesses according to greater wavelengths, and the largest variation occurred for the 0.2 mm thickness. All three wavelengths were able to pass through the dentin barrier at different thicknesses. Furthermore, the LED power loss and transmittance showed wide variations, depending on dentin thickness and wavelength.

Am J Dent 2013 Dec 26(6) 319-23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24640435

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser therapy in bone repair in rats: analysis of bone optical density.

Barbosa D, Villaverde AG, LoschiavoArisawa EA, de Souza RA

Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brasil, Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brasil. Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brasil, Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brasil. Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brasil, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brasil. Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Muzambinho, MG, Brasil, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Muzambinho, MG, Brasil.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate, by digital radiology, the bone regeneration process in rats submitted to femoral osteotomy and treated with low power laser therapy. METHODS: Forty-five Wistar rats were subjected to transverse osteotomy of the right femur and divided randomly into three experimental groups (n = 15): animals not treated with laser therapy G (C), animals that received laser therapy with lambda: 660nm G (660nm) and animals that received laser therapy with lambda: 830nm G (830nm). Animals were sacrificed after 7, 14 and 21 days. The bone calluses were evaluated by digital X-ray at 65 kVp, 7mA and 0.032 s exposures. RESULTS: The values obtained were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. The significance level adopted was 5%. The groups G (C), G (660nm), and G (830nm) at the 7(th) day showed a significant bone development, with p <0.0116; the groups G (C), G (660nm), and G (830nm) at the 14(th) day showed values of p <0.0001; at the 21(st) day,a higher degree of bone repair were observed in group G (830nm), and G (660nm), with p
Acta Ortop Bras 2014 22(2) 71-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24868182

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-power laser therapy in chemical-induced oral mucositis: a case study.

Medeiros NJ, Medeiros NF, dos Santos CC, Parente GV, de Carvalho JN

Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. Programa Saude da Familia. Academica de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. Academica de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, UFCG).

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2013 Nov-Dec 79(6) 792

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24474495

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Influence of the lambda780nm laser light on the repair of surgical bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic micro-granular hydroxylapatite+Beta-Calcium triphosphate.

Soares LG, Marques AM, Guarda MG, Aciole JM, dos Santos JN, Pinheiro AL

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA 40110-150, Brazil. Electronic address: luizguilherme_@hotmail.com. Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA 40110-150, Brazil; National Institute of Optics and Photonics, University of Sao Paulo, Physics Institute of Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP 13560-970, Brazil. Electronic address: cidamarques77@hotmail.com. Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA 40110-150, Brazil. Electronic address: mileguarda@hotmail.com. Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA 40110-150, Brazil. Electronic address: jouber_aciole@hotmail.com. Laboratory of Surgical Pathology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA 40110-150, Brazil. Electronic address: jeanpatol@gmail.com. Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, BA 40110-150, Brazil; National Institute of Optics and Photonics, University of Sao Paulo, Physics Institute of Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP 13560-970, Brazil; Camilo Castelo Branco University, Nucleo do Parque Tecnologico de Sao Jose dos Campos:Rod. Presidente Dutra Km 139, Eugenio de Melo, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12247-004, Brazil. Electronic address: albp@ufba.br.

The treatment of bone loss due to different etiologic factors is difficult and many techniques aim to improve repair, including a wide range of biomaterials and, recently, photobioengineering. This work aimed to assess, through histological analysis The aim of this study was to assess, by light microscopy, the repair of bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic micro-granular Calcium hydroxyapatite (HA)+Beta-TCP associated or not with Laser phototherapy – LPT (lambda780nm). Forty rats were divided into 4 groups each subdivided into 2 subgroups according to the time of sacrifice (15 and 30days). Surgical bone defects were made on femur of each animal with a trephine drill. On animals of Clot group the defect was filled only by blood clot, on Laser group the defect filled with the clot was further irradiated. On animals of Biomaterial and Laser+Biomaterial groups the defect was filled by biomaterial and the last one was further irradiated (lambda780nm, 70mW, spot size approximately 0.4cm(2), 20J/cm(2)-session, 140J/cm(2)-treatment) in four points around the defect at 48-h intervals and repeated for 2weeks. At both 15th and 30th days following sacrifice, samples were taken and analyzed by light microscopy. Many similarities were observed histologically between groups on regards bone reabsorption and neoformation, inflammatory infiltrate and collagen deposition. The criterion degree of maturation, marked by the presence of basophilic lines, indicated that the use of LPT associated with HA+Beta TCP graft, resulted in more advanced stage of bone repair at the end of the experiment.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2014 Feb 5 131 16-23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24463564

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Mast cell curve-response in partial achilles tendon rupture after 830 nm phototherapy.

Pinfildi CE, da Silva EP, Folha RA, Turchetto PC, Monteiro PP, Antunes A, Hochman BS

1 Department of Human Movement Science, University Federal of Sao Paulo – UNIFESP – Campus Baixada Santista , Santos, SP, Brazil .

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify mast cells at different time intervals after partial Achilles tendon rupture in rats treated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). BACKGROUND DATA: There is a high incidence of lesions and ruptures in the Achilles tendon that can take weeks and even months to heal completely. As the mast cells help in the healing repair phase, and LLLT has favorable effects on this tissue repair process, study of this modality on the quantity of mastocytes in the ruptured tendon is relevant. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats were subjected to partial Achilles’ tendon rupture by direct trauma, randomized into 10 groups, and then divided into the group treated with 80 mW aluminum gallium arsenide infrared laser diode, continuous wave, 2.8 W/cm(2) power density, 40 J/cm(2) energy density, and 1.12 J total energy, and the simulation group. Both the groups were subdivided according to the histological assessment period of the sample, either 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 2 days, or 3 days after the rupture, to quantify the mastocytes in the Achilles’ tendon. RESULTS: The group subjected to LLLT presented a greater quantity of mastocytes in the periods of 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 2 days, and 3 days after rupture, compared with the simulation groups, but differences were detected between the sample assessment periods only in the simulation group. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT was shown to increase the quantity of mastocytes in the assessment periods compared with the simulation groups.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Feb 32(2) 88-92

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24456187

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of laser therapy in peripheral nerve regeneration.

Sene GA, Sousa FF, Fazan VS, Barbieri CH

Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto-Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: The influence of dose of low power lasertherapy (AsGaAl, 830 nm) on the regeneration of the fibular nerve of rats after a crush injury was evaluated by means of the functional gait analysis and histomorphometric parameters. METHODS: Controlled crush injury of the right common fibular nerve, immediately followed by increasing doses (G1: no irradiation; G2: simulated; G3: 5 J/cm(2); G4: 10 J/cm(2); G5: 20 J/cm(2)) laser irradiation directly on the lesion site for 21 consecutive days. Functional gait analysis was carried out at weekly intervals by measuring the peroneal/fibular functional index (PFI). The animals were killed on the 21(st) postoperative day for removal of the fibular nerve, which was prepared for the histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: The PFI progressively increased during the observation period in all groups, without significant differences between them (p>0.05). The transverse nerve area was significantly wider in group 2 than in groups 3 and 4, while fiber density was significantly greater in group 4 than in all remaining groups. CONCLUSION: The low power AsGaAl laser irradiation did not accelerate nerve recovery with any of the doses used. Level of Evidence I, Therapeutic Studies Investigating the Results of Treatment.

Acta Ortop Bras 2013 21(5) 266-70

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24453680

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Lack of effectiveness of laser therapy applied to the nerve course and the correspondent medullary roots.

Sousa FF, Ribeiro TL, Fazan VP, Barbieri CH

Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto da Universidade de Sao Paulo – Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto da Universidade de Sao Paulo – Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto da Universidade de Sao Paulo – Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto da Universidade de Sao Paulo – Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of low intensity laser irradiation on the regeneration of the fibular nerve of rats after crush injury. METHODS: Twenty-five rats were used, divided into three groups: 1) intact nerve, no treatment; 2) crushed nerve, no treatment; 3) crush injury, laser irradiation applied on the medullary region corresponding to the roots of the sciatic nerve and subsequently on the course of the damaged nerve. Laser irradiation was carried out for 14 consecutive days. RESULTS: Animals were evaluated by functional gait analysis with the peroneal functional index and by histomorphometric analysis using the total number of myelinated nerve fibers and their density, total number of Schwann cells, total number of blood vessels and the occupied area, minimum diameter of the fiber diameter and G-quotient. CONCLUSION: According to the statistical analysis there was no significant difference among groups and the authors conclude that low intensity laser irradiation has little or no influence on nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Laboratory investigation .

Acta Ortop Bras 2013 Mar 21(2) 92-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24453650

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Assessment of functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats submitted to low-level laser therapy with different fluences. An experimental study: laser in functional recovery in rats.

Marcolino AM, Barbosa RI, das Neves LM, Mazzer N, de Jesus Guirro RR, de Cassia Registro Fonseca M

Post-Graduation Progamme Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, Medical School of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP Brazil ; Departamento de Biomecanica, Medicina e Reabilitacao do Aparelho Locomotor, FMRP-USP, Av; Bandeirantes, 3900, CEP 14049-900 Ribeirao Preto, SP Brazil. Post-Graduation Progamme Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, Medical School of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP Brazil. Post-Graduation Progamme Rehabilitation and Functional Performance, Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, Medical School of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP Brazil. Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, Medical School of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP Brazil. Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, Medical School of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP Brazil. Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, Medical School of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP Brazil.

Peripheral nerve lesions caused sensory and motor deficits along the distribution of the injured nerve. Numerous researches have been carried out to enhance and/or accelerate the recovery of such lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the functional recovery of sciatic nerve in rats subjected to different fluences of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Thirty-six animals were randomly divided into four groups: one consisting of sham rats and three others irradiated with progressive fluencies of 10 J/cm(2), 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) of laser AsGaAl (830 nm) for 21 consecutive days. They were evaluated by the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) method. The crush injury was performed by using a portable device with dead weight of 5,000 g whose load was applied for 10 min. A digital camera was used to record the footprints left on the acrylic track, before surgery and after, on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days. The results also showed that on the 7th day, there was a difference between the groups irradiated with 40 J/cm(2), when compared with the sham group (p < 0.05). On the 14th day the groups irradiated with 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) also presented better results when compared with sham, however, on the 21st day, no inter-group difference was found (p > 0.05). It was possible to observe that the LLLT at fluency of 40 J/cm(2) and 80 J/cm(2) had a positive influence on the acceleration of the functional nerve recovery.

J Hand Microsurg 2013 Dec 5(2) 49-53

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24426674

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The efficacy of the use of IR laser phototherapy (LPT) on bone defect grafted with biphasic ceramic on rats with iron deficiency anemia: Raman spectroscopy analysis.

Rosa CB, de Castro IC, Junior JA, Aragao JS, Barbosa AF, Silveira L Jr, Pinheiro AL

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, Salvador, BA, CEP 40110-150, Brazil, becherrosa@gmail.com.

The aim of this study was to evaluate bone repair in anemic and non-anemic rats submitted or not to laser phototherapy and hydroxyapatite graft. Animals were divided in eight groups of five animals: Clot; Laser; Graft; Graft + Laser; iron deficiency anemia (IDA) + Clot; IDA + Laser; IDA + graft; IDA + graft + Laser. When appropriate irradiation with infrared laser was done during 15 days at a 48-h interval. Animals were killed at day 30; samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Three shifts were studied and statistically analyzed: ~960, ~1,070, and ~1,454 cm-1. Graft + laser showed highest ~960 peak was statistically different from all other healthy groups. No statistical difference was found between Clot and IDA + Clot in any shift. The IDA + Graft and IDA + Graft + Laser groups had low mean peak values for shifts ~960, ~1,070, and ~1,454 cm-1. The results in this study indicate that using hydroxyapatite (HA) and laser irradiation in healthy subjects is favorable to mineral deposition and bone maturation, this being of importance for some groups at risk, such as astronauts. In iron deficiency anemia cases, the use of graft, associated or not to laser irradiation, resulted in low collagen and low carbonate and phosphate HA.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Jan 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24414036

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Metabonomic analysis reveals efficient ameliorating effects of acupoint stimulations on the menopause-caused alterations in mammalian metabolism.

Zhang L, Wang Y, Xu Y, Lei H, Zhao Y, Li H, Lin X, Chen G, Tang H

CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Biospectroscopy and Metabonomics Centre, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China. 1] CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Biospectroscopy and Metabonomics Centre, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China [2] Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, P. R. China. Clinical Medical College of Acupuncture and Rehabilitation, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405, P. R. China. CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Biospectroscopy and Metabonomics Centre, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China. CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Biospectroscopy and Metabonomics Centre, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China. CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Biospectroscopy and Metabonomics Centre, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China. Affiliated BaoAn TCM Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Shenzhen, 518101, China. Affiliated BaoAn TCM Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Shenzhen, 518101, China. 1] CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Biospectroscopy and Metabonomics Centre, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China [2] State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Biospectroscopy and Metabolomics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, P. R. China.

Acupoint stimulations are effective in ameliorating symptoms of menopause which is an unavoidable ageing consequence for women. To understand the mechanistic aspects of such treatments, we systematically analyzed the effects of acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding on the ovariectomy-induced rat metabolic changes using NMR and GC-FID/MS methods. Results showed that ovariectomization (OVX) caused comprehensive metabolic changes in lipid peroxidation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline and amino acid metabolisms. Both acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding ameliorated the OVX-caused metabonomic changes more effectively than hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with nilestriol. Such effects of acupoint stimulations were highlighted in alleviating lipid peroxidation, restoring glucose homeostasis and partial reversion of the OVX-altered amino acid metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the menopause effects on mammalian biochemistry and beneficial effects of acupoint stimulations in comparison with HRT, demonstrating metabonomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in disease prognosis and developments of effective therapies.

Sci Rep 2014 4 3641

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24407431

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces the COX-2 mRNA expression in both subplantar and total brain tissues in the model of peripheral inflammation induced by administration of carrageenan.

Prianti AC Jr, Silva JA Jr, Dos Santos RF, Rosseti IB, Costa MS

Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento-IP&D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba-UNIVAP, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, Urbanova, CEP: 12244-000, SP, Brazil.

In the classical model of edema formation and hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan administration in rat paw, the increase in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in the central nervous system (CNS) contributes to the severity of the inflammatory and pain responses. Prostaglandins are generated by the cyclooxygenase (COX). There are two distinct COX isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2. In inflammatory tissues, COX-2 is greatly expressed producing proinflammatory prostaglandins (PGs). Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in the treatment of inflammatory pathologies, reducing both pain and acute inflammatory process. Herein we studied the effect of LLLT on both COX-2 and COX-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in either subplantar or brain tissues taken from rats treated with carrageenan. The experiment was designed as follows: A1 (saline), A2 (carrageenan-0.5 mg/paw), A3 (carrageenan-0.5 mg/paw + LLLT), A4 (carrageenan-1.0 mg/paw), and A5 (carrageenan-1.0 mg/paw + LLLT). Animals from the A3 and A5 groups were irradiated at 1 h after carrageenan administration, using a diode laser with an output power of 30 mW and a wavelength of 660 nm. The laser beam covered an area of 0.785 cm2, resulting in an energy dosage of 7.5 J/cm2. Both COX-2 and COX-1 mRNAs were measured by RT-PCR. Six hours after carrageenan administration, COX-2 mRNA expression was significantly increased both in the subplantar (2.2-4.1-fold) and total brain (8.65-13.79-fold) tissues. COX-1 mRNA expression was not changed. LLLT (7.5 J/cm2) reduced significantly the COX-2 mRNA expression both in the subplantar (~2.5-fold) and brain (4.84-9.67-fold) tissues. The results show that LLLT is able to reduce COX-2 mRNA expression. It is possible that the mechanism of LLLT decreasing hyperalgesia is also related to its effect in reducing the COX-2 expression in the CNS.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Feb 16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24532118

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-Level Laser Therapy with 810 nm Wavelength Improves Skin Wound Healing in Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

Dancakova L, Vasilenko T, Kovac I, Jakubcova K, Holly M, Revajova V, Sabol F, Tomori Z, Iversen M, Gal P, Bjordal JM

1 Department of Pathological Anatomy, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy , Kosice, Slovak Republic.

Abstract Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can reverse the impaired wound healing process in diabetic rats. Background data: Impaired wound healing in diabetic patients represents a major health problem. Recent studies have indicated that LLLT may improve wound healing in diabetic rats, but the optimal treatment parameters are still unknown. Materials and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=21) were randomly divided into three groups: a healthy control group, a diabetic sham-treated group, and a diabetic LLLT-treated group. Diabetes mellitus was then induced by streptozotocin administration to the two diabetic groups. One 4 cm long full thickness skin incision and one full thickness circular excision (diameter=4 mm) were performed on the back of each rat. An infrared 810 nm laser with an output of 30 mW, a power density of 30 mW/cm(2), and a spot size of 1 cm(2) was used to irradiate each wound for 30 sec (daily dose of 0.9 J/cm(2)/wound/day). Results: In diabetic rats, the histology of LLLT-treated excisions revealed a similar healing response to that in nondiabetic controls, with significantly more mature granulation tissue than in the sham-treated diabetic control group. LLLT reduced the loss of tensile strength, and increased the incision wound stiffness significantly compared with sham-irradiated rats, but this did not achieve the same level as in the nondiabetic controls. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that infrared LLLT can improve wound healing in diabetic rats. Nevertheless, further research needs to be performed to evaluate the exact underlying mechanism and to further optimize LLLT parameters for clinical use.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Apr 32(4) 198-204

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24661084

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of LLLT on autogenous bone grafts in the repair of critical size defects in the calvaria of immunosuppressed rats.

Garcia VG, Sahyon AS, Longo M, Fernandes LA, Gualberto Junior EC, Novaes VC, Ervolino E, de Almeida JM, Theodoro LH

Group of Research and Study on Laser in Dentistry (GEPLO), Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic, Division of Periodontics, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP (“Univ. Estadual Paulista”), Aracatuba, SP, Brazil; Department of Periodontics, University Center of the Educational Foundation of Barretos (UNIFEB), Barretos, SP, Brazil. Group of Research and Study on Laser in Dentistry (GEPLO), Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic, Division of Periodontics, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP (“Univ. Estadual Paulista”), Aracatuba, SP, Brazil. Group of Research and Study on Laser in Dentistry (GEPLO), Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic, Division of Periodontics, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP (“Univ. Estadual Paulista”), Aracatuba, SP, Brazil. Department of Clinic and Surgery, Federal of University Alfenas, Alfenas, MG, Brazil. Group of Research and Study on Laser in Dentistry (GEPLO), Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic, Division of Periodontics, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP (“Univ. Estadual Paulista”), Aracatuba, SP, Brazil. Group of Research and Study on Laser in Dentistry (GEPLO), Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic, Division of Periodontics, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP (“Univ. Estadual Paulista”), Aracatuba, SP, Brazil. Department of Basic Science, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP (“Univ. Estadual Paulista”), Aracatuba, SP, Brazil. Group of Research and Study on Laser in Dentistry (GEPLO), Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic, Division of Periodontics, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP (“Univ. Estadual Paulista”), Aracatuba, SP, Brazil. Group of Research and Study on Laser in Dentistry (GEPLO), Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic, Division of Periodontics, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP (“Univ. Estadual Paulista”), Aracatuba, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: letheodoro@uol.com.br.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the bone repair of critical size defects (CSDs) filled with autogenous bone in the calvaria of immunosuppressed rats. A 5 mm-diameter CSD was created in the calvaria of 30 rats. The animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 6): Control (C) – the defect was filled with a blood clot; Dexamethasone (D) – dexamethasone treatment, and the defect was filled with a blood clot; Autogenous bone (AB) – dexamethasone treatment, and the defect was filled with autogenous bone; LLLT – dexamethasone treatment, and the defect received LLLT (660 nm; 35 mW; 24.7 J/cm2); and AB + LLLT – dexamethasone treatment, and the defect was filled with autogenous bone and received LLLT. All animals were euthanized at 30 postoperative days. Histometric and histological analyses were performed. The new bone area (NBA) was calculated as the percentage of the total area of the original defect. Data were analysed statistically (an analysis of variance and Tukey’s test; P < 0.05). The AB + LLLT group showed the largest NBA of all groups (P < 0.05). The use of LLLT with AB effectively stimulated bone formation in CSDs in the calvaria of immunosuppressed rats.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2014 Feb 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24657115

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of pre-irradiation of low-level laser therapy with different doses and wavelengths in skeletal muscle performance, fatigue, and skeletal muscle damage induced by tetanic contractions in rats.

Santos LA, Marcos RL, Tomazoni SS, Vanin AA, Antonialli FC, Grandinetti VD, Albuquerque-Pontes GM, de Paiva PR, Lopes-Martins RA, de Carvalho PD, Bjordal JM, Leal-Junior EC

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Rua Vergueiro, 235, 01504-001, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) immediately before tetanic contractions in skeletal muscle fatigue development and possible tissue damage. Male Wistar rats were divided into two control groups and nine active LLLT groups receiving one of three different laser doses (1, 3, and 10 J) with three different wavelengths (660, 830, and 905 nm) before six tetanic contractions induced by electrical stimulation. Skeletal muscle fatigue development was defined by the percentage (%) of the initial force of each contraction and time until 50 % decay of initial force, while total work was calculated for all six contractions combined. Blood and muscle samples were taken immediately after the sixth contraction. Several LLLT doses showed some positive effects on peak force and time to decay for one or more contractions, but in terms of total work, only 3 J/660 nm and 1 J/905 nm wavelengths prevented significantly (p < 0.05) the development of skeletal muscle fatigue. All doses with wavelengths of 905 nm but only the dose of 1 J with 660 nm wavelength decreased creatine kinase (CK) activity (p < 0.05). Qualitative assessment of morphology revealed lesser tissue damage in most LLLT-treated groups, with doses of 1-3 J/660 nm and 1, 3, and 10 J/905 nm providing the best results. Optimal doses of LLLT significantly delayed the development skeletal muscle performance and protected skeletal muscle tissue against damage. Our findings also demonstrate that optimal doses are partly wavelength specific and, consequently, must be differentiated to obtain optimal effects on development of skeletal muscle fatigue and tissue preservation. Our findings also lead us to think that the combined use of wavelengths at the same time can represent a therapeutic advantage in clinical settings.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Mar 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24651950

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Assessment of the use of LED phototherapy on bone defects grafted with hydroxyapatite on rats with iron-deficiency anemia and nonanemic: a Raman spectroscopy analysis.

de Castro IC, Rosa CB, Dos Reis Junior JA, Moreira LG, Aragao JS, Barbosa AF, Silveira L Jr, Pinheiro AL

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, Salvador, BA, CEP 40110-150, Brazil, isabeledecastro@gmail.com.

This study aimed to assess bone repair in defects grafted or not with hydroxyapatite (HA) on healthy and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) rats submitted or not to LED phototherapy (LED-PT) by Raman spectroscopy. The animals were divided in eight groups with five rats each: Clot; Clot + LED; IDA + Clot; IDA + LED; Graft; Graft + LED; IDA + Graft; and IDA + Graft + LED. When appropriated, irradiation with IR LED (lambda850 +/- 10 nm, 150 mW, CW, Phi = 0.5 cm2, 16 J/cm2, 15 days) was carried out. Raman shifts: approximately 960 [symmetric PO4 stretching (phosphate apatite)], approximately 1,070 [symmetric CO3 stretching (B-type carbonate apatite)], and approximately 1,454 cm-1 [CH2/CH3 bending in organics (protein)] were analyzed. The mean peak values for approximately 960, approximately 1,070, and approximately 1,454 cm-1 were nonsignificantly different on healthy or anemic rats. The group IDA + Graft + LED showed the lowest mean values for the peak approximately 960 cm-1 when compared with the irradiated IDA group or not (p
Lasers Med Sci 2014 Mar 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24643668

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of 660- and 980-nm low-level laser therapy on neuropathic pain relief following chronic constriction injury in rat sciatic nerve.

Masoumipoor M, Jameie SB, Janzadeh A, Nasirinezhad F, Soleimani M, Kerdary M

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Sciences and Researches Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Neuropathic pain (NP) is one of the most suffered conditions in medical disciplines. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in the induction of NP was studied by many researchers. Neuropathies lead to medical, social, and economic isolation of the patient, so various therapies were used to treat or reduce it. During the recent years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in certain areas of medicine and rehabilitation. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) is a well-known model for neuropathic pain studies. In order to find the effects of different wavelengths of LLLT on the injured sciatic nerve, the present research was done. Thirty Wistar adult male rats (230-320 g) were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10). To induce neuropathic pain for the sciatic nerve, the CCI technique was used. Low-level laser of 660 and 980 nm was used for two consecutive weeks. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia was done before and after surgery on days 7 and 14, respectively. Paw withdrawal thresholds were also evaluated. CCI decreased the pain threshold, whereas both wavelengths of LLLT for 2 weeks increased mechanical and thermal threshold significantly. A comparison of the mechanical and thermal threshold showed a significant difference between the therapeutic effects of the two groups that received LLLT. Based on our findings, the laser with a 660-nm wavelength had better therapeutic effects than the laser with a 980-nm wavelength, so the former one may be used for clinical application in neuropathic cases; however, it needs more future studies.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Mar 16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24634001

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Do laser/LED phototherapies influence the outcome of the repair of surgical bone defects grafted with biphasic synthetic microgranular HA + beta-tricalcium phosphate? A Raman spectroscopy study.

Soares LG, Marques AM, Aciole JM, da Guarda MG, Cangussu MC, Silveira L Jr, Pinheiro AL

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, Salvador, BA, 40110-150, Brazil.

The treatment of bone loss is difficult. Many techniques are proposed to improve repair, including biomaterials and, recently, phototherapies. This work studied bone mineralization by Raman spectroscopy assessing intensities of Raman peaks of both inorganic ( approximately 960, approximately 1,070 cm-1) and organic ( approximately 1,454 cm-1) contents in animal model. Six groups were studied: clot, laser, light-emitting diode (LED), biomaterial (HA + beta-tricalcium phosphate), laser + biomaterial, and LED + biomaterial. Defects at right tibia were performed with a drill. When indicated, defects were further irradiated at a 48-h interval during 2 weeks. At the 15th and 30th days, the tibias were withdrawn and analyzed. The approximately 960-cm-1 peak was significantly affected by phototherapy on both clot- and biomaterial-filled defects. The approximately 1,070-cm-1 peak was affected by both time and the use of the LED light on clot-filled defects. On biomaterial-filled defects, only the use of the laser light significantly influenced the outcome. No significant influence of either the time or the use of the light was detected on clot-filled defects as regards the approximately 1,454-cm-1 peak. Raman intensities of both mineral and matrix components indicated that the use of laser and LED phototherapies improved the repair of bone defects grafted or not with biphasic synthetic microgranular HA + beta-tricalcium phosphate.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Mar 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24627284

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Evaluating the effect of low-level laser therapy on healing of tentomized Achilles tendon in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by light microscopical and gene expression examinations.

Aliodoust M, Bayat M, Jalili MR, Sharifian Z, Dadpay M, Akbari M, Bayat M, Khoshvaghti A, Bayat H

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Biology, Medical Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Tendon healing is impaired in individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). According to research, there is considerable improvement in the healing of surgically tenotomized Achilles tendons following low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in non-diabetic, healthy animals. This study uses light microscopic (LM) and semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses to evaluate the ability of LLLT in healing Achilles tendons from streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. A total of 88 rats were randomly divided into two groups, non-diabetic and diabetic. DM was induced in the rats by injections of STZ. The right Achilles tendons of all rats were tenotomized 1 month after administration of STZ. Laser-treated rats were treated with a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser that had a 632.8-nm wavelength and 7.2-mW average power. Experimental group rats received a daily dose of 0.014 J (energy density, 2.9 J/cm2). Control rats did not receive LLLT. Animals were sacrificed on days 5, 10, and 15 post-operatively for semi-quantitative LM and semi-quantitative RT-PCR examinations of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) gene expression. The chi-square test showed that LLLT significantly reduced inflammation in non-diabetic rats compared with their non-diabetic controls (p = 0.02). LLLT significantly decreased inflammation in diabetic rats on days 5 (p = 0.03) and 10 (p = 0.02) compared to the corresponding control diabetic rats. According to the student’s t test, LLLT significantly increased TGF-beta1 gene expression in healthy (p = 0.000) and diabetic (p = 0.000) rats compared to their relevant controls. The He-Ne laser was effective in altering the inflammatory reaction and increasing TGF-beta1 gene production.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Mar 13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24622817

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Superpulsed low-level laser therapy protects skeletal muscle of mdx mice against damage, inflammation and morphological changes delaying dystrophy progression.

Leal-Junior EC, de Almeida P, Tomazoni SS, de Carvalho Pde T, Lopes-Martins RA, Frigo L, Joensen J, Johnson MI, Bjordal JM

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Department of Pharmacology, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Department of Pharmacology, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Biological Sciences and Health Center, Cruzeiro do Sul University, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Department of Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy and Radiography, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway. Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, United Kingdom. Physiotherapy Research Group, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

AIM: To evaluate the effects of preventive treatment with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on progression of dystrophy in mdx mice. METHODS: Ten animals were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups treated with superpulsed LLLT (904 nm, 15 mW, 700 Hz, 1 J) or placebo-LLLT at one point overlying the tibialis anterior muscle (bilaterally) 5 times per week for 14 weeks (from 6th to 20th week of age). Morphological changes, creatine kinase (CK) activity and mRNA gene expression were assessed in animals at 20th week of age. RESULTS: Animals treated with LLLT showed very few morphological changes in skeletal muscle, with less atrophy and fibrosis than animals treated with placebo-LLLT. CK was significantly lower (p=0.0203) in animals treated with LLLT (864.70 U.l-1, SEM 226.10) than placebo (1708.00 U.l-1, SEM 184.60). mRNA gene expression of inflammatory markers was significantly decreased by treatment with LLLT (p<0.05): TNF-alpha (placebo-control=0.51 microg/microl [SEM 0.12], – LLLT=0.048 microg/microl [SEM 0.01]), IL-1beta (placebo-control=2.292 microg/microl [SEM 0.74], – LLLT=0.12 microg/microl [SEM 0.03]), IL-6 (placebo-control=3.946 microg/microl [SEM 0.98], – LLLT=0.854 microg/microl [SEM 0.33]), IL-10 (placebo-control=1.116 microg/microl [SEM 0.22], – LLLT=0.352 microg/microl [SEM 0.15]), and COX-2 (placebo-control=4.984 microg/microl [SEM 1.18], LLLT=1.470 microg/microl [SEM 0.73]). CONCLUSION: Irradiation of superpulsed LLLT on successive days five times per week for 14 weeks decreased morphological changes, skeletal muscle damage and inflammation in mdx mice. This indicates that LLLT has potential to decrease progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

PLoS One 2014 9(3) e89453

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24599021

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Therapeutic Effects of Full Spectrum Light on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-like Lesions in NC/Nga Mice.

Kwon TR, Mun SK, Oh CT, Hong H, Choi YS, Kim BJ, Kim BJ

Department of Medicine, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea; Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Full spectrum light (FSL) includes UVA, visible light, and infrared light. Many studies have investigated the application of FSL in severe cases of atopic dermatitis (AD) in humans; however, FSL has not yet been studied in an animal model. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of FSL on AD-like skin lesions using NC/Nga mice, with the aim of mitigating itching and attenuating the expression of adhesion molecules. We examined the effects of FSL on mite allergen-treated NC/Nga mice by assessing skin symptom severity, ear thickness, serum IgE levels, and the cytokine expression. We examined the histology of lesions using hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue, and immunohistochemical staining. Our findings suggest that FSL phototherapy exerts positive therapeutic effects on Dermatophagoides farinae (Df)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by reducing IgE levels, thus promoting recovery of the skin barrier. The mechanisms by which FSL phototherapy exerts its effects may also involve the inhibition of scratching behavior, reduction of IL-6 levels, and reductions in adhesion molecule expression. The present study indicates that FSL phototherapy inhibits the development of AD in NC/Nga mice by suppressing cytokine, chemokine, and adhesion molecule expression, and thus, could potentially be useful in treating AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Photochem Photobiol 2014 Apr 28

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24773136

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of LPT and BioOss(R) as single and combined treatment in an experimental model of bone defect healing in rats.

Havlucu U, Bolukbasi N, Yeniyol S, Cetinel S, Ozdemir T

a Istanbul University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Implantology, Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract The present study assesses histopathologically and histomorphometrically the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) photobiomodulation therapy (LPT) on bone healing in BioOss(R) filled femoral defects of rats. It has been reported that LPT modulates cellular metabolic processes, leading to an enhanced regenerative potential for biological tissues. Thirty-six male Wistar rats with femoral bone defects were divided into four groups: Defect Group (empty bone defect, without application of LPT); Graft Group (bone defect filled with BioOss(R), without application of LPT); (Defect+LPT) Group (empty bone defect, with application of LPT) and (Graft+LPT) Group (bone defect filled with BioOss(R), with application of LPT). An OsseoPulse(R) LED device (wavelength: 618 nm; output power: 20 mW/cm2) was initiated 24 h post-surgery and performed every 24 h for 7, 14, and 21 days. LPT applied and BioOss(R) filled defects presented a higher amount of new bone formation with trabeculae formation. These defects showed statistically significant lower values of inflammation severity and fewer remnants of biomaterial were present. Within the limitations of this study, LPT has positive effects on bone healing histopathologically and histomorphometrically for the defects filled with BioOss(R) 3 weeks after the rats’ femora injury.

J Oral Implantol 2014 Apr 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24766197

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

New LLLT protocol to speed up the bone healing process-histometric and immunohistochemical analysis in rat calvarial bone defect.

Marques L, Holgado LA, Francischone LA, Ximenez JP, Okamoto R, Kinoshita A

Universidade Sagrado Coracao, Rua Irma Arminda 10-50, Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 17.011-160.

A new low-level laser therapy (LLLT) protocol is proposed and compared to another previously studied, in animal models, aiming to establish a more practical LLLT protocol. Protocol 1, the same used in other works and based on the clinical LLLT protocol for bone regeneration, consists of punctual transcutaneous applications in the defect region with fluence of 16 J/cm2 every 48 h for 15 days. Protocol 2, proposed in this work, consists of three sessions: the first application directly on the defect site with fluency of 3.7 J/cm2, during the surgical procedure, followed by two transcutaneous applications, 48 and 120 h postoperatively. The Thera Lase(R) (lambda = 830 nm) was used, and the dosimetry of the first application of protocol 2 was calculated based on in vitro studies. Forty-five male rats were used, in which critical-size bone defects with 8 mm of diameter were surgically created in calvaria. The animals were randomly divided into three groups of 15 animals, named group 1 (protocol 1), group 2 (protocol 2), and control, which was not submitted to laser treatment. After 7, 15, and 45 days, five animals of each group were euthanized, and the pieces of calvarial bone were collected for microscopic and immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), osteocalcin (OC), and osteopontin (OP) analysis. Histomorphometry showed that newly formed bone of 15-day samples from group 2 is higher than the control group (p < 0.05, ANOVA, Tukey). At 7 days, in the central part of the defect, VEGF expression was the same for all groups, OC was higher for protocol 2, and OP for protocol 1. The results suggest LLLT using the protocol 2 hastened the bone healing process in the early periods after surgery.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Apr 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24756326

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of Laser Phototherapy (lambda660 nm) on Type I and III Collagen Expression During Wound Healing in Hypothyroid Rats: An Immunohistochemical Study in a Rodent Model.

Paraguassu GM, Xavier FC, Cangussu MC, Ramalho MJ, Cury PR, Dos Santos JN, Pinheiro AL, Ramalho LM

1 Department of Propedeutics and Dental Clinic, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia , Salvador, Bahia, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to assess, immunohistochemically, the impact of hypothyroidism and the effect of laser phototherapy on the expression of type I and III collagen during wound healing. Background data: Hypothyroidism has been associated with the disruption of the body’s metabolism, including the healing process. Laser phototherapy has been shown to be effective in improving wound healing, but its usefulness on enhancing wound healing under hypothyroid condition remains unknown. Materials and methods: Using general anesthesia, a standard surgical wound (1 cm(2)) was created on the dorsa of 48 Wistar rats divided into four groups of 12 animals each: control euthyroid (EC), euthyroid plus laser (EL), control hypothyroid (HC), and hypothyroid plus laser (HL). The irradiation with laser GaAlAs [lambda660 nm, 40 mW, 1 W/cm(2), continuous wave (CW), o=0.04 cm(2)] started immediately after surgery and was repeated every other day until end-point of study was reached, and animals were euthanized (i.e., 7 and 14 days). Laser light was applied on four different points (6 J, 150 sec and 150 J/cm(2) per point). Hypothyroidism was induced in rats with propylthiouracil (0.05 g/100 mL) administered orally for 4 weeks and maintained until the end of the experiment. Immunohistochemistry for collagen I and III was performed with EnVision() in the specimens removed. Results: Seven days after the surgery EC, EL, and HL groups showed higher immunoexpression of collagen I and lower immunoexpression of collagen III in the newly formed tissue. There was increased immunoexpression of collagen I in EC when compared with HC (p=0.019). The immunoexpression of collagen III was significantly lower in EL than in EC (p=0.047) and HL (p=0.019). No significant difference was found in the experimental period of 14 days among the groups. Conclusions: Laser light therapy performed with the parameters of this investigation increased immunoexpression of collagen type I during tissue repair, and improved the quality of newly formed tissue in the presence of hypothyroidism.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 May 32(5) 281-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24730579

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of laser irradiation (670-nm InGaP and 830-nm GaAlAs) on burn of second-degree in rats.

Chiarotto GB, Neves LM, Esquisatto MA, do Amaral ME, Dos Santos GM, Mendonca FA

School of Biomedicine, Herminio Ometto University Center, UNIARARAS, Av. Maximiliano Baruto, 500, Araras, SP , 13607-339, Brazil, gabrielachiarotto@yahoo.com.br.

This study investigated the effects of 670-nm indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) and 830-nm gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) laser therapy on second-degree burns induced on the back of Wistar rats. Sixty-three male Wistar rats were anesthetized, and second-degree burns were made on their back. The animals were then divided randomly into three groups: control (C), animals treated with 670-nm InGaP laser (LIn), and animals treated with 830-nm GaAlAs laser (LGa). The wound areas were removed after 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 days of treatment and submitted to structural and morphometric analysis. The following parameters were studied: total number of granulocytes and fibroblasts, number of newly formed blood vessels, and percentage of birefringent collagen fibers in the repair area. Morphometric analysis showed that different lasers 670-nm InGaP and 830-nm GaAlAs reduced the number of granulocytes and an increase of newly formed vessels in radiated lesions. The 670-nm InGaP laser therapy was more effective in increasing the number of fibroblasts. The different treatments modified the expression of VEGF and TGF-beta1, when compared with lesions not irradiated. The different types of light sources showed similar effects, improved the healing of second-degree burns and can help for treating this type of injury. Despite the large number of studies with LLTI application in second-degree burns, there is still divergence about the best irradiation parameters to be used. Further studies are needed for developing a protocol effective in treating this type of injury.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Apr 13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24729046

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy prevents degenerative morphological changes in an experimental model of anterior cruciate ligament transection in rats.

Bublitz C, Medalha C, Oliveira P, Assis L, Milares LP, Fernandes KR, Tim CR, Vasilceac FA, Mattiello SM, Renno AC

Department of Bioscience, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Av. Ana Costa, 95, Vila Mathias, Santos, SP, 11050-240, Brazil, carolinebublitz@yahoo.com.br.

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the prevention of cartilage damage after the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) in knees of rats. Thirty male rats (Wistar) were distributed into three groups (n = 10 each): injured control group (CG); injured laser-treated group at 10 J/cm2 (L10), and injured laser-treated group at 50 J/cm2 (L50). Laser treatment started immediately after the surgery and it was performed for 15 sessions. An 808 nm laser, at 10 and 50 J/cm2, was used. To evaluate the effects of LLLT, the qualitative and semi-quantitative histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed. Initial signs of tissue degradation were observed in CG. Interestingly, laser-treated animals presented a better tissue organization, especially at the fluence of 10 J/cm2. Furthermore, laser phototherapy was able of modulating some of the aspects related to the degenerative process, such as the prevention of proteoglycans loss and the increase in cartilage area. However, LLLT was not able of modulating chondrocytes proliferation and the immunoexpression of markers related to inflammatory process (IL-1 and MMP-13). This study showed that 808 nm laser, at both fluences, prevented features related to the articular degenerative process in the knees of rats after ACLT.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Apr 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24722775

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Comprehensive evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration in the acute healing phase using tissue clearing and optical microscopy in a rodent model.

Jung Y, Ng JH, Keating CP, Senthil-Kumar P, Zhao J, Randolph MA, Winograd JM, Evans CL

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Plastic Surgery Research Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Plastic Surgery Research Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Plastic Surgery Research Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Plastic Surgery Research Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Plastic Surgery Research Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Peripheral nerve injury (PNI), a common injury in both the civilian and military arenas, is usually associated with high healthcare costs and with patients enduring slow recovery times, diminished quality of life, and potential long-term disability. Patients with PNI typically undergo complex interventions but the factors that govern optimal response are not fully characterized. A fundamental understanding of the cellular and tissue-level events in the immediate postoperative period is essential for improving treatment and optimizing repair. Here, we demonstrate a comprehensive imaging approach to evaluate peripheral nerve axonal regeneration in a rodent PNI model using a tissue clearing method to improve depth penetration while preserving neural architecture. Sciatic nerve transaction and end-to-end repair were performed in both wild type and thy-1 GFP rats. The nerves were harvested at time points after repair before undergoing whole mount immunofluorescence staining and tissue clearing. By increasing the optic depth penetration, tissue clearing allowed the visualization and evaluation of Wallerian degeneration and nerve regrowth throughout entire sciatic nerves with subcellular resolution. The tissue clearing protocol did not affect immunofluorescence labeling and no observable decrease in the fluorescence signal was observed. Large-area, high-resolution tissue volumes could be quantified to provide structural and connectivity information not available from current gold-standard approaches for evaluating axonal regeneration following PNI. The results are suggestive of observed behavioral recovery in vivo after neurorrhaphy, providing a method of evaluating axonal regeneration following repair that can serve as an adjunct to current standard outcomes measurements. This study demonstrates that tissue clearing following whole mount immunofluorescence staining enables the complete visualization and quantitative evaluation of axons throughout nerves in a PNI model. The methods developed in this study could advance PNI research allowing both researchers and clinicians to further understand the individual events of axonal degeneration and regeneration on a multifaceted level.

PLoS One 2014 9(4) e94054

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24714405

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of Frequent Application of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Corticotomized Tooth Movement in Dogs: A Pilot Study.

Han KH, Park JH, Bayome M, Jeon IS, Lee W, Kook YA

Private Practitioner, Former Graduate Student, Graduate School of Clinical Dental Science, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Associate Professor and Chair, Postgraduate Orthodontic Program, Arizona School of Dentistry & Oral Health, A.T. Still University, Mesa, AZ; and Adjunct Professor, the Graduate School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. Research Assistant Professor, Department of Dentistry, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Private Practitioner, Seoul, Korea. Professor, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry, Uijeongbu St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu, GyeongGi, Korea. Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address: kook190036@yahoo.com.

PURPOSE: The purposes of the present study were to evaluate the effects of frequent applications of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on corticotomy-assisted tooth movement in a beagle dog model and to compare the effects in the mandible and maxilla. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 4 male beagles, the maxillary and mandibular second premolars were extracted. The third premolars were corticotomized and then protracted from the canines with a continuous force of 200 g. Daily LLLT (using an aluminum gallium indium phosphide [AlGaInP] diode) was applied at the buccal mucosa of the corticotomized premolars on 1 side only. The tooth movement was measured for 8 weeks. Fluorochromes were injected intravenously at the start of the experiment (T0) and after 2 (T2), 4 (T4), and 8 (T8) weeks to evaluate new bone formation on the tension sides. Histomorphometric and immunohistologic evaluations were performed. RESULTS: In the mandible, the movement of the corticotomized premolars in the LLLT plus corticotomy group was less than that in the corticotomy-only group, although the difference was not statistically significant. In the maxilla, no significant differences between the 2 groups were found. Osteoclastic and proliferating cell activities and the amount of new bone formation were greater in the mandibular LLLT plus corticotomy group than in the corticotomy-only group. CONCLUSIONS: The frequent application of LLLT showed no significant effect on the corticotomized tooth movement.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014 Feb 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24704036

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Biomechanical properties: effects of low-level laser therapy and Biosilicate(R) on tibial bone defects in osteopenic rats.

Fangel R, Bossini PS, Renno AC, Granito RN, Wang CC, Nonaka KO, Driusso P, Parizotto NA, Oishi J

1 Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP – Brazil.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of laser therapy and Biosilicate(R) on the biomechanical properties of bone callus in osteopenic rats. Methods: Fifty female Wistar rats were equally divided into 5 groups (n=10/group): osteopenic rats with intact tibiae (SC); osteopenic rats with unfilled and untreated tibial bone defects (OC); osteopenic rats whose bone defects were treated with Biosilicate(R) (B); osteopenic rats whose bone defects were treated with 830-nm laser, at 120 J/cm2 (L120) and osteopenic rats whose bone defects were treated with Biosilicate(R) and 830-nm laser, at 120 J/cm2 (BL120). Ovariectomy (OVX) was used to induce osteopenia. A non-critical bone defect was created on the tibia of the osteopenic animals 8 weeks after OVX. In Biosilicate(R) groups, bone defects were completely filled with the biomaterial. For the laser therapy, an 830-nm laser, 120 J/cm2 was used. On day 14 postsurgery, rats were euthanized, and tibiae were removed for biomechanical analysis. Results: Maximal load and energy absorption were higher in groups B and BL120, according to the indentation test. Animals submitted to low-level laser therapy (LLLT) did not show any significant biomechanical improvement, but the association between Biosilicate(R) and LLLT was shown to be efficient to enhance callus biomechanical properties. Conversely, no differences were found between study groups in the bending test. Conclusions: Biosilicate(R) alone or in association with low level laser therapy improves biomechanical properties of tibial bone callus in osteopenic rats.

J Appl Biomater Funct Mater 2014 Mar 30 0

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24700268

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption after artificial socket preservation.

Seifi M, Atri F, Yazdani MM

Department of Orthodontics, Dental School, Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Department of Prosthodontics, Dental School, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental School, Islamic Azad University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

BACKGROUND: Low- level laser therapy has been used to stimulate the orthodontic tooth movements (OTM) previously. Furthermore, in the orthodontic treatments accompanying tooth extractions, the adjacent teeth move towards the extraction sites and close the space in some cases. Then, the adjacent tooth movements must be prevented in the treatments requiring space. Laser stimulates and at some doses decelerates tooth movement; it also improves healing process and enhances osteogenesis. Hence, it can prevent movement by osteogenesis adjacent to the tooth. The present study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy on the OTM and root resorption following artificial socket preservation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental animal trial, 16 male albino rabbits were selected with similar characteristics and randomly divided in two groups. Under general anesthesia, an artificial socket, 8 mm in height, was created in the mesial aspect of the first premolars of the rabbits and filled with demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA). The first premolars were connected to the incisors using nickel titanium coil springs. In experimental group, gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser was irritated mesial to first premolar where artificial socket was created continuously (808 nm). The cycle was 10 days irritation, 14 days rest, 10 days irritation, 14 days rest (Biostimulation mode). Control group was not laser irradiated. All animals were sacrificed after 48 days and the distance between the distal aspect of the first premolars, and the mesial surface of the second premolars was measured with leaf gauge. The specimens underwent histological assessments. Integrity of root and its resorption was observed under microscope calibration. The size of resorption lacunae was calculated in mm(2). Normality of data was proved according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis, and Student’s t-test was done. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The mean OTM were 5.68 +/- 1.21 mm in the control group and 6.0 +/- 0.99 mm in the laser irradiated teeth with no statistically significant differences(P > 0.75). The mean root resorption was 1.61 +/- 0.43 mm(2) and 0.18 +/- 0.07 mm(2) in the control and experimental groups respectively being significantly lower in the laser irradiated teeth (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study show that GaAlAs irradiation together with the application of DFDBA led to limited amount of the stimulated OTM. The laser beam irradiation in combination with alloplastic materials used for socket preservation could reduce the degree of root resorption significantly.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2014 Jan 11(1) 61-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24688562

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

“Low-intensity laser therapy effect on the recovery of traumatic spinal cord injury”

Paula AA, Nicolau RA, Lima MD, Salgado MA, Cogo JC

Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IP&D), Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (Univap), Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Scientific advances have been made to optimize the healing process in spinal cord injury. Studies have been developed to obtain effective treatments in controlling the secondary injury that occurs after spinal cord injury, which substantially changes the prognosis. Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been applied in neuroscience due to its anti-inflammatory effects on biological tissue in the repairing process. Few studies have been made associating LILT to the spinal cord injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the LILT (GaAlAs laser-780 nm) on the locomotor functional recovery, histomorphometric, and histopathological changes of the spinal cord after moderate traumatic injury in rats (spinal cord injury at T9 and T10). Thirty-one adult Wistar rats were used, which were divided into seven groups: control without surgery (n = 3), control surgery (n = 3), laser 6 h after surgery (n = 5), laser 48 h after surgery (n = 5), medullar lesion (n = 5) without phototherapy, medullar lesion + laser 6 h after surgery (n = 5), and medullar lesion + laser 48 h after surgery (n = 5). The assessment of the motor function was performed using Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale and adapted Sciatic Functional Index (aSFI). The assessment of urinary dysfunction was clinically performed. After 21 days postoperative, the animals were euthanized for histological and histomorphometric analysis of the spinal cord. The results showed faster motor evolution in rats with spinal contusion treated with LILT, maintenance of the effectiveness of the urinary system, and preservation of nerve tissue in the lesion area, with a notorious inflammation control and increased number of nerve cells and connections. In conclusion, positive effects on spinal cord recovery after moderate traumatic spinal cord injury were shown after LILT.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 May 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24858233

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy effectively prevents secondary brain injury induced by immediate early responsive gene X-1 deficiency.

Zhang Q, Zhou C, Hamblin MR, Wu MX

1] Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [2] Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 1] Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [2] Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 1] Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [2] Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [3] Affiliated faculty member of the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. 1] Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [2] Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [3] Affiliated faculty member of the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

A mild insult to the brain can sometimes trigger secondary brain injury, causing severe postconcussion syndrome, but the underlying mechanism is ill understood. We show here that secondary brain injury occurs consistently in mice lacking immediate early responsive gene X-1 (IEX-1), after a gentle impact to the head, which closely simulates mild traumatic brain injury in humans. The pathologic lesion was characterized by extensive cell death, widespread leukocyte infiltrates, and severe tissue loss. On the contrary, a similar insult did not induce any secondary injury in wild-type mice. Strikingly, noninvasive exposure of the injured head to a low-level laser at 4 hours after injury almost completely prevented the secondary brain injury in IEX-1 knockout mice. The low-level laser therapy (LLLT) suppressed proinflammatory cytokine expression like interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 but upregulated TNF-alpha. Moreover, although lack of IEX-1 compromised ATP synthesis, LLLT elevated its production in injured brain. The protective effect of LLLT may be ascribed to enhanced ATP production and selective modulation of proinflammatory mediators. This new closed head injury model provides an excellent tool to investigate the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury as well as the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of LLLT.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 21 May 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.95.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2014 May 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24849666

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-Level Laser Therapy on Tissue Repair of Partially Injured Achilles Tendon in Rats.

de Jesus JF, Spadacci-Morena DD, Rabelo ND, Pinfildi CE, Fukuda TY, Plapler H

1 Interdisciplinary Surgical Science Program, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo-UNIFESP , Sao Paulo, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the alignment and type of collagen (I and III) in partially injured Achilles tendons of rats treated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Background: Achilles tendons present high indices of injury and their regeneration process may take a long time. LLLT has been used to accelerate and enhance injured Achilles tendon repair. Methods: Sixty-five male Wistar rats were distributed into seven groups: LASER 1, 3, and 7 (the rat’s Achilles tendons were partially injured and submitted to treatment for 1, 3, or 7 days, respectively); a Sham group 1, 3, and 7 for each of LASER group (same injury, but the LLLT was only simulated), and five remaining animals were allocated to the control group (no procedures were performed). The 780 nm LLLT was applied once a day, with 70 mW of mean power, fluence of 17.5 J/cm2 for 10 sec. After the rats were euthanized, the tendons were surgically removed and assessed by birefringence technique (collagen alignment) and picrosirius red (collagen I and III). Results: Sham versus LASER analysis did not show differences (p>0.05) for collagen alignment. The collagen composition (median) was significantly different (p<0.05) for LASER 3 (I: 16.5; III: 83.5) versus Sham 3 (I: 12.5; III: 87.5) and LASER 7 (I: 20.2; III: 79.8) versus Sham 7 (I: 10.2; III: 89.8). LASER groups exhibited a higher percentage of type I collagen and a lower percentage of type III collagen. Conclusions: LLLT stimulated collagen I proliferation, improving the injured Achilles tendons’ healing process.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 May 15

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24831690

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Histological analysis of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone during dental movement in diabetic rats subjected to low-level laser therapy.

Maia LG, Alves AV, Bastos TS, Moromizato LS, Lima-Verde IB, Ribeiro MA, Gandini Junior LG, Albuquerque-Junior RL

School of Dentistry, University Tiradentes (UNIT), Rua Terencio Sampaio, 309, Grageru, Aracaju 49025700, Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address: orthomaia2003@yahoo.com.br. Laboratory of Morphology and Structural Biology, Science and Technology Institute (ITP), Avenida Murilo Dantas, 300, Predio do ITP, Farolandia, Aracaju 49032-490, Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address: angela.dilela@yahoo.com.br. Laboratory of Morphology and Structural Biology, Science and Technology Institute (ITP), Avenida Murilo Dantas, 300, Predio do ITP, Farolandia, Aracaju 49032-490, Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address: talibiomed12@gmail.com. Laboratory of Morphology and Structural Biology, Science and Technology Institute (ITP), Avenida Murilo Dantas, 300, Predio do ITP, Farolandia, Aracaju 49032-490, Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address: lucasmoromizato@hotmail.com. Laboratory of Morphology and Structural Biology, Science and Technology Institute (ITP), Avenida Murilo Dantas, 300, Predio do ITP, Farolandia, Aracaju 49032-490, Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address: isabel_limaverde@yahoo.com.br. Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), Avenida Claudio Batista, 54, Sanatorio, Aracaju 49000-000, Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address: endoribeiro@yahoo.com.br. Department of Dentistry, State University Julio de Mesquita (UNESP), Rua Humaita, Centro, 1680, Araraquara 14801-903, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: lgandini@foar.unesp.br. School of Dentistry, University Tiradentes (UNIT), Rua Terencio Sampaio, 309, Grageru, Aracaju 49025700, Sergipe, Brazil; Laboratory of Morphology and Structural Biology, Science and Technology Institute (ITP), Avenida Murilo Dantas, 300, Predio do ITP, Farolandia, Aracaju 49032-490, Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address: ricardo.patologia@uol.com.br.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the histological changes of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone during dental movement in diabetic rats subjected to low level laser therapy (LLLT). METHODS: The movement of the upper molar was performed in 60male Wistar rats divided into four groups (n=15): CTR (control), DBT (diabetic), CTR/LT (irradiated control) and DBT/LT (irradiated diabetic). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (150mg/kg, i.p.). LLLT was applied with GaAlAs laser at 780nm (35J/cm(2)). After 7, 13 and 19days, the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone were histologically analyzed. RESULTS: The mean of osteoblasts (p<0.01) and blood vessels (p<0.05) were significantly decreased in DBT compared with CTR at 7days, whereas the mean of osteoclasts was lower at 7 (p<0.001) and 13days (p<0.05). In DBT/LT, only the mean of osteoclasts was lower than in CTR (p<0.05) at 7days, but no difference was observed at 13 and 19days (p>0.05). The collagenization of the periodontal ligament was impaired in DBT, whereas DBT/LLT showed density/disposition of the collagen fibers similar to those observed in CTR. CONCLUSIONS: LLLT improved the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone remodeling activity in diabetic rats during dental movement.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2014 Jun 5 135 65-74

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24814932

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low level laser therapy reduces acute lung inflammation in a model of pulmonary and extrapulmonary LPS-induced ARDS.

Oliveira MC Jr, Greiffo FR, Rigonato-Oliveira NC, Custodio RW, Silva VR, Damaceno-Rodrigues NR, Almeida FM, Albertini R, Lopes-Martins RA, de Oliveira LV, de Carvalho Pde T, Ligeiro de Oliveira AP, Leal EC Jr, Vieira RP

Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01504-000, Brazil. Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01504-000, Brazil. Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01504-000, Brazil. Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01504-000, Brazil. Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01504-000, Brazil. University of Sao Paulo, School of Medicine, Department of Pathology (LIM 59), Av. Doutor Arnaldo 455, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000, Brazil. University of Sao Paulo, School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine (LIM 20), Av. Doutor Arnaldo 455, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000, Brazil. Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01504-000, Brazil. Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01504-000, Brazil. Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01504-000, Brazil. Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01504-000, Brazil. Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01504-000, Brazil. Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01504-000, Brazil. Nove de Julho University, Rua Vergueiro 239/245, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 01504-000, Brazil. Electronic address: rodrelena@yahoo.com.br.

The present study aimed to investigate the effects low level laser therapy (LLLT) in a LPS-induced pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in BALB/c mice. Laser (830nm laser, 9J/cm(2), 35mW, 80s per point, 3 points per application) was applied in direct contact with skin, 1h after LPS administration. Mice were distributed in control (n=6; PBS), ARDS IT (n=7; LPS orotracheally 10mug/mouse), ARDS IP (n=7; LPS intra-peritoneally 100mug/mouse), ARDS IT+Laser (n=9; LPS intra-tracheally 10mug/mouse), ARDS IP+Laser (n=9; LPS intra-peritoneally 100mug/mouse). Twenty-four hours after last LPS administration, mice were studied for pulmonary inflammation by total and differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, KC and TNF-alpha) levels in BAL fluid and also by quantitative analysis of neutrophils number in the lung parenchyma. LLLT significantly reduced pulmonary and extrapulmonary inflammation in LPS-induced ARDS, as demonstrated by reduced number of total cells (p<0.001) and neutrophils (p<0.001) in BAL, reduced levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, KC and TNF-alpha in BAL fluid and in serum (p<0.001), as well as the number of neutrophils in lung parenchyma (p<0.001). LLLT is effective to reduce pulmonary inflammation in both pulmonary and extrapulmonary model of LPS-induced ARDS.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2014 May 5 134 57-63

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24792475

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The effects of a minimally invasive laser needle system on complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis.

Kang H, Son T, Lee A, Youn I, Seo DH, Kim HS, Jung B

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do, 220-710, South Korea.

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) on the acute progression of arthritis. Previous studies showed controversial clinical results regarding the effects of low-level laser therapy on arthritis, with the outcomes depending upon stimulation parameters such as laser wavelength and dosage. Based on the positive effects of MILNS on osteoporotic mice, we hypothesized that MILNS could potentially suppress the progression of arthritis owing to its biostimulation effects. Eight C57BL/6 mice with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis were used as acute progression arthritis models and divided into the laser and control groups (n = 4 each). In the laser group, after minimally invasive laser stimulation, laser speckle contrast images (LSCIs) were obtained every 6 h for a total of 108 h. The LSCIs in the control group were obtained without laser stimulation. The effects of MILNS on the acute progression of arthritis were indirectly evaluated by calculating the paw area and the average laser speckle index (LSI) at the arthritis-induced area. Moreover, the macrophage population was estimated in the arthritis-induced area. Compared to the control group, the laser group showed (1) lower relative variations of the paw area, (2) lower average LSI in the arthritis-induced area, and (3) lower macrophage population in the arthritis-induced area. These results indicate that MILNS may suppress the acute progression of CFA-induced arthritis in mice and may thus be used as a potential treatment modality of arthritis in clinics.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Mar 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24638943

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy: an experimental design for wound management: a case-controlled study in rabbit model.

Hodjati H, Rakei S, Johari HG, Geramizedeh B, Sabet B, Zeraatian S

Trauma Research Center, General Surgery Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. General Surgery Department, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. Trauma Research Center, General Surgery Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Pathology Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Trauma Research Center, General Surgery Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Trauma Research Center, General Surgery Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

BACKGROUND: There is a wide array of articles in medical literature for and against the laser effect on wound healing but without discrete effect determination or conclusion. This experimental study aims to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy on wound healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four rabbits were randomly enrolled in two groups after creating a full thickness of 3 x 3 cm wound. The intervention group received low density laser exposure (4 J/cm(2)) on days 0, 3 and 6 with diode helium-neon low-intensity laser device (wl = 808 nm) and in control group moist wound dressing applied. Finally, wound-healing process was evaluated by both gross and pathological assessment. RESULTS: Fibrin formation was the same in the two groups (P = 0.4) but epithelialisation was much more in laser group (P = 0.02). Wound inflammation of the laser group was smaller than that of the control groups but statistical significance was not shown (P = 0.09). Although more smooth muscle actin was found in the wounds of the laser group but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.3). Wound diameter showed significant decrease in wound area in laser group (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: According to our study, it seems that low-level laser therapy accelerates wound healing at least in some phases of healing process. So, we can conclude that our study also shows some hopes for low level laser therapy effect on wound healing at least in animal model.

J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2014 Jan 7(1) 14-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24761093

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Comparative analysis of low-level laser therapy (660 nm) on inflammatory biomarker expression during the skin wound-repair process in young and aged rats.

de Melo Rambo CS, Silva Jr JA, Serra AJ, Ligeiro AP, de Paula Vieira R, Albertini R, Leal-Junior EC, de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho P

Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Rua Vergueiro 235, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The wound-healing process plays an essential role in the protective response to epidermal injury by tissue regeneration. In the elderly, skin functions deteriorate as a consequence of morphological and structural changes. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in cutaneous wound healing in young and aged rats. A total of 60 male rats comprising 30 young (+/-30 days) and 30 aged (+/-500 days) was used. The animals were divided into four experimental groups and underwent skin wound and/or treatment with LLLT (660 nm, 30 mW, 1.07 W/cm2, 0.028 cm2, 72 J/cm2, and 2 J). Analyses were conducted to verify the effects of LLLT in the tissue repair process, in the gene expression, and protein expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-10, obtained in skin wound model. Results showed that there were significant differences between the young control group and the aged control group and their respective treated groups (LLLT young and LLLT aged). We conclude that LLLT has shown to be effective in the treatment of skin wounds in young and aged animals at different stages of the tissue repair process, which suggests that different LLLT dosimetry should be considered in treatment of subjects of different ages. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings in clinical settings.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 May 7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24801057

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The stimulatory effect of LED light spectra on genes related to photoreceptors and skin pigmentation in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

Shin HS, Choi CY

Division of Marine Environment and BioScience, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, 606-791, Republic of Korea.

This study aimed to assess differences in genes related to skin color of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to light-emitting diodes (LEDs): red, green, and purple. We investigated differences in the expression of mammalian-like melanopsin (Opn4m), rhodopsin (RH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), melanin-concentrating hormone receptor (MCH-R), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in goldfish exposed to different LED light spectra. Opn4m, RH, MCH, and MCH-R mRNA levels were significantly higher in the green and purple LED groups than in the white fluorescent bulb (control) and red LED groups. Furthermore, skin cells were isolated to measure the MCH-R mRNA expression levels. The results show that the mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the green and purple LED groups than in the control and red LED groups. In addition, body weights in the green and purple LED groups were significantly higher than those in the control and red LED groups. However, POMC mRNA expression levels in the green and purple LED groups were significantly lower than those in the control and red LED groups. These results suggest that specific wavelengths regulate fish skin color through neuropeptide hormones and photoreceptors, and POMC, which is related to stress hormones and melatonin, is associated with stress levels as well as skin color.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2014 Feb 13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24522793

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effect of laser irradiation on the fluoride uptake of silver diamine fluoride treated dentine.

Mei ML, Ito L, Zhang CF, Lo EC, Chu CH

Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, 34 Hospital Road, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

This study aimed to evaluate the fluoride uptake of dentine treated with a 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution and laser irradiation at sub-ablative energy levels. Fifteen human dentine slices were prepared and divided into four samples each. Four types of laser were chosen: CO2 (10,600 nm), Er:YAG (2,940 nm), Nd:YAG (1,064 nm) and Diode (810 nm). First, the four samples from 12 of the dentine slices were treated with SDF, and then irradiated by one of the four types of laser at three different settings. One sample was untreated and acted as a control. The setting that rendered the highest fluoride uptake was selected. Second, the remaining dentine slices were treated with SDF and irradiated by the four lasers with the selected settings. Fluoride uptake was assessed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry at the dentine surface and up to 20 mum below the surface. The selected settings were CO2 irradiation at 1.0 W for 1 s, Er:YAG irradiation at 0.5 W for 20 s, Nd:YAG irradiation at 2.0 W for 1 s and diode irradiation at 3.0 W for 3 s. The fluoride content (weight %) at the dentine surface following CO2, Er:YAG, Nd:YAG and diode irradiation was 6.91 +/- 3.15, 4.09 +/- 1.19, 3.35 +/- 2.29 and 1.73 +/- 1.04, respectively. CO2 and Er:YAG irradiation resulted in higher fluoride uptake than Nd:YAG and diode irradiation at all levels (p < 0.05). CO2 laser and Er:YAG laser irradiation rendered higher fluoride uptake in the SDF-treated dentine than Nd:YAG laser and diode laser irradiation.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Jan 26

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24463738

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy suppresses the oxidative stress-induced glucocorticoids resistance in U937 cells: relevance to cytokine secretion and histone deacetylase in alveolar macrophages.

Souza NH, Marcondes PT, Albertini R, Mesquita-Ferrari RA, Fernandes KP, Aimbire F

Rehabilitation Sciences Department, University Nove de Julho – Rua Vergueiro, 235 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Department of Science and Technology, Federal University of Sao Paulo – Unifesp, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil. Rehabilitation Sciences Department, University Nove de Julho – Rua Vergueiro, 235 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Rehabilitation Sciences Department, University Nove de Julho – Rua Vergueiro, 235 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Rehabilitation Sciences Department, University Nove de Julho – Rua Vergueiro, 235 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Department of Science and Technology, Federal University of Sao Paulo – Unifesp, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: flavio.aimbire@unifesp.br.

Oxidative stress is present in severe asthma and contributes to the low response to corticoids through the downregulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and the increase of cytokines. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been proven to be an anti-inflammatory. Thus, we investigated the laser effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine secretion and HDAC activity in U937 cells under oxidative stress. U937 cells activated with oxidative stress were treated with dexamethasone (dexa) or laser. Cytokines and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) were measured by ELISA whilst the HDAC was detected through colorimetric assay. LPS activated- U937 cells cytokines secretion increased with H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) as well as with TSA (trichostatin). The HDAC activity in activated U937 cells was decreased. LLLT and dexa inhibited the LPS-stimulated U937 cells cytokines, but dexa effect disappeared with H2O2. With TSA, the LLLT was less effective on H2O2/LPS stimulated- U937 cells cytokines. Dexa failed on H2O2/LPS- induced HDAC, while LLLT restored the HDAC and the dexa effect. LLLT plus prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and potentiated the laser action on oxidative stress-induced cytokine. LLLT reduced the PI3K and its effects on cytokine and HDAC was suppressed with LY294002. In situations of corticoid resistance, LLLT acts decreasing the cytokines and HDAC through the activation of the protein kinase A via the inhibition of PI3K.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2014 Jan 5 130 327-36

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24419178

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The Effects of Low Level Laser Therapy on the Expression of Collagen Type I Gene and Proliferation of Human Gingival Fibroblasts (Hgf3-Pi 53): in vitro Study.

Frozanfar A, Ramezani M, Rahpeyma A, Khajehahmadi S, Arbab HR

Oral& Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Oral& Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Oral& Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Dental Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective(s): Recent investigations show that both proliferation and secretion of macromolecules by cells can be regulated by low level laser therapy (LLLT). The aim of this study was to determine whether LLLT could induce a bio-stimulatory effects on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF3-PI 53). Therefore, the effect of laser irradiation on human gingival cell proliferation and collagen type I gene expression was studied. Materials and Methods: HGF3-PI 53 were cultured in 96-well plate and then irradiated with LLLT gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As), 810 nm, 50 mW diode laser (energy: 4 J/cm(2)) for three consecutive days. The cell proliferation was measured on days 1, 2 and 3 after irradiation with LLLT using MTT assay. Real time PCR analysis was utilized on day 3 to evaluate the expression of collagen type I gene. Results : Evaluation of cellular proliferation, one day after laser treatment showed no difference compared to control group. But on days 2 and 3, significant increase in proliferation was observed in the irradiated cell populations in comparison to the control group. Treatment of HGF3-PI 53 by laser resulted in a significant increase in collagen I gene expression on 3 day. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that LLLT stimulated human gingival fibroblast proliferation as well as collagen type I gene expression in vitro.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2013 Oct 16(10) 1071-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24379964

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Control of gene expression using a red- and far-red light-responsive bi-stable toggle switch.

Muller K, Zurbriggen MD, Weber W

Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. 1] Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. [2] Centre for Biological Signalling Studies (BIOSS), University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Light-triggered gene expression systems offer an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution that cannot be achieved with classical chemically inducible genetic tools. Here we describe a protocol for red light-responsive gene expression in mammalian cells. This system can be toggled between stable ON and OFF states by short pulses of red and far-red light, respectively. In the protocol, CHO-K1 cells are transfected to allow red light-inducible expression of the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter, and gene expression is tuned by illumination with light of increasing wavelengths. As a starting point for elaborate red light-responsive gene expression, we outline the reversible activation of gene expression and describe how a spatial pattern can be ‘printed’ on a monolayer of cells by using a photomask. The core protocol requires only 4 d from seeding of the cells to reporter quantification, and other than light-emitting diode (LED) illumination boxes no elaborate equipment is required.

Nat Protoc 2014 Mar 9(3) 622-32

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24556785

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of diode laser therapy and stannous fluoride on dentin resistance under different erosive acid attacks.

Passos VF, Melo MA, Silva FF, Rodrigues LK, Santiago SL

1 Post-graduation Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dentistry and Nursing, Federal University of Ceara , Brazil .

OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of a low intensity diode laser (lambda=808 nm; 60 J/cm2) associated with stannous fluoride on the inhibition of dentin erosion by assessing percentage of superficial hardness loss (%SHL) and calcium release into the acid solution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human root dentin slabs were assigned to eight groups (n=10), according to treatments (control, stannous fluoride, diode laser therapy, and the combination of stannous fluoride and laser therapy), and acid challenge (hydrochloridric or citric acid). All slabs were subjected to a previous 2 h acquired pellicle formation; laser and fluoride treatments were performed according to the groups. Subsequently, the slabs were exposed to erosive challenge (0.01 M hydrochloridric acid or citric acid 1% for 60 sec). Additionally, calcium released into the acid solution during erosive challenge was analyzed by photometric test. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (p<0.05). RESULTS: Mean values (+/-SD) for %SHL of treated groups did not present statistically significant differences, regardless of the erosive challenge. However, in relation to released calcium concentration, groups treated with laser presented statistically significant lower calcium loss under hydrochloridric acid challenge (p<0.001). To groups under citric acid attack, only the combination of treatments (p=0.037) was able to show a protective effect on dentin. CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this study, 808 nm diode laser with or without stannous fluoride could effectively reduce dentin surface loss under both acid exposures. Only calcium concentration analysis was sensitive enough to measure the effects under the tested conditions.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Mar 32(3) 146-51

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24552442

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser phototherapy accelerates oral keratinocyte migration through the modulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway.

Pellicioli AC, Martins MD, Dillenburg CS, Marques MM, Squarize CH, Castilho RM

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul 90035-003, Brazil. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul 90035-003, Brazil. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul 90035-003, Brazil. University of Sao Paulo, School of Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-000, Brazil. University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, Laboratory of Epithelial Biology, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1078. University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, Laboratory of Epithelial Biology, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1078.

Keratinocytes play a central role in wound healing by responding to tissue injury through the activation of cellular proliferation and migration. Current clinical evidence suggests that the laser phototherapy (LPT) accelerates wound healing in a variety of oral diseases; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in response to LPT are not fully understood. Oral keratinocytes (NOK-SI) maintained under nutritional-deficit culture medium (2% fetal bovine serum) were irradiated with InGaAlP laser (660 nm; 40 mW; 0.04 cm2 spot size) in punctual and contact modes. The energy densities used were 4 and 20 J/cm2 corresponding to 4 and 20 s of exposure times and 0.16 and 0.8 J of energy per point, respectively. Three sessions of irradiations were applied with 6-h intervals. Further, the impact of LPT over cellular migration, proliferation, and activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, known to play a major role in epithelial migration and wound healing, was analyzed. Compared with control cells, the LPT-treated cells showed accelerated cellular migration without any changes in proliferation. Furthermore, LPT resulted in an increase in the phospho-S6 ribosomal protein, indicating activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. Collectively, these findings suggest that the LPT activates mTOR signaling pathway, promotes epithelial cell migration, and accelerates healing of oral mucosa.

J Biomed Opt 2014 Feb 1 19(2) 028002

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24531144

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy promotes proliferation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

Gomes Henriques AC, Ginani F, Oliveira RM, Keesen TS, Galvao Barboza CA, Oliveira Rocha HA, de Castro JF, Della Coletta R, de Almeida Freitas R

Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to be effective in promoting cell proliferation. There is speculation that the biostimulatory effect of LLLT causes undesirable enhancement of tumor growth in neoplastic diseases since malignant cells are more susceptible to proliferative stimuli. This study evaluated the effects of LLLT on proliferation, invasion, and expression of cyclin D1, E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and MMP-9 in a tongue squamous carcinoma cell line (SCC25). Cells were irradiated with a diode laser (660 nm) using two energy densities (0.5 and 1.0 J/cm2). The proliferative potential was assessed by cell growth curves and cell cycle analysis, whereas the invasion of cells was evaluated using a Matrigel cell invasion assay. Expression of cyclin D1, E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and MMP-9 was analyzed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry and associated with the biological activities studied. LLLT induced significantly the proliferation of SCC25 cells at 1.0 J/cm2, which was accomplished by an increase in the expression of cyclin D1 and nuclear beta-catenin. At 1.0 J/cm2, LLLT significantly reduced E-cadherin and induced MMP-9 expression, promoting SCC25 invasion. The results of this study demonstrated that LLLT exerts a stimulatory effect on proliferation and invasion of SCC25 cells, which was associated with alterations on expression of proteins studied.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Feb 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24526326

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Helium-Neon Laser Irradiation Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Human Epidermal Stem Cells In Vitro: Proposed Mechanism for Enhanced Wound Re-epithelialization.

Liao X, Xie GH, Liu HW, Cheng B, Li SH, Xie S, Xiao LL, Fu XB

1 Department of Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University , Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, P.R. China .

Abstract Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation on the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of cultured human epidermal stem cells (ESCs). Background data: A He-Ne laser with a wavelength of 632.8 nm is known to have photobiological effects, and is widely used for accelerating wound healing; however, the cellular mechanisms involved have not been completely understood. Methods: The ESCs were prepared from human foreskin, and irradiated by using He-Ne laser at 632.8 nm with 2 J/cm(2). The ESC proliferation, migration, and differentiation were examined by using XTT assay, scratch assay, and flow cytometry technology, respectively. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) was analyzed by using Western blotting. Results: He-Ne laser irradiation markedly promoted cell proliferation and migration accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of ERK, but did not significantly influence cell differentiation. Conclusion: Our data indicated that photostimulation with a He-Ne laser resulted in a significant increase in human ESC proliferation and migration in vitro, which might contribute, at least partially, to accelerated wound re-epithelialization by low-level laser therapy.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Apr 32(4) 219-25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24661127

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Photobiological effect of low-level laser irradiation in bovine embryo production system.

Soares CA, Annes K, Dreyer TR, Magrini T, Sonoda MT, da Silva Martinho H, Nichi M, d’Avila Assumpcao ME, Milazzotto MP

Universidade Federal do ABC, Center of Natural and Human Sciences, Rua Santa Adelia, 166, Bloco A, Torre 3, S642, Santo Andre, SP, Brazil. Universidade Federal do ABC, Center of Natural and Human Sciences, Rua Santa Adelia, 166, Bloco A, Torre 3, S642, Santo Andre, SP, Brazil. Universidade Federal do ABC, Center of Natural and Human Sciences, Rua Santa Adelia, 166, Bloco A, Torre 3, S642, Santo Andre, SP, Brazil. Universidade Federal do ABC, Center of Natural and Human Sciences, Rua Santa Adelia, 166, Bloco A, Torre 3, S642, Santo Andre, SP, Brazil. Universidade Federal do ABC, Center of Natural and Human Sciences, Rua Santa Adelia, 166, Bloco A, Torre 3, S642, Santo Andre, SP, Brazil. Universidade Federal do ABC, Center of Natural and Human Sciences, Rua Santa Adelia, 166, Bloco A, Torre 3, S642, Santo Andre, SP, Brazil. University of Sao Paulo, Department of Animal Reproduction, Sao Paulo/ SP 05508-270, Brazil. University of Sao Paulo, Department of Animal Reproduction, Sao Paulo/ SP 05508-270, Brazil. Universidade Federal do ABC, Center of Natural and Human Sciences, Rua Santa Adelia, 166, Bloco A, Torre 3, S642, Santo Andre, SP, Brazil.

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on bovine oocyte and granulosa cells metabolism during in vitro maturation (IVM) and further embryo development. Cumulus-oocytes complexes (COCs) were subjected (experimental group) or not (control group) to irradiation with LLLI in a 633-nm wavelength and 1 J/cm2 fluency. The COCs were evaluated after 30 min, 8, 16, and 24 h of IVM. Cumulus cells were evaluated for cell cycle status, mitochondrial activity, and viability (flow cytometry). Oocytes were assessed for meiotic progression status (nuclear staining), cell cycle genes content [real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)], and signal transduction status (western blot). The COCs were also in vitro fertilized, and the cleavage and blastocyst rates were assessed. Comparisons among groups were statistically performed with 5% significance level. For cumulus cells, a significant increase in mitochondrial membrane potential and the number of cells progressing through the cycle could be observed. Significant increases on cyclin B and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4) levels were also observed. Concerning the oocytes, a significantly higher amount of total mitogen-activated protein kinase was found after 8 h of irradiation, followed by a decrease in all cell cycle genes transcripts, exception made for the CDK4. However, no differences were observed in meiotic progression or embryo production. In conclusion, LLLI is an efficient tool to modulate the granulosa cells and oocyte metabolism.

J Biomed Opt 2014 Mar 19(3) 35006

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24658775

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of low-level laser therapy on the proliferation and apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts treated with zoledronic acid.

Pansani TN, Basso FG, Turirioni AP, Kurachi C, Hebling J, de Souza Costa CA

Araraquara School of Dentistry, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Araraquara School of Dentistry, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: fergbasso@gmail.com. Araraquara School of Dentistry, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Physics Institute, USP – Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Araraquara School of Dentistry, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Araraquara School of Dentistry, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been indicated as an adjuvant therapy for bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis. However, the effects of LLLT on bisphosphonate-treated cells are not yet clear. This study evaluated the effects of LLLT on the proliferation and apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts treated with zoledronic acid (ZA). Cells were exposed to ZA at 5muM for 48h. Irradiation was performed using a laser diode prototype (LaserTABLE, InGaAsP; 780nm+/-3nm, 25mW) at 0.5 or 3J/cm2, three times every 24h. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test at the 5% level of significance. ZA decreased cell proliferation to 47.62% (interquartile range (IQR) 23.80-57.14%; P=0.007) and increased apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts to 27.7% (IQR 20.9-33.4%; P=0.0001). LLLT increased cell proliferation compared with non-irradiated cells, at 0.5J/cm2 (57.14%, IQR 57.14-71.43%; P=0.003) and at 3J/cm2 (76.19%, IQR 61.90-76.19%; P=0.0001), but did not increase cell proliferation in ZA-treated cells. Irradiated fibroblasts presented lower apoptosis rates than the ZA-treated cells, but apoptosis was no different in ZA-treated cells compared to those that were ZA-treated and also irradiated.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2014 Mar 18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24656494

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Comparison of laser and diode sources for acceleration of in vitro wound healing by low-level light therapy.

Spitler R, Berns MW

University of California Irvine, Beckman Laser Institute, Department of Developmental & Cell Biology, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, California 92612. University of California Irvine, Beckman Laser Institute, Department of Developmental & Cell Biology, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, California 92612bUniversity of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093.

Low-level light therapy has been shown to improve in vitro wound healing. However, well-defined parameters of different light sources for this therapy are lacking. The goal of this study was (1) to determine if the wavelengths tested are effective for in vitro wound healing and (2) to compare a laser and a light-emitting diode (LED) source at similar wavelengths. We show four wavelengths, delivered by either a laser or LED array, improved in vitro wound healing in A549, U2OS, and PtK2 cells. Improved wound healing occurred through increased cell migration demonstrated through scratch wound and transwell assays. Cell proliferation was tested by the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-car-boxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-te trazolium) (MTS) assay and was found generally not to be involved in the wound healing process. The laser and LED sources were found to be comparable when equal doses of light were applied. The biological response measured was similar in most cases. We conclude that the laser at 652 (5.57 mW/cm2, 10.02 J/cm2) and 806 nm (1.30 mW/cm2, 2.334 J/cm2) (full bandwidth 5 nm), and LED at 637 (5.57 mW/cm2, 10.02 J/cm2) and 901 nm (1.30 mW/cm2, 2.334 J/cm2) (full bandwidth 17 and 69 nm respectively) induce comparable levels of cell migration and wound closure.

J Biomed Opt 2014 Mar 19(3) 38001

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24638250

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The effects of low-level diode laser irradiation on differentiation, antigenic profile, and phagocytic capacity of osteoblast-like cells (MG-63).

Medina-Huertas R, Manzano-Moreno FJ, De Luna-Bertos E, Ramos-Torrecillas J, Garcia-Martinez O, Ruiz C

BIO277 Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, 18071, Spain.

Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have reported that low-level diode laser therapy induces a biostimulatory effect, such as cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the laser irradiation of osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) can modify alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), antigenic profile, and phagocytic capacity. The MG-63 cell line was exposed to diode laser (ezLase) of 940 nm at 1-1.5 W/cm2 and 3-4 J. ALP was evaluated by a spectrophotometric technique and antigenic expression analysis (CD 54, CD80, CD86, HLA-DR), and phagocytic activity was analyzed by flow cytometry. At 24 h, the treated groups showed an increased ALP, and the highest increase versus controls (P = 0.002) was at the dose of 1 W/cm2 and 3 J; this modulation of the antigenic profile translated into a reduced expression of CD54, CD86, and HLA-DR and a slightly decreased phagocytic capacity with respect to the nonirradiated control group at the different intensities and fluencies assayed. These results demonstrate that laser therapy can exert a biostimulatory effect on osteoblastic cells at different levels, which may be clinically useful in the regeneration of bone tissue.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Mar 12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24619140

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser-induced osteoblast proliferation is mediated by ROS production.

Migliario M, Pittarella P, Fanuli M, Rizzi M, Reno F

Dental Clinic, Health Sciences Department, University of Eastern Piedmont “A. Avogadro”, Via Solaroli, 170-28100, Novara, Italy.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is widely used in regenerative medicine and in dental therapy by virtue of its beneficial effects in a plethora of pathological conditions. In this study, the effect of a 980 nm diode laser on pre-osteoblasts proliferation has been evaluated, along with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We hypothesized that ROS were a key factor in LLLT-induced pre-osteoblasts proliferation, as it is known that ROS can induce the activation of many biological pathways, leading to cell proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. Murine pre-osteoblasts MC3T3 cells were irradiated with different energy outputs (1-50 J) in the absence or presence of the antioxidant N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Laser treatment, in the absence of NAC, was able to induce a fluence-dependent statistically significant increase in ROS generation, while the presence of NAC strongly inhibited it. Cell proliferation, measured after laser stimulation, was significantly increased both at low and higher energy, with a peak at 10 J in the absence of the antioxidant. On the contrary, in the presence of NAC, laser irradiation was not able to induce any cell proliferation, suggesting a crucial role of ROS in this laser-induced cell effect. These results suggest that LLLT may be a useful tool for bone regeneration therapy and an effective range of fluences to be used is indicated.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Mar 5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24595962

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Irradiation by Gallium-Aluminum-Arsenate (GaAlAs) Diode Laser Enhances the Induction of Nitric Oxide by Porphyromonas gingivalis in RAW 264.7 Cells.

Ahn KB, Kang SS, Park OJ, Kim TI

Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, Dental Research Institute, BK21 Plus Program, Seoul National University School of Dentistry, Seoul 110-749, Korea.

Background: Low-level laser irradiation promotes cell viability and wound healing in periodontal tissue. However, its effect on periodontal pathogenic bacteria is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological effect of low-level laser irradiation on Porphyromonas gingivalis. Methods: A murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), was cultured and treated with gallium-aluminum-arsenate (GaAlAs) laser-irradiated P. gingivalis with varying levels of energy fluency. Gene expression of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-6, Interferon (IFN)-beta and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Production of iNOS was determined by Western blot analysis and nitric oxide (NO) release was assessed using Griess reagent. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine the activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR) in response to P. gingivalis. Results: The laser-irradiated P. gingivalis significantly enhanced mRNA and protein levels of iNOS in RAW 264.7. Although the laser irradiation on P. gingivalis did not alter the expression level of MCP-1, IL-6 and IFN-beta, it showed a noticeable effect on NO production in RAW 264.7. Furthermore, the laser-irradiated P. gingivalis accelerated TLR2 activation, but not TLR4 activation. Conclusions: This study revealed that GaAlAs laser irradiation on P. gingivalis induced iNOS expression at transcriptional and translation level and increased NO release in macrophages. Moreover, we confirmed that this process was mediated specifically by TLR2 activation. These findings suggest that low-level laser irradiation to periodontal pathogenic bacteria could be detrimental to periodontal treatments.

J Periodontol 2014 Feb 28

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24579764

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of low intensity laser in in vitro bacterial culture and in vivo infected wounds.

Pereira PR, De Paula JB, Cielinski J, Pilonetto M, Von Bahten LC

Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Department of Surgery, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Department of Pharmacy, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Department of Pharmacy, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Department of Surgery, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: to compare the effects of low intensity laser therapy on in vitro bacterial growth and in vivo in infected wounds, and to analyze the effectiveness of the AsGa Laser technology in in vivo wound infections. METHODS: in vitro: Staphylococcus aureus were incubated on blood agar plates, half of them being irradiated with 904 nm wavelength laser and dose of 3J/cm2 daily for seven days. In vivo: 32 male Wistar rats were divided into control group (uninfected) and Experimental Group (Infected). Half of the animals had their wounds irradiated. RESULTS: in vitro: there was no statistically significant variation between the experimental groups as for the source plates and the derived ones (p>0.05). In vivo: there was a significant increase in the deposition of type I and III collagen in the wounds of the infected and irradiated animals when assessed on the fourth day of the experiment (p=0.034). CONCLUSION: low-intensity Laser Therapy applied with a wavelength of 904nm and dose 3J/cm2 did not alter the in vitro growth of S. aureus in experimental groups; in vivo, however, it showed significant increase in the deposition of type I and III collagen in the wound of infected and irradiated animals on the fourth day of the experiment.

Rev Col Bras Cir 2014 Jan 41(1) 49-55

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24770774

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser irradiation induces in vitro proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells.

Barboza CA, Ginani F, Soares DM, Henriques AC, Freitas Rde A

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brasil. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brasil. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brasil. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brasil. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brasil.

Objective : To evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation on the proliferation and possible nuclear morphological changes of mouse mesenchymal stem cells. Methods : Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue were submitted to two applications (T0 and T48 hours) of low-level laser irradiation (660nm; doses of 0.5 and 1.0J/cm2). The trypan blue assay was used to evaluate cell viability, and growth curves were used to analyze proliferation at zero, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Nuclear alterations were evaluated by staining with DAPI (4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) at 72 hours. Results : Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells responded to laser therapy in a dose-dependent manner. Higher cell growth was observed when the cells were irradiated with a dose of 1.0J/cm2, especially after 24 hours (p<0.01). Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells responded better to a dose of 1.0J/cm2, but higher cell proliferation was observed after 48 hours (p<0.05) and 72 hours (p<0.01). Neither nuclear alterations nor a significant change in cell viability was detected in the studied groups. Conclusion : Low-level laser irradiation stimulated the proliferation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells without causing nuclear alterations. The biostimulation of mesenchymal stem cells using laser therapy might be an important tool for regenerative therapy and tissue engineering.

Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2014 Mar 12(1) 75-81

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24728250

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

The effect of near-infrared MLS laser radiation on cell membrane structure and radical generation.

Kujawa J, Pasternak K, Zavodnik I, Irzmanski R, Wrobel D, Bryszewska M

Clinic of Medical Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, 75 Drewnowska Str., Lodz, 91-002, Poland, jolanta.kujawa@umed.lodz.pl.

The therapeutic effects of low-power laser radiation of different wavelengths and light doses are well known, but the biochemical mechanism of the interaction of laser light with living cells is not fully understood. We have investigated the effect of MLS (Multiwave Locked System) laser near-infrared irradiation on cell membrane structure, functional properties, and free radical generation using human red blood cells and breast cancer MCF-4 cells. The cells were irradiated with low-intensity MLS near-infrared (simultaneously 808 nm, continuous emission and 905 nm, pulse emission, pulse-wave frequency, 1,000 or 2,000 Hz) laser light at light doses from 0 to 15 J (average power density 212.5 mW/cm2, spot size was 3.18 cm2) at 22 degrees C, the activity membrane bound acetylcholinesterase, cell stability, anti-oxidative activity, and free radical generation were the parameters used in characterizing the structural and functional changes of the cell. Near-infrared low-intensity laser radiation changed the acetylcholinesterase activity of the red blood cell membrane in a dose-dependent manner: There was a considerable increase of maximal enzymatic rate and Michaelis constant due to changes in the membrane structure. Integral parameters such as erythrocyte stability, membrane lipid peroxidation, or methemoglobin levels remained unchanged. Anti-oxidative capacity of the red blood cells increased after MLS laser irradiation. This irradiation induced a time-dependent increase in free radical generation in MCF-4 cells. Low-intensity near-infrared MLS laser radiation induces free radical generation and changes enzymatic and anti-oxidative activities of cellular components. Free radical generation may be the mechanism of the biomodulative effect of laser radiation.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Apr 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24718669

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of low-level laser therapy on M1-related cytokine expression in monocytes via histone modification.

Chen CH, Wang CZ, Wang YH, Liao WT, Chen YJ, Kuo CH, Kuo HF, Hung CH

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Orthopaedic Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Orthopaedic Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Department of Physiology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Orthopaedic Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 482, Shanming Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in the treatment of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis and allergic rhinitis. However, the effects of LLLT on human monocyte polarization into M1 macrophages are unknown. To evaluate the effects of LLLT on M1-related cytokine and chemokine production and elucidate the mechanism, the human monocyte cell line THP-1 was treated with different doses of LLLT. The expression of M1-related cytokines and chemokines (CCL2, CXCL10, and TNF-alpha) was determined by ELISA and real-time PCR. LLLT-associated histone modifications were examined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Mitochondrial involvement in the LLLT-induced M1-related cytokine expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell surface markers for monocyte polarization. The results showed that LLLT (660 nm) significantly enhanced M1-related cytokine and chemokine expression in mRNA and protein levels. Mitochondrial copy number and mRNA levels of complex I-V protein were increased by LLLT (1 J/cm(2)). Activation of M1 polarization was concomitant with histone modification at TNF-alpha gene locus and IP-10 gene promoter area. This study indicates that LLLT (660 nm) enhanced M1-related cytokine and chemokine expression via mitochondrial biogenesis and histone modification, which may be a potent immune-enhancing agent for the treatment of allergic diseases.

Mediators Inflamm 2014 2014 625048

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24692853

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Near-infrared low-level laser stimulation of telocytes from human myometrium.

Campeanu RA, Radu BM, Cretoiu SM, Banciu DD, Banciu A, Cretoiu D, Popescu LM

Department of Anatomy Animal Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 050095, Bucharest, Romania.

Telocytes (TCs) are a brand-new cell type frequently observed in the interstitial space of many organs (see www.telocytes.com ). TCs are defined by very long (tens of micrometers) and slender prolongations named telopodes. At their level, dilations-called podoms (~300 nm), alternate with podomers (80-100 nm). TCs were identified in a myometrial interstitial cell culture based on morphological criteria and by CD34 and PDGF receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha) immunopositivity. However, the mechanism(s) of telopodes formation and/or elongation and ramification is not known. We report here the low-level laser stimulation (LLLS) using a 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (with an output power of 60 mW) of the telopodal lateral extension (TLE) growth in cell culture. LLLS of TCs determines a higher growth rate of TLE in pregnant myometrium primary cultures (10.3 +/- 1.0 mum/min) compared to nonpregnant ones (6.6 +/- 0.9 mum/min). Acute exposure (30 min) of TCs from pregnant myometrium to 1 muM mibefradil, a selective inhibitor of T-type calcium channels, determines a significant reduction in the LLLS TLE growth rate (5.7 +/- 0.8 mum/min) compared to LLLS per se in same type of samples. Meanwhile, chronic exposure (24 h) completely abolishes the LLLS TLE growth in both nonpregnant and pregnant myometria. The initial direction of TLE growth was modified by LLLS, the angle of deviation being more accentuated in TCs from human pregnant myometrium than in TCs from nonpregnant myometrium. In conclusion, TCs from pregnant myometrium are more susceptible of reacting to LLLS than those from nonpregnant myometrium. Therefore, some implications are emerging for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in uterine regenerative medicine.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 May 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24870411

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Ultra-low power laser stimulation impairs the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to primary human cells, and interferes with the expression of staphylococcal pathogenic factors.

Petruzzelli S, Congiu A, Gallamini M, Pompei R

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Lasers are commonly used in several fields of medicine as a complementary therapy for internal medicine, surgery and also diagnostics. The efficacy of ultra-low level laser therapy (ULLLT) at power levels around 0.15 mW/cm(2) has been demonstrated both in in vitro experiments and in the clinical environment. This work used an ULLLT laser source to analyze its efficacy on Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to cells and on its ability to produce pathogenic factors. Laser stimulation succeeded in impairing the binding of S. aureus to primary human cells in culture and in inhibiting the expression of coagulase, one of the main staphylococcal pathogenic factors. The importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the modification of the ECM redox potential in these activities were also evidenced.

New Microbiol 2014 Apr 37(2) 193-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24858646

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of low-level laser therapy on mitochondrial respiration and nitrosyl complex content.

Buravlev EA, Zhidkova TV, Vladimirov YA, Osipov AN

Department of General and Medical Biophysics, NI Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 1 Ostrovityanov str., 117997, Moscow, Russia, evgenii.sci@gmail.com.

Among the photochemical reactions responsible for therapeutic effects of low-power laser radiation, the photolysis of nitrosyl iron complexes of iron-containing proteins is of primary importance. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of blue laser radiation on the respiration rate and photolysis of nitrosyl complexes of iron-sulfur clusters (NO-FeS) in mitochondria, subjected to NO as well as the possibility of NO transfer from NO-FeS to hemoglobin. It was shown that mitochondrial respiration in State 3 (V3) and State 4 (V4), according to Chance, dramatically decreased in the presence of 3 mM NO, but laser radiation (lambda = 442 nm, 30 J/cm2) restored the respiration rates virtually to the initial level. At the same time, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra showed that laser irradiation decomposed nitrosyl complexes produced by the addition of NO to mitochondria. EPR signal of nitrosyl complexes of FeS-clusters, formed in the presence of 3 mM NO, was maximal in hypoxic mitochondria, and disappeared in a dose-dependent manner, almost completely at the irradiation dose 120 J/cm2. EPR measurements showed that the addition of lysed erythrocytes to mitochondria decreased the amount of nitrosyl complexes in iron-sulfur clusters and produced the accumulation of NO-hemoglobin. On the other hand, the addition of lysed erythrocytes to mitochondria, preincubated with nitric oxide, restored mitochondrial respiration rates V3 and V4 to initial levels. We may conclude that there are two possible ways to destroy FeS nitrosyl complexes in mitochondria and recover mitochondrial respiration inhibited by NO: laser irradiation and ample supply of the compounds with high affinity to nitric oxide, including hemoglobin.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 May 24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24858235

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

In vitro Therapeutic Effects of Low Level Laser at mRNA Level on the Release of Skin Growth Factors from Fibroblasts in Diabetic Mice.

Khoo NK, Shokrgozar MA, Kashani IR, Amanzadeh A, Mostafavi E, Sanati H, Habibi L, Talebi S, Abouzaripour M, Akrami SM

Department of Medical Genetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Department of Epidemiology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Department of Medical Genetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Department of Medical Genetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Department of Medical Genetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

BACKGROUND: Numerous in vitro reports suggest that Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) affects cellular processes by biostimulation, however most of them emphasize on using visible light lasers which have low penetration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of infrared laser light (which is more useful in clinic because of its higher penetration) on secretion of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), as important growth factors in wound healing. METHODS: Fibroblasts were extracted from the skin of 7 diabetic and 7 nondiabetic mice and cultured. Cell cultures of experimental group were irradiated with single dose of LLLT (energy density of 1 J/cm (2)) using an 810 nm continuous wave laser and the control group was not irradiated. Secretion of growth factors by skin fibroblasts were quantified through real time poly-merase chain reaction. RESULTS: Diabetic irradiated group showed significant increase in FGF (p = 0.017) expression, although PDGF increased and VEGF decreased in both diabetic and nondiabetic irradiated groups, but these variations were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that LLLT may play an important role in wound healing by stimulating the fibroblasts.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2014 Apr 6(2) 113-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24834313

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-level laser therapy for osteonecrotic lesions: effects on osteoblasts treated with zoledronic acid.

Basso FG, Turrioni AP, Soares DG, Bagnato VS, Hebling J, de Souza Costa CA

Araraquara School of Dentistry, UNESP-Univ. Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, 14801-903, Brazil.

PURPOSE: Clinical studies have shown that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can improve local tissue healing of bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw. However, the effects of laser irradiation on bisphosphonate-treated osteoblasts have not been completely elucidated. METHODS: Human osteoblasts were cultured in plain culture medium (DMEM). After 48 h, plain DMEM was replaced by DMEM with no fetal bovine serum, for a 24-h incubation followed by addition of zoledronic acid (5 muM) for additional 48 h. Cells were subjected to LLLT (InGaAsP; 780 +/- 3 nm; 0.025 W) at 0.5, 1.5, 3, 5, and 7 J/cm2, three times every 24 h. Cell viability, total protein production, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), mineral nodule formation, gene expression of collagen type I and ALP, and cell morphology were evaluated. RESULTS: LLLT at 0.5 J/cm2 increased cell viability of cultured osteoblasts. ALP activity and gene expression, in addition to mineral nodule formation and Col-I gene expression, were not increased by LLLT. LLLT applied to ZA-treated cells increased Col-I expression at 0.5, 1.5, and 3 J/cm2 but did not improve any other cell activity assessed. CONCLUSION: LLLT showed limited effects on bisphosphonate-treated osteoblasts.

Support Care Cancer 2014 May 7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24801347

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Laser phototherapy triggers the production of reactive oxygen species in oral epithelial cells without inducing DNA damage.

Dillenburg CS, Almeida LO, Martins MD, Squarize CH, Castilho RM

Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology, Rio Grande do Sul 90035-003, Brazil. University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Laboratory of Epithelial Biology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1078. Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology, Rio Grande do Sul 90035-003, Brazil. University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Laboratory of Epithelial Biology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1078. University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Laboratory of Epithelial Biology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1078.

Laser phototherapy (LPT) is widely used in clinical practice to accelerate healing. Although the use of LPT has advantages, the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of accelerated healing and the safety concerns associated with LPT are still poorly understood. We investigated the physiological effects of LPT irradiation on the production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), genomic instability, and deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) damage in human epithelial cells. In contrast to a high energy density (20 J/cm(2)), laser administered at a low energy density (4 J/cm(2)) resulted in the accumulation of ROS. Interestingly, 4 J/cm(2) of LPT did not induce DNA damage, genomic instability, or nuclear influx of the BRCA1 DNA damage repair protein, a known genome protective molecule that actively participates in DNA repair. Our results suggest that administration of low energy densities of LPT induces the accumulation of safe levels of ROS, which may explain the accelerated healing results observed in patients. These findings indicate that epithelial cells have an endowed molecular circuitry that responds to LPT by physiologically inducing accumulation of ROS, which triggers accelerated healing. Importantly, our results suggest that low energy densities of LPT can serve as a safe therapy to accelerate epithelial healing.

J Biomed Opt 2014 Apr 19(4) 048002

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24781593

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Increase in colony-forming capacity of the haemopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow exposed to the He-Ne laser radiation in vitro.

Vacek A, Bartonickova A, Vesela Z, Petru F

Folia Biol (Praha) 1982 28(6) 426-30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=7160492

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Protein conformational modulation by photons: a mechanism for laser treatment effects.

Liebert AD, Bicknell BT, Adams RD

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Australia. Faculty of Health Science, Australian Catholic University, Australia. Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Australia. Electronic address: Roger.Adams@sydney.edu.au.

Responsiveness to low-level laser treatment (LLTT) at a wavelength of 450-910 nm has established it as an effective treatment of medical, veterinary and dental chronic pain, chronic inflammation conditions (arthritis and macular degeneration), wound repair, and lymphoedema, yet the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of LLLT remain unclear. However, there is now sufficient evidence from recent research to propose an integrated model of LLLT action. The hypothesis presented in this paper is that external applications of photons (through laser at an appropriate dose) modulates the nervous system through an integrated mechanism. This stimulated mechanism involves protein-to-protein interaction, where two or more proteins bind together to facilitate molecular processes, including modification of proteins by members of SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier proteins) and also protein phosphorylation and tyrosination. SUMO has been shown to have a role in multiple nuclear and perinuclear targets, including ion channels, and in the maintenance of telomeres and the post-translational modification of genes. The consequence of laser application in treatment, therefore, can be seen as influencing the transmission of neural information via an integrated and rapid modulation of ion channels, achieved through both direct action on photo-acceptors (such as cytochrome c-oxidase) and through indirect modulation via enzymes, including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tyrosine kinases and tyrosine kinase receptors. This exogenous action then facilitates an existing photonic biomodulation mechanism within the body, and initiates ion channel modulation both in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence indicates that the ion channel modulation functions predominately through the potassium channels, including two pore leak channels (K2P), which act as signal integrators from the periphery to the cortex. Photonic action also transforms SUMOylation processes at the cell membrane, nucleus and telomeres via signalling processes from the mitochondria (which is the main target of laser absorption) to these targets. Under the hypothesis, these observed biological effects would play a part in the bystander effect, the abscopal effect, and other systemic effects observed with the application of low level laser (LLLT). The implications of the hypothesis are important in that they point to mechanisms that can account for the effectiveness of laser in the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases, chronic pain and neurodegenerative disorders.

Med Hypotheses 2014 Mar 82(3) 275-81

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24424395

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Luminous fabric devices for wearable low-level light therapy.

Shen J, Chui C, Tao X

Institute of Textiles and Clothing Hong Kong China. Institute of Textiles and Clothing Hong Kong China. Institute of Textiles and Clothing Hong Kong China ; Interdisciplinary Division of Biomedical Engineering The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong China.

In this paper, a flexible luminous fabric device was developed and investigated for wearable three-dimensionally fitted low-level light therapy. The fabric device exhibited excellent optical and thermal properties. Its optical power density and operating temperature were stable during usage for 10 hours. In vitro experiments demonstrated a significant increase in collagen production in human fibroblast irradiated by the fabric device, compared with the fibroblast without light irradiation. A series of tests were conducted for the safety of the fabric for human skin contact according to ISO standard ISO 10993-1:2003. The results showed that there was no potential hazard when the luminous fabrics were in direct contact with human skin.

Biomed Opt Express 2013 4(12) 2925-37

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24409391

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Non-pharmaceutical therapies for stroke: mechanisms and clinical implications.

Chen F, Qi Z, Luo Y, Hinchliffe T, Ding G, Xia Y, Ji X

Cerebrovascular Diseases Research Institute, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, Beijing 100053, China. Cerebrovascular Diseases Research Institute, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, Beijing 100053, China. Cerebrovascular Diseases Research Institute, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, Beijing 100053, China. The Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Shanghai Research Center for Acupuncture and Meridian, Shanghai 201203, China. The Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address: ying.xia@uth.tmc.edu. Cerebrovascular Diseases Research Institute, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, Beijing 100053, China. Electronic address: jixm@ccmu.edu.cn.

Stroke is deemed a worldwide leading cause of neurological disability and death, however, there is currently no promising pharmacotherapy for acute ischemic stroke aside from intravenous or intra-arterial thrombolysis. Yet because of the narrow therapeutic time window involved, thrombolytic application is very restricted in clinical settings. Accumulating data suggest that non-pharmaceutical therapies for stroke might provide new opportunities for stroke treatment. Here we review recent research progress in the mechanisms and clinical implications of non-pharmaceutical therapies, mainly including neuroprotective approaches such as hypothermia, ischemic/hypoxic conditioning, acupuncture, medical gases and transcranial laser therapy. In addition, we briefly summarize mechanical endovascular recanalization devices and recovery devices for the treatment of the chronic phase of stroke and discuss the relative merits of these devices.

Prog Neurobiol 2014 Apr 115 246-69

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24407111

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

A review of lasers and light for the treatment of onychomycosis.

Ortiz AE, Avram MM, Wanner MA

Dermatology Cosmetic and Laser Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114; Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114; UC San Diego, San Diego, California, 92122.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection that affects many individuals. Systemic therapies are effective, but are limited by their side effects and potential for hepatotoxicity. Topical therapies have less serious side effects, yet provide only limited efficacy due to their inability to penetrate the nail plate. These limitations have led to the investigation of laser and light-based modalities as alternative treatment options for onychomycosis. This article will provide an overview and critical assessment of the field of laser and other energy-based treatments for onychomycosis. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted on laser and light-based treatments for onychomycosis. RESULTS: Early data are promising, however, many of these studies are small or poorly designed. CONCLUSION: Further evaluation and larger studies are needed to determine the optimal light source, pulse duration, and treatment schedule for long-term success.

Lasers Surg Med 2014 Feb 46(2) 117-24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24375507

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Benefits of laser phototherapy on nerve repair.

de Oliveira RF, de Andrade Salgado DM, Trevelin LT, Lopes RM, da Cunha SR, Aranha AC, de Paula Eduardo C, de Freitas PM

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Special Laboratory of Lasers in Dentistry (LELO), School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Post-traumatic nerve repair represents a major challenge to health sciences. Although there have been great advances in the last few years, it is still necessary to find methods that can effectively enhance nerve regeneration. Laser therapy has been widely investigated as a potential method for nerve repair. Therefore, in this article, a review of the existing literature was undertaken with regard to the effects of low-power laser irradiation on the regeneration of traumatically/surgically injured nerves. The articles were selected using either electronic search engines or manual tracing of the references cited in key papers. In electronic searches, we used the key words as “paresthesia”, “laser therapy”, “low-power laser and nerve repair”, and “laser therapy and nerve repair”, considering case reports and clinical studies. According to the findings of the literature, laser therapy accelerates and improves the regeneration of the affected nerve tissues, but there are many conflicting results about laser therapy. This can be attributed to several variables such as wavelength, radiation dose, and type of radiation. All the early in vivo studies assessed in this research were effective in restoring sensitivity. Although these results indicate a potential benefit of the use of lasers on nerve repair, further double-blind controlled clinical trials should be conducted in order to standardize protocols for clinical application.

Lasers Med Sci 2014 Feb 12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24519261

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Shedding light on a new treatment for diabetic wound healing: a review on phototherapy.

Houreld NN

Laser Research Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa.

Impaired wound healing is a common complication associated with diabetes with complex pathophysiological underlying mechanisms and often necessitates amputation. With the advancement in laser technology, irradiation of these wounds with low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) or phototherapy, has shown a vast improvement in wound healing. At the correct laser parameters, LILI has shown to increase migration, viability, and proliferation of diabetic cells in vitro; there is a stimulatory effect on the mitochondria with a resulting increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In addition, LILI also has an anti-inflammatory and protective effect on these cells. In light of the ever present threat of diabetic foot ulcers, infection, and amputation, new improved therapies and the fortification of wound healing research deserves better prioritization. In this review we look at the complications associated with diabetic wound healing and the effect of laser irradiation both in vitro and in vivo in diabetic wound healing.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 2014 398412

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24511283

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Authors’ reply.

Zacchigna S, Biasotto M, Zanatta F

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste, Italy. Dental Sciences University and Hospital of Trieste, Trieste, Italy. Eltech s.r.l., Treviso, Italy.

This Correspondence is a Reply to Significant Errors and Misdirection in Class IV Laser Therapy Study by Carroll.

Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 184(4) 1251-2

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24655381

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Significant errors and misdirection in class IV laser therapy study.

Carroll JD

THOR Photomedicine Ltd, Amersham, United Kingdom.

This Correspondence relates to the article by Ottaviani et al (Effect of Class IV Laser Therapy on Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis: A Clinical and Experimental Study. Am J Pathol 2013, 183:1747-1757.).

Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 184(4) 1251

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24655380

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

[Auricular acupuncture combined with laser acupoint irradiation for 58 cases of stranguria].

Chen JT

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2013 Dec 33(12) 1103-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24617239

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Lateral epicondylalgia: midlife crisis of a tendon.

Luk JK, Tsang RC, Leung HB

Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Fung Yiu King Hospital, 9 Sandy Bay Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Physiotherapy Department, MacLehose Medical Rehabilitation Centre, 7 Sha Wan Drive, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Queen Mary Hospital, 102 Pokfulam Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

The pathogenesis and management of lateral epicondylalgia, or tennis elbow, a common ailment affecting middle-aged subjects of both genders continue to provoke controversy. Currently it is thought to be due to local tendon pathology, pain system changes, and motor system impairment. Its diagnosis is usually clinical, based on a classical history, as well as symptoms and signs. In selected cases, additional imaging (X-rays, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging) can help to confirm the diagnosis. Different treatment modalities have been described, including the use of orthotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid injections, topical glyceryl trinitrate, exercise therapy, manual therapy, ultrasound therapy, laser therapy, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, acupuncture, taping, platelet-rich plasma injections, hyaluronan gel injections, botulinum toxin injections, and surgery. Nevertheless, evidence to select the best treatment is lacking and the choice of therapy depends on the experience of the management team, availability of the equipment and expertise, and patient response. This article provides a snapshot of current medical practice for lateral epicondylalgia management.

Hong Kong Med J 2014 Apr 20(2) 145-51

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24584568

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Awards galore … the results are in!

Ohshiro T

Laser Ther 2014 Mar 27 23(1) 5-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24771965

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

One Man’s Light: Mechanistic Convergence of Photobiomodulation and Biological Effects.

Lanzafame RJ

Raymond J Lanzafame, MD, PLLC, Rochester, New York.

Photomed Laser Surg 2014 May 32(5) 243-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24720615

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Inflammation and Regeneration in the Dentin-Pulp Complex: A Double-edged Sword.

Cooper PR, Holder MJ, Smith AJ

Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address: p.r.cooper@bham.ac.uk. Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Dental tissue infection and disease result in acute and chronic activation of the innate immune response, which is mediated by molecular and cellular signaling. Different cell types within the dentin-pulp complex are able to detect invading bacteria at all stages of the infection. Indeed, at relatively early disease stages, odontoblasts will respond to bacterial components, and as the disease progresses, core pulpal cells including fibroblasts, stems cells, endothelial cells, and immune cells will become involved. Pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors expressed on these cell types, are responsible for detecting bacterial components, and their ligand binding leads to the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase intracellular signaling cascades. Subsequent nuclear translocation of the transcription factor subunits from these pathways will lead to proinflammatory mediator expression, including increases in cytokines and chemokines, which trigger host cellular defense mechanisms. The complex molecular signaling will result in the recruitment of immune system cells targeted at combating the invading microbes; however, the trafficking and antibacterial activity of these cells can lead to collateral tissue damage. Recent evidence suggests that if inflammation is resolved relatively low levels of proinflammatory mediators may promote tissue repair, whereas if chronic inflammation ensues repair mechanisms become inhibited. Thus, the effects of mediators are temporal context dependent. Although containment and removal of the infection are keys to enable dental tissue repair, it is feasible that the development of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory approaches, based on molecular, epigenetic, and photobiomodulatory technologies, may also be beneficial for future endodontic treatments.

J Endod 2014 Apr 40(4 Suppl) S46-51

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24698693

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Effects of low-level light therapy on facial corticosteroid addiction dermatitis: A retrospective analysis of 170 Asian patients.

Luan Q, Liu L, Wei Q, Liu B

Department of Dermatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, China.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2014 Mar-Apr 80(2) 194

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24685879

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Low-power laser to prevent oral mucositis in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Chor A, Torres SR, Maiolino A, Nucci M

Eur J Haematol 2010 Feb 1 84(2) 178-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=19682060

How does LLLT / cold laser therapy work? click here

How to calculate LLLT dose click here

Get yourself trained click here

Methodological shortcomings make conclusion highly sensitive to relevant changes in review protocol.

Bjordal JM, Chow RT, Lopes-Martins RA, Johnson MI

Physiotherapy Research Group, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Kalfarveien 31, 5018, Bergen, Norway, Jan.Bjordal@igs.uib.no.

Rheumatol Int 2014 Jan 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=24402005

This was a letter to the editor which I addressed in a special blog post which you can read here

https://blog.thorlaser.com/kadhim-saleh-laser-neck-pain-review-conclusion-incorrect-lllt-is-clinically-effective/ 

well done for getting this far

About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
This entry was posted in Research. Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to THOR Literature watch January – May 2014

  1. Les Binkley says:

    James, This is Les Binkley. On your trips to Memphis to visit Chriss Walinski, I was the periodontist that listened to your lectures on Thor lasers. I enjoyed them and got to eat with you and others and learn more.
    I was looking up the use of laser in the treatment of mental nerve trauma during periodontal and oral surgery. I got several articles in your website but generally had to do with other nerves. Any mental specific. I would appreciate it.
    Les Binkley

    • James Carroll says:

      Here is what I have:

      Efficacy of low level laser therapy on neurosensory recovery after injury to the inferior alveolar nerve.
      Ozen T, Orhan K, Gorur I, Ozturk A
      Ankara University, Faculty of Dentistry Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, 06500, Besevler, Ankara, Turkey.

      ABSTRACT :
      BACKGROUND : The most severe complication after the removal of mandibular third molars is injury to the inferior alveolar nerve or the lingual nerve. These complications are rather uncommon (0.4% to 8.4%) and most of them are transient. However, some of them persist for longer than 6 months, which can leave various degrees of long-term permanent disability. While several methods such as pharmacologic therapy, microneurosurgery, autogenous and alloplastic grafting can be used for the treatment of long-standing sensory aberrations in the inferior alveolar nerve, there are few reports regarding low level laser treatment. This paper reports the effects of low level laser therapy in 4 patients with longstanding sensory nerve impairment following mandibular third molar surgery.
      METHODS : Four female patients had complaints of paresthesia and dysesthesia of the lip, chin and gingiva, and buccal regions. Each patient had undergone mandibular third molar surgery at least 1 year before. All patients were treated with low level laser therapy. Clinical neurosensory tests (the brush stroke directional discrimination test, 2-point discrimination test, and a subjective assessment of neurosensory function using a visual analog scale) were used before and after treatment, and the responses were plotted over time.
      RESULTS : When the neurosensory assessment scores after treatment with LLL therapy were compared with the baseline values prior to treatment, there was a significant acceleration in the time course, as well as in the magnitude, of neurosensory return. The VAS analysis revealed progressive improvement over time.
      CONCLUSION : Low level laser therapy seemed to be conducive to the reduction of long-standing sensory nerve impairment following third molar surgery. Further studies are worthwhile regarding the clinical application of this treatment modality.

      Head Face Med 2006 2 3
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16480503

      Effects of Superpulsed, Low-Level Laser Therapy on Neurosensory Recovery of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve.
      Pol R, Gallesio G, Riso M, Ruggiero T, Scarano A, Mortellaro C, Mozzati M

      Oral Surgery Unit, Dentistry Section, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, University of TurindaggerSIOM Oral Surgery and Implantology Center, Turindouble daggerDepartment of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti section signDepartment of Health Sciences “A. Avogadro,” University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy.

      OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of superpulsed, low-level laser therapy (SLLLT) on neurosensory recovery of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) after oral surgical injury.
      BACKGROUND DATA: A survey of the literature reveals the uncertainty of outcomes for the surgical management of IAN injury and the efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of IAN injury.
      METHODS: In this study, the authors report the results for SLLLT in 57 patients affected by paresthesia of the lip, chin, gingival, and buccal regions. Each patient was subjected to 10 laser treatments, once a week, with a GaAs diode laser. Clinical neurosensory tests (soft touch, 2-point discrimination, pin prick, thermal test) and the visual analogue scale were used before every treatment to evaluate the extent of neurosensory recovery.
      RESULTS: The authors’ results demonstrate that 83.3% of the patients had a significant neurosensory recovery, as evident in the objective and subjective tests.
      CONCLUSION: The results reported in this study indicate that SLLLT has the potential to improve neurosensory recovery in patients with IAN paresthesia.

      J Craniofac Surg 2016 Jul 27(5) 1215-9
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=27391492

      Preliminary study of low-level laser for treatment of long-standing sensory aberrations in the inferior alveolar nerve.
      Khullar SM, Brodin P, Barkvoll P, Haanaes HR

      Department of Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine, University of Oslo, Blindern, Norway.

      PURPOSE: The incidence of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) damage during removal of third molar teeth has been reported to be as high as 5.5% and up to 100% during sagittal split osteotomy. Sensory aberrations in the IAN persisting for longer than 6 months leave some degree of permanent disability. The purpose of this double-blind, clinical trial was to examine the effects of low-level laser (LLL) treatment using a GaAIAs laser (820 nm, Ronvig, Denmark) on touch and temperature sensory perception after a long-standing postsurgical IAN injury.
      PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients were divided into two groups, one of which received real LLL (4 x 6 J per treatment along the distribution of the IAN to a total of 20 treatments) and the other placebo LLL. The degree of mechanoreceptor injury as assessed by Semmes Weinstein Monofilaments (North Coast Medical, San Jose, CA) were comparable in the two groups before treatment. The degree of thermal sensitivity disability as assessed using a Thermotester (Somedic AB, Stockholm, Sweden) to examine the indifferent temperature threshold was also comparable between the two groups before LLL.
      RESULTS: Subsequent to LLL, the real laser-treated group showed a significant improvement in mechanoreceptor sensory testing (P = .01) compared with the placebo group, as manifested by a decrease in load threshold (g) necessary to elicit a response from the most damaged area. In addition, the real LLL group reported a subjective improvement in sensory function. There was no significant improvement in thermal sensitivity post-LLL for either the real or placebo laser-treated groups.
      CONCLUSION: It was concluded that LLL can improve mechanoreceptor perception in long-standing sensory aberrations in the IAN.

      J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1996 Jan 54(1) 2-7; discussion 7-8
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=8530994

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *