Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) Literature Watch January 2011

We have now moved this LLLT literature watch to the more frequent schedule of monthly rather than bi-monthy, so you will be hearing from me a little more often. Even in this short time frame of 4 weeks there are 29 new studies for you to review: Starting with a study of LLLT vs Topical Corticosteroids for  Erosive-Atrophic Oral Lichen Planus (yuk), a small RCT on the Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Chronic Diabetic Foot Wound Healing, yet another RCT study on oral mucositis (you can’t have too many, I guess) and an RCT on dentine hypersensitivity. There are also studies looking at the LLLT mechanism, one finding increased mitochondrial oxidative stress triggered by high fluence low-power laser irradiation (as I told you before, you can have too much of a good thing) and the other finding that  low intensity broad-spectrum light increases cytochrome c oxidase / NO activity in an intensity-dependent fashion but has no effect on oxygen consumption. I think I will have a closer look at the spectrum and intensities used in that study. Over to you now – please note that there is a comments section available for you to write back to me at the end of this blog, I’d love to have your comments.

A Comparative Pilot Study of Low Intensity Laser versus Topical Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Erosive-Atrophic Oral Lichen Planus.

Jajarm HH, Falaki F, Mahdavi O

1 Department of Oral Medicine and Dental Research Center , Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad, Iran .

Abstract Background and Objective: Treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP) remains a great challenge for clinicians. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) with topical corticosteroids in the treatment of oral erosive and atrophic lichen planus. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with erosive-atrophic OLP were randomly allocated into two groups. The experimental group consisted of patients treated with the 630 nm diode laser. The control group consisted of patients who used Dexamethason mouth wash. Response rate was defined based on changes in the appearance score and pain score (Visual Analogue Scale) of the lesions before and after each treatment. Results: Appearance score, pain score, and lesion severity was reduced in both groups. No significant differences were found between the treatment groups regarding the response rate and relapse. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that LILT was as effective as topical corticosteroid therapy without any adverse effects and it may be considered as an alternative treatment for erosive-atrophic OLP in the future.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Jan 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21214369

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A Randomized Clinical Trial on the Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Chronic Diabetic Foot Wound Healing: A Preliminary Report.

Kaviani A, Djavid GE, Ataie-Fashtami L, Fateh M, Ghodsi M, Salami M, Zand N, Kashef N, Larijani B

1 Department of Surgery, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran .

Abstract Background and Objectives: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to promote chronic wound healing in conditions of reduced microcirculation. In this preliminary study, we report the results of using LLLT to heal foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients with a diabetic foot wound for at least 3 months were included in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomized to receive placebo treatment (n = 10) or LLLT (n = 13) (685 nm, energy density 10 J/cm(2)) in addition to conventional therapy. Patients were followed for 20 weeks. Ulcer size reduction and the number of patients with complete healing were compared between the LLLT and placebo groups. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics of patients and foot ulcers receiving LLLT and placebo treatment. At week 4, the size of ulcers decreased significantly in the LLLT group (p = 0.04). After 20 weeks, in the LLLT group, eight patients had complete healing and in the placebo group only three patients experienced complete wound healing. The mean time of complete healing in LLLT patients (11 weeks) was less than that in placebo patients (14 weeks) though the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The study provides evidence that LLLT can accelerate the healing process of chronic diabetic foot ulcers, and it can be presumed that LLLT may shorten the time period needed to achieve complete healing.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Jan 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21214368

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Efficacy of low-level laser therapy and aluminum hydroxide in patients with chemotherapy and radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis.

Lima AG, Antequera R, Peres MP, Snitcosky IM, Federico MH, Villar RC

Clinics Hospital, University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. alinegov@yahoo.com

This study evaluated the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and aluminum hydroxide (AH) in the prevention of oral mucositis (OM). A prospective, comparative and non-randomized study was conducted with 25 patients with head and neck cancer subjected to radiotherapy (RT) or radiochemotherapy (RCT). Twelve patients received LLLT (830 nm, 15 mW, 12 J/cm(2)) daily from the 1st day until the end of RT before each sessions during 5 consecutive days, and the other 13 patients received AH 310 mg/5 mL, 4 times/day, also throughout the duration of RT, including weekends. OM was measured using an oral toxicity scale (OTS) and pain was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS). EORTC questionnaires were administered to the evaluate impact of OM on quality of life. The LLLT group showed lower mean OTS and VAS scores during the course of RT. A significant difference was observed in pain evaluation in the 13th RT session (p=0.036). In both groups, no interruption of RT was needed. The prophylactic use of both treatments proposed in this study seems to reduce the incidence of severe OM lesions. However, the LLLT was more effective in delaying the appearance of severe OM.

Braz Dent J 2010 21(3) 186-92

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21203698

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Clinical evaluation of Er,Cr:YSGG and GaAlAs laser therapy for treating dentine hypersensitivity: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

Yilmaz HG, Kurtulmus-Yilmaz S, Cengiz E, Bayindir H, Aykac Y

Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Near East University, Mersin 10, Turkey.

OBJECTIVE: The advent of dental lasers has raised another possible treatment option for dentine hypersensitivity (DH) and has become a research interest in the last decades. The aim of this randomized, controlled, double-blind, split mouth, clinical study was to evaluate and compare the desensitizing effects of erbium, chromium-doped:yttrium, scandium, gallium and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) to galium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser on DH. METHODS: Fifty-one patients participated in this study for a total of 174 teeth. DH was assessed for all groups with a visual analog scale. For each patient, the teeth were randomized to three groups. In the diode laser group, sensitive teeth were irradiated with the GaAlAs laser at 5J/cm(2) energy density. In the Er,Cr:YSGG laser group, sensitive teeth were irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser in the hard tissue mode using a none-contact probe at an energy level of 0.25W and repetition rate of 20Hz, 0% water and 10% air. In the control group no treatment was performed. Treatment time was 1min for GaAlAs laser and 30s for Er,Cr:YSGG laser. RESULTS: When compared with the control group and baseline data, in both laser groups, laser irradiation provided a desensitizing effect immediately after treatment and this effect was maintained throughout the study (p<0.05). No significant differences between Er,Cr:YSGG and GaAlAs laser groups were found at any follow-up examination (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, it may be concluded that both Er,Cr:YSGG and GaAlAs lasers were effective in the treatment of DH following a single application.

J Dent 2011 Jan 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21238531

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Low intensity light stimulates nitrite-dependent nitric oxide synthesis but not oxygen consumption by cytochrome c oxidase: Implications for phototherapy.

Ball KA, Castello PR, Poyton RO

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0347, USA.

Cytochrome c oxidase (Cco) has been reported to be a receptor for some of the beneficial effects of low intensity visible and near-infrared light on cells and tissues. Here, we have explored the role of low intensity light in affecting a newly described function of Cco, its ability to catalyze nitrite-dependent nitric oxide (NO) synthesis (Cco/NO). Using a new assay for Cco/NO we have found that both yeast and mouse brain mitochondrial Cco produce NO over a wide range of oxygen concentrations and that the rate of NO synthesis increases as the oxygen concentration decreases, becoming optimal under hypoxic conditions. Low intensity broad-spectrum light increases Cco/NO activity in an intensity-dependent fashion but has no effect on oxygen consumption by Cco. By using a series of bandpass filters and light emitting devices (LEDs) we have determined that maximal stimulation of Cco/NO activity is achieved by exposure to light whose central wavelength is 590+/-14nm. This wavelength of light stimulates Cco/NO synthesis at physiological nitrite concentrations. These findings raise the interesting possibility that low intensity light exerts a beneficial effect on cells and tissues by increasing NO synthesis catalyzed by Cco and offer a new explanation for the increase in NO bioavailability experienced by tissue exposed to light.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2010 Dec 25

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21237670

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Mitochondrial oxidative stress causes mitochondrial fragmentation via differential modulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion proteins.

Wu S, Zhou F, Zhang Z

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science & Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China.

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles with continual fusion and fission to maintain their morphology and functions, but the mechanism involved is still not clear. Here, we investigated the effect of mitochondrial oxidative stress triggered by high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) on mitochondrial dynamics in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1) and African green monkey SV40-transformed kidney fibroblast cells (COS-7). Upon the HF-LPLI-triggered oxidative stress, mitochondria displayed a fragmented structure, which abolished by exposure of dehydroascorbic acid, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, indicating that oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial fragmentation. Further study revealed that HF-LPLI caused mitochondrial fragmentation through inhibiting fusion and enhancing fission. Obviously mitochondrial translocation of pro-fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) was observed following HF-LPLI, demonstrating the apoptosis-related activation of Drp1. Notably, overexpression of Drp1 increased mitochondrial fragmentation and promoted HF-LPLI-induced apoptosis through promoting cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation, whereas overexpression of Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a pro-fusion protein, caused inversely effects. Besides, neither Drp1 nor Mfn2 overexpression affected mitochondrial ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, and Bax activation. We conclude that mitochondrial oxidative stress through Drp1 and Mfn2 causes an imbalance of mitochondrial fission/fusion, results in mitochondrial fragmentation, which contributes to mitochondria and cell dysfunction.

FEBS J 2011 Jan 13

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21232014

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Effectiveness of laser therapy and topical desensitising agents in treating dentine hypersensitivity: a systematic review.

He S, Wang Y, Li X, Hu D

Department of Preventive Dentistry, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Summary The aim of this systematic review was to compare the effectiveness of laser therapy with that of topical desensitising agents in treating dentine hypersensitivity. A secondary objective was to determine the safety of laser application according to the relevant studies. A systematic search was performed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the National Research Register, the Cochrane Oral Health Group’s Trials Register database to retrieve all articles that were about randomised controlled trials involving the application of laser desensitising procedures and topical desensitising agents in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. A total of eight trials that met all inclusion criteria involving 234 participants were reviewed. Based upon the ‘quality’ of evidence, one study was classified as A level, five as B level and two as C level. Owing to the heterogeneity of the studies, a meta-analysis was not performed. Half of the included studies compared GaALAS laser with topical desensitising agents, but the findings were conflicting. The remaining studies involved Nd:YAG laser, Er:YAG laser and CO2 laser, and all showed that the three types of lasers were superior to topical desensitising agents, but the superiority was slight. A systematic review of the literature indicates the likelihood that laser therapy has a slight clinical advantage over topical medicaments in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. More large sample-sized, long-term, high-quality randomised controlled clinical trials are needed before definitive conclusions were made.

J Oral Rehabil 2011 Jan 12

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21223353

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Green laser irradiation effects on buffalo semen.

Abdel-Salam Z, Dessouki SH, Abdel-Salam SA, Ibrahim MA, Harith MA

National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES) Cairo University, Egypt.

The overall objective of this paper is to develop a more sensitive and less costly technique of laser irradiation of spermatozoa at certain wavelengths and exposure times suitable for improvement of buffalo semen quality. A 532 nm continuous wave (CW) DPSS laser light has been used to irradiate buffalo semen for different time intervals. Three semen pools from three different bulls (Bubalus bubalis) were used in the experiment, each pool was divided into six groups : control (not irradiated), and the other five were exposed to laser light for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 minutes with fluencies of 0.076, 0.15, 0.23, 0.31, and 0.38 Joule/cm(2) respectively at an output power 1mW. The results show that the semen quality parameters increase under the effect of laser irradiation. Maximum improvement in the semen quality has been reached after 4 minutes of exposure. Such results indicate the possibility of adopting laser irradiation as an easy and straightforward technique for in situ improvement of the semen quality to optimize the artificial insemination conditions.

Theriogenology 2011 Jan 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21220155

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The Thermal Effects of Therapeutic Lasers with 810 nm and 904 nm Wavelengths on Human Skin.

Joensen J, Demmink JH, Johnson MI, Iversen VV, Lopes-Martins RA, Bjordal JM

1 Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health and Social Science, Bergen University College , Bergen, Norway .

Abstract Objective: To investigate the effect of therapeutic infrared class 3B laser irradiation on skin temperature in healthy participants of differing skin color, age, and gender. Background: Little is known about the potential thermal effects of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) irradiation on human skin. Methods: Skin temperature was measured in 40 healthy volunteers with a thermographic camera at laser irradiated and control (non-irradiated) areas on the skin. Six irradiation doses (2-12 J) were delivered from a 200 mW, 810 nm laser and a 60 mW, 904 nm laser, respectively. Results: Thermal effects of therapeutic LLLT using doses recommended in the World Association for Laser Therapy (WALT) guidelines were insignificant; below 1.5 degrees C in light, medium, and dark skin. When higher irradiation doses were used, the 60 mW, 904 nm laser produced significantly (p < 0.01) higher temperatures in dark skin (5.7, SD +/- 1.8 degrees C at 12 J) than in light skin, although no participants requested termination of LLLT. However, irradiation with a 200 mW, 810 nm laser induced three to six times more heat in dark skin than in the other skin color groups. Eight of 13 participants with dark skin asked for LLLT to be stopped because of uncomfortable heating. The maximal increase in skin temperature was 22.3 degrees C. Conclusions: The thermal effects of LLLT at doses recommended by WALT-guidelines for musculoskeletal and inflammatory conditions are negligible (<1.5 degrees C) in light, medium, and dark skin. However, higher LLLT doses delivered with a strong 3B laser (200 mW) are capable of increasing skin temperature significantly and these photothermal effects may exceed the thermal pain threshold for humans with dark skin color.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Jan 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21219241

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Visible Light-Induced Healing of Diabetic or Venous Foot Ulcers: A Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study.

Landau Z, Migdal M, Lipovsky A, Lubart R

1 Department of Internal Medicine D, and the Diabetic Foot and Infectious Diseases Unit, Kaplan Medical Center , Rehovot, Israel .

Abstract Background and objectives: Non-healing ulcers represent a significant dermatological problem. Recently, conventional therapy-resistant chronic ulcers have been treated with low energy lasers or light-emitting diodes in the visible and near IR region, but only a few placebo-controlled double-blind studies have been performed to support the efficacy of this approach. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a broadband (400-800 nm) visible light device in the treatment of leg or foot ulcers. Methods: A placebo-controlled double-blind study using broadband light source (400-800 nm) was performed on patients with diabetic foot ulcers or patients with chronic leg ulcers. The treatment group was illuminated with 180 mW/cm(2) broadband light twice a day for 4 min/session, while patients in the placebo group received non- healing light fluency (10 mW/cm(2)) projections. The treatment group included 10 patients with a total of 19 ulcers, whereas in the placebo group, 6 patients had 6 ulcers. The follow-up period was 12 weeks. Results: At the end of the follow up, all the wounds were closed in 9 out of 10 patients (90%) from the treatment group, whereas in the placebo group only 2 out of 6 patients exhibited closed wounds (33%). The reduction in wound size in the treatment group versus the placebo group was 89% and 54%, respectively. Conclusions: In this small scale placebo-controlled double-blind study, broadband (400-800 nm) visible light was an effective modality for the treatment of leg or foot ulcers.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Jan 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21214497

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Effectiveness of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on dentine hypersensitivity: a controlled clinical trial.

Yilmaz HG, Cengiz E, Kurtulmus-Yilmaz S, Leblebicioglu B

Departments of 1Periodontology; 2Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry; 3Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Near East University, Mersin 10, Turkey; 4Division of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Yilmaz HG, Cengiz E, Kurtulmus-Yilmaz S, Leblebicioglu B. Effectiveness of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on dentine hypersensitivity: a controlled clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol 2011; doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01694.x ABSTRACT: Aim: Attempts have been made to treat dentine hypersensitivity (DH) with lasers. However, there is limited knowledge on the effects of erbium, chromium-doped:yttrium, scandium, gallium and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser on DH. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on reduction in DH. Methods: Forty-two patients (146 teeth) were included. Teeth were assigned to an experimental group and irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. In the control group same clinical instrument was used without laser emission. DH was assessed for both groups utilizing the visual analog scale. Plaque index (PI) scores were recorded immediately following treatment, at 1 week, 1 and 3 months. Results: The results showed that Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation had a significantly higher desensitizing effect compared with the placebo immediately after treatment (p<0.05). Intra-group comparisons revealed no statistically significant differences within the placebo group (p>0.05). For the test group, the differences between baseline and all time points following treatment were statistically significant (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed in PI between the test and control groups at any follow-up examination (p>0.05). Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it appears that Er,Cr:YSGG laser is effective in the treatment of DH compared with the placebo treatment.

J Clin Periodontol 2011 Jan 6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21210833

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Effects of 810-nm Laser on Murine Bone-Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells.

Chen AC, Huang YY, Sharma SK, Hamblin MR

1 Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital , Boston Massachusetts.

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to Investigate the effect of 810-nm low level laser therapy (LLLT) on dendritic cells (DC) in vitro. Background data: LLLT can enhance wound healing and increase cell proliferation and survival, and is used to treat inflammatory conditions. However there are reports that LLLT can stimulate leukocytes and could therefore be pro-inflammatory. Recently, DC have been found to play an important role in inflammation and immune response. Methods: Murine bone-marrow-derived DC were isolated, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide and treated with 810-nm laser, using fluences of 0.3, 3, and 30 J/cm(2) delivered at irradiances of 1, 10, and 100 mW/cm(2) respectively. Confocal microscopy, flow cytometry for DC markers, viability using propidium iodide, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for secreted interleukin-12 (IL-12), and bioluminescence measurements in cells transduced with a reporter for toll-like receptor (TLR)-9/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation, were performed. Results: LLLT changed the morphology of LPS-stimulated DC, increased their viability, and altered the balance of DC activation markers (major histocompatibility complex [MHC] class 2 up and CD86 down). LLLT reduced IL-12 secretion from DC stimulated by either LPS or CpG. LLLT reduced NF-kappaB activation in reporter cells stimulated with CpG. There was no obvious light dose response observed. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggest that 810-nm LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated DC, possibly mediated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and reduced NF-kappaB signaling.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Jan 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21214383

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Integrative approach focusing on acupuncture in the treatment of chronic complex regional pain syndrome.

Sprague M, Chang JC

1 Coastal Carolina Neuropsychiatric Center , Jacksonville, NC.

Abstract Background: Chronic complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that leads to sympathetic nervous system involvement and trophic changes. Objective: This study describes the use of acupuncture in a case study of CRPS. Design, setting, and patient: This is a single case report of a 34-year-old patient diagnosed with CRPS. Intervention: Acupuncture treatment including acupoints along the Gallbladder, Liver, Spleen, Heart, and Kidney meridians. Self-treatment plan included a laser acupuncture pen device and disposable press needles. Main outcome measures: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Results: The Patient reported a decrease in pain levels, depression, and an improved quality of life. Pretreatment SDS score of 17, a 12 on the BDI, and a 67 on the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Post-treatment SDS decreased to 4, her BDI went to 0, and her McGill Pain Questionnaire decreased to a 10. Conclusions: More research is needed and case studies performed to support our findings.

J Altern Complement Med 2011 Jan 17(1) 67-70

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21208130

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Histological analysis of low-intensity laser therapy effects in peripheral nerve regeneration in Wistar rats.

Camara CN, Brito MV, Silveira EL, Silva DS, Simoes VR, Pontes RW

Department of Physiotherapy, UNAMA, Belem, PA, Brazil.

Purpose: Analyze the influence of low-intensity laser therapy in the sciatic nerve regeneration of rats submitted to controlled crush through histological analysis. Methods: Were used 20 Wistar rats, to analyze the influence of low-intensity laser therapy in the sciatic nerve regeneration, where the injury of the type axonotmesis was induced by a haemostatic clamp Crile (2nd level of the rack). The animals were randomly distributed in 2 groups. Control group (CG n = 10) and Laser group (LG n = 10). These were subdivided in 2 subgroups each, according to the euthanasia period: (CG14 _ n = 5 and CG21 _ n = 5) and (LG14 _ n = 5 and LG21 _ n = 5). At the end of treatment, the samples were removed and prepared for histological analysis, where were analyzed and quantified the following findings: Schwann cells, myelinic axons with large diameter and neurons. Results: In the groups submitted to low-intensity laser therapy, were observed an increase in the number of all analyzed aspects with significance level. Conclusion: The irradiation with low intensity laser (904nm) influenced positively the regeneration of the sciatic nerve in Wistar rats after being injured by crush (axonotmesis), becoming the nerve recovery more rapid and efficient.

Acta Cir Bras 2011 Feb 26(1) 12-18

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21271198

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Influence of Low-Level Laser on the Speed of Orthodontic Movement.

da Silva Sousa MV, Scanavini MA, Sannomiya EK, Velasco LG, Angelieri F

Department of Orthodontics, Dental School, Sao Paulo Methodist University , Sao Paulo, Brazil .

Abstract Introduction: This study evaluated the effect of low-level laser irradiation on the speed of orthodontic tooth movement of canines submitted to initial retraction. Methods: Twenty-six canines were retracted by using NiTi spring (force of 150 g/side). Thirteen of those were irradiated with diode laser (780 nm, 20 mW, 10 sec, 5 J/cm(2)) for 3 days, and the other 13 were not irradiated and thus were considered the control group. Patients were followed up for 4 months, and nine laser applications were performed (three each month). The movement of the canines was evaluated through 3D casts, and the statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). Periapical radiographs of the studied teeth were submitted to Levander, Malmgreen, and alveolar bone ridge analyses to evaluate tissue integrity and were compared with the Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05). Results: A statistically significant increase in the movement speed of irradiated canines was observed in comparison with nonirradiated canines in all evaluation periods. No statistically significant difference was observed in bone and root resorption of canines, whether irradiated or not. Conclusion: The diode laser used within the protocol guidelines increased the speed of tooth movement. This might reduce orthodontic treatment time.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Jan 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21254890

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Observation of Pain Control in Patients with Bisphosphonate-Induced Osteonecrosis Using Low Level Laser Therapy: Preliminary Results.

Romeo U, Galanakis A, Marias C, Vecchio AD, Tenore G, Palaia G, Vescovi P, Polimeni A

1 Department of Oral Sciences, “Sapienza” University of Rome , Rome, Italy .

Abstract Background: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is an adverse side effect associated with bisphosphonate (BP) therapy, especially when parenteral BP administration is used. Patients affected by BRONJ present wide areas of exposed necrotic bone, particularly after surgical oral procedures. The main symptom is pain that is poorly controlled by common analgesic drugs. Recently, many studies have pointed to the beneficial effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in pain reduction for many pathological conditions. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether LLLT could be helpful in managing BRONJ by reducing the problems associated with this condition and the use of analgesic drugs. Methods: Twelve patients affected by BRONJ were monitored at the Complex Operative Unit of Oral Pathology. Among these patients, only seven referred to pain in necrotic areas and were recruited for LLLT. Laser applications were performed with a double diode laser simultaneously emitting at two different wavelengths (lambda = 650 nm and lambda = 904-910 nm, spot size = 8 mm). All of the patients were irradiated with a fluence of 0.053 J/cm(2) for 15 min five times over a period of 2 weeks, in a non-contact mode, approximately 1 mm from the pathologic area. The patient’s maximum and minimum pain was recorded using a numeric rating scale (NRS) evaluation before and after the treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Six patients showed significant pain reduction, and only one patient indicated a worsening of the symptoms, which was probably related to a reinfection of the BRONJ site, which occurred during the study. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the NRS rates before and after the protocol. Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that LLLT may be a valid technique to support the treatment of BRONJ-related pain, even though the low number of cases in this study does not permit any conclusive consideration.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Jan 16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21235406

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Effects of Laser Irradiation of Acupuncture Points Shenshu on Ovariectomized Rats.

Zhang YS, Xu YX, Chen CS, Chen GZ, Weng ZX, Yao Y

1 The Laboratory of Photonic Chinese Medicine, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University , Guangzhou, China .

Abstract Background and Objective: The effect of laser acupuncture on obesity in postmenopausal women remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this form of treatment using an animal model. Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into seven groups: normal control (Normal), sham-operation control (Sham), ovariectomized (OVX) control rats (OVX), OVX rats treated with estrogen (OVX + E), and three groups of ovariectomized rats treated with laser acupuncture (OVX + L). Bilateral ovaries were removed to decrease estrogen levels. After 2 wk, semiconductor laser irradiation was administered to bilateral Shenshu (BL 23) acupoints of rats in the three OVX + L groups at 12, 30, and 60 J/cm(2), respectively. Changes in body weight and pituitary estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA expression were analyzed. Morphological differences in the uterus and pituitary glands were also observed. Results: The OVX group exhibited marked weight gain and a significant decrease in pituitary ERalpha mRNA expression. Semiconductor laser irradiation at 30 J/cm(2) reduced body weight and increased ERalpha expression compared with the control, whereas irradiation at 12 or 60 J/cm(2) presented slightly weaker effects. Significant differences in pituitary ERbeta mRNA were not observed due to lack of optical density data. Conclusions: The semiconductor laser irradiation of bilateral Shenshu (BL 23) acupoints can exert beneficial effects on OVX rats through reducing body weight and increasing pituitary ERalpha expression, and 30 J/cm(2) was the most effective dose among those used.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Jan 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21214487

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660 AsGaAl Laser to Alleviate Pain Caused by Cryosurgical Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia: A Preliminary Study.

Ribeiro AS, de Aguiar MC, do Carmo MA, de Abreu MH, Silva TA, Mesquita RA

1 Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: To investigate the ability of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to alleviate pain caused by the cryosurgical treatment of oral leukoplakia (OL). Methods: Ten patients with OL were submitted to cryosurgical treatment (Non-LLLT group) and eight were submitted to cryosurgical treatment associated with LLLT (LLLT group). Laser irradiation of patients within the LLLT group was performed using a 50 mW 660 nm continuous wave Gallium Aluminum Arsenide (GaAlAs) laser with a spot size at the tissue surface of 0.0286 cm(2) (irradiance = 1.75 W/cm(2)). Three points within an area of 1 cm(2) around the cryosurgical site were irradiated in contact mode for 28 s per point (1.4 J at 49 J/cm(2) per point). Irradiation was carried out immediately following cryosurgical treatment and at 48 and 72 h post-cryosurgical treatment. A numerical rating scale was used to assess the pain. The relationship between the treated groups and pain was assessed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Treated OL sites appeared to be clinically normal and with no evidence of recurrence during the average 9-month follow-up period. It could be observed that the LLLT group reported less pain than did the non-LLLT group. Conclusion: LLLT is an important strategy used to reduce post-surgical pain caused by cryosurgical treatment of OL.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Jan 9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21214392

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Evaluation of the osteogenic effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm and 660 nm) on bone defects induced in the femurs of female rats submitted to ovariectomy.

Re Poppi R, Da Silva AL, Nacer RS, Vieira RP, de Oliveira LV, Santos de Faria Junior N, de Tarso Camilo Carvalho P

Postgraduate Program in Health and Development in the West Central Region, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Brazil.

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of LLLT (660- and 808-nm wavelengths) on the process of repairing bone defects induced in the femurs of female rats submitted to ovariectomy. Bilateral ovariectomies were performed on 18 female Wistar rats, which were divided into control and irradiated groups after the digital analysis of bone density showed decreased bone mass and after standardized drilling of the femurs. The irradiated groups received 133 J/cm(2) of AsGaAl (660-nm) and InGaAlP (880-nm) laser radiation. The animals were euthanized on days 14 and 21 after the bone defects were established. Detailed descriptive histological evaluations were performed, followed by semi-quantitative histomorphometry. The results from days 14 and 21 showed that the irradiated groups presented increased density of osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and immature osteocytes on the tissue surface compared with the control (non-irradiated) groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, inflammatory infiltrate evaluations showed that LLLT decreased the accumulation of leukocytes when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.05). We concluded that, in our experimental model, both wavelengths (660-nm and 880-nm) inhibited the inflammatory process and induced the proliferation of cells responsible for bone remodeling and repair.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Jan 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21246388

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Inhibition of HSV-1 replication by laser diode-irradiation: possible mechanism of action.

Donnarumma G, De Gregorio V, Fusco A, Farina E, Baroni A, Esposito V, Contaldo M, Petruzzi M, Pannone G, Serpico R

Department of Experimental Medicine, Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology Section, Second University of Naples, Italy.

Herpes labialis are the most frequent clinical manifestations of HSV-1 infection. Epithelial cells are able to respond to HSV-1 presence inducing the expression of IL-6, IL-1, TNF-alpha and IL-8. These proinflammatory cytokines have a function in the acute-phase response mediation, chemotaxis, inflammatory cell activation and antigen-presenting cells. In the human epithelial cell models, it has been demonstrated that, after an early induction of proinflammatory host response, HSV-1 down-modulates the proinflammatory cytokine production through the accumulation of two viral proteins, ICP4 and ICP27, whose transcription is induced by tegument protein VP16. These viral proteins, through the decreasing of stabilizing the mRNAs of proinflammatory genes, delay cytokine production to an extent that allows the virus to replicate. Moreover, viral transactivating proteins, ICP-0 and VP-16 induce IL-10 expression. The conventional treatment of herpes labialis involves the topical and systemic use of antiviral drugs but it is necessary to find new therapies that can act in a selective and non-cytotoxic manner in viral infection. Laser diode therapy has been considered as a non-invasive alternative treatment to the conventional treatment of herpes labialis in pain therapy, in modulation of inflammation and in wound healing. This study aims to report a possible mechanism of action of laser diode irradiation in prevention and reduction of severity of labial manifestations of herpes labialis virus. We investigated, in an in vitro model of epithelial cells HaCat, the laser-effect on HSV-1 replication and we evaluated the modulation of expression of certain proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6), antimicrobial peptide HBD2, chemokine IL-8 and the immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10. Our results lead us to hypothesize that LD-irradiation acts in the final stage of HSV-1 replication by limiting viral spread from cell to cell and that laser therapy acts also on the host immune response unblocking the suppression of proinflammatory mediators induced by accumulation of progeny virus in infected epithelial cells.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2010 Oct-Dec 23(4) 1167-76

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21244765

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The Use of 808-nm Light Therapy to Treat Experimental Chronic Osteomyelitis Induced in Rats by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus.

Kaya GS, Kaya M, Gursan N, Kirecci E, Gungormus M, Balta H

1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Ataturk University , Erzurum, Turkey .

Abstract Background data: In vivo and in vitro studies have reported that laser energy in differing wavelengths and irradiation regimes has a potential bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a light wavelength of 808 nm in varying doses has an effect on chronic osteomyelitis induced experimentally in the rat tibia. Methods: Intramedullary cavities were surgically created in the left tibias of 39 adult Wistar albino rats. Five randomly selected subjects were injected with a sterile saline solution, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was used to induce osteomyelitis in the remaining rats. After 3 weeks, rats with evidence of osteomyelitis were treated with debridement alone (n = 7), with debridement plus laser irradiation to induce photoeradication (n = 21), or were not treated at all [negative control, (n = 6)]. Active irradiation was performed using an 808 nm, 100 mW continuous-wave diode laser with a beam spot size of 0.7854 cm(2) (irradiance = 127.3 mW/cm(2)). Laser treatment commenced immediately after debridement surgery and was applied daily for 5 consecutive days. Irradiation lasted 60 secs (6 J at 7.64 J/cm(2): n = 7), 120 secs (12 J at 15.29 J/cm(2): n = 7), or 180 secs (18 J at 22.93 J/cm(2): n = 7). Rats in the sham and negative control groups were killed 21 days post-induction surgery, and those in the treatment groups were killed after 42 days. Following killing, tibias were removed and analyzed histopathologically, radiographically, and microbiologically. Results: Histopathological analysis showed that infection levels had decreased by 37%, 67%, 81%, and 93% in the groups treated by debridement or by debridement plus 7.64, 15.29, and 22.93 J/cm(2) light therapy, respectively, compared to the negative control group. Osteomyelitis-induced rats had the highest bacteria count (5 x 10(5)). Bacterial counts fell to 1.6 x 10(4), 4.3 x 10(2), 5.5 x 10(1) and 3.3 x 10(0) in groups treated by debridement or by debridement plus 7.64, 15.29, and 22.93 J/cm(2) light therapy, respectively, compared to the negative control group. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, laser phototherapy with the appropriate irradiation parameters appears to be a promising adjunct and/or alternative technique to pharmacological agents in the treatment of osteomyelitis. The 808 nm 100 mW (127.3 mW/cm(2)) laser device used in this study achieved a maximum effect with an irradiation time of 180 secs, delivering 18 J at an energy density of 22.93 J/cm(2).

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Jan 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21219239

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Photobiomodulation and cancer and other musings.

Lanzafame RJ

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Jan 29(1) 3-4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21219219

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Influence of the Combination of Infrared and Red Laser Light on the Healing of Cutaneous Wounds Infected by Staphylococcus aureus.

Santos NR, de M Sobrinho JB, Almeida PF, Ribeiro AA, Cangussu MC, Dos Santos JN, Pinheiro AL

1 Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA) , Salvador, BA, Brazil .

Abstract Aim: We aimed to assess the use of two wavelengths on the healing of infected wounds. Background: Infection is the most significant cause of impaired wound repair or healing. Several therapeutic approaches are used for improving wound healing including the use of different light sources, such as the laser. Some wavelengths yield positive photobiological effects on the healing process. Material and Methods: The backs of twenty-four young adult male Wistar rats under general anesthesia were shaved and cleaned, and a 1 by 1 cm cutaneous wound was created with a scalpel and left untreated. The wounds were infected with Staphylococcus aureus, and the rats were randomly divided into two sets of four subgroups with three animals in each subgroup: control, red laser light, infrared laser light, and red + infrared laser light. Laser phototherapy was carried out with a diode [lambda680 nm/790 nm, power (P) = 30 mW/40 mW, continuous wave laser, O = 3 mm, power density (P) = 424 and 566 mW/cm(2), time = 11.8/8.8 sec, E = 0.35 J] and started immediately after surgery and repeated every other day for 7 d. Laser light was applied on four points around the wounded area (5 J/cm(2)). The animals were killed either 8 or 15 d after contamination. Specimens were taken, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned and stained for histological analysis. Results: Histological analysis showed that control subjects had a lower amount of blood vessels when compared with irradiated subjects. Irradiated subjects had more advanced resolution of inflammation compared with controls. Irradiated subjects also showed a more intense expression of the collagen matrix. The collagen fibers were mostly mature and well organized in these subjects at the end of the experimental time especially when both wavelengths were used. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that laser phototherapy has a positive effect on the healing of infected wounds, particularly with the association of lambda680 nm + lambda790 nm.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Jan 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21214389

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Effect of CO(2) laser irradiation on wound healing of exposed rat pulp.

Suzuki M, Ogisu T, Kato C, Shinkai K, Katoh Y

Department of Operative Dentistry, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, 1-8 Hamaura-cho, Chuo-ku, Niigata, 951-8580, Japan, collagen@ngt.ndu.ac.jp.

This study examined the effects of direct pulp capping treatment using super-pulsed CO(2) laser preirradiation on the wound healing process of exposed rat pulp on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 postoperatively. Group 1 was irradiated with a CO(2) laser and directly capped with a self-etching adhesive system. The laser was operated in super-pulse mode (pulse duration, 200 mus; interval, 5800 mus; 0.003 J/pulse). The irradiation conditions were a power output of 0.5 W, an irradiation time of 3 s, and repeat mode (10 ms of irradiation at 10-ms intervals for a total beam exposure time of 1.5 s), defocused beam diameter of 0.74 mm (approximately 20 mm from the exposed pulp surface), energy density of 0.698 J/cm(2) per pulse, total applied energy of 0.75 J, and an activated air-cooling system. Group 2 was capped with the self-etching adhesive system. Group 3 was capped with commercially available calcium hydroxide, and the self-etching adhesive system was applied to the cavity. The following parameters were evaluated: pulp tissue disorganization, inflammatory cell infiltration, reparative dentin formation, and bacterial penetration. The results were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for differences among the groups at each observation period (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences among the experimental groups in any parameters at any postoperative period (P > 0.05). CO(2) laser irradiation was effective in arresting hemorrhaging but showed a tendency to delay reparative dentin formation compared with the application of calcium hydroxide.

Odontology 2011 Jan 99(1) 34-44

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21271324

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Effects of low-level laser therapy on human osteoblastic cells grown on titanium.

Petri AD, Teixeira LN, Crippa GE, Beloti MM, Oliveira PT, Rosa AL

Cell Culture Laboratory, RibeirA poundo Preto Dental School, University of SA poundo Paulo, RibeirA poundo Preto, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) by using gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser on human osteoblastic cells grown on titanium (Ti). Osteoblastic cells were obtained by enzymatic digestion of human alveolar bone and cultured on Ti discs for up to 17 days. Cells were exposed to LLLT at 3 J/cm2 (wavelength of 780 nm) at days 3 and 7 and non-irradiated cultures were used as control. LLLT treatment did not influence culture growth, ALP activity, and mineralized matrix formation. Analysis of cultures by epifluorescence microscopy revealed an area without cells in LLLT treated cultures, which was repopulated latter with proliferative and less differentiated cells. Gene expression of ALP, OC, BSP, and BMP-7 was higher in LLLT treated cultures, while Runx2, OPN, and OPG were lower. These results indicate that LLLT modulates cell responses in a complex way stimulating osteoblastic differentiation, which suggests possible benefits on implant osseointegration despite a transient deleterious effect immediately after laser irradiation.

Braz Dent J 2010 21(6) 491-498

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21271038

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[The effect of low-intensity red and infrared laser radiation on the rat arterial and deoxygenated blood].

In vitro experiments the effect of low-intensity red or near-infrared laser irradiation on the blood samples (1.5 ml from abdominal aorta of Wistar rats) were studied. The diode laser light (lambda = 650 nm or 808 nm, power density 15.6 mW/cm2, duration 15 min) were used. In some experiments the deoxygenated blood as object for comparison with arterial blood was chosen. Under red laser irradiation we observed a significant increase of average volume of erythrocytes as well as mean amount of free (disaggregated) leukocytes especially in case of the deoxygenated blood. At the same time the concentration of Ca2+ and Na+ were decreased. The effects of infrared laser irradiation on indices mentioned above were not significant. We believe that red low-intensity laser irradiation on the blood is an important factor for theological properties in the field of microcirculation.

Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 2010 Oct 96(10) 998-1004

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21268832

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Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation.

White AR, Rampes H, Liu JP, Stead LF, Campbell J

Department of General Practice and Primary Care, Peninsula Medical School, University of Plymouth, 25 Room N32, ITTC Building, Tamar Science Park, Plymouth, UK, PL6 8BX.

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation in smoking cessation, in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group specialized register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index, AMED, Acubriefs in November 2010; and four Chinese databases: Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and VIP in November 2010. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the intervention and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up.We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks), and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: We included 33 reports of studies. Compared with sham acupuncture, the fixed-effect risk ratio (RR) for the short-term effect of acupuncture was 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.34), and for the long-term effect was 1.05 (CI 0.82 to 1.35). The studies were not judged to be free from bias. Acupuncture was less effective than nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). There was no evidence that acupuncture is superior to waiting list, nor to psychological interventions in short- or long-term. The evidence on acupressure and laser stimulation was insufficient and could not be combined. The evidence suggested that electrostimulation is not superior to sham electrostimulation. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: There is no consistent, bias-free evidence that acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation are effective for smoking cessation, but lack of evidence and methodological problems mean that no firm conclusions can be drawn. Further, well designed research into acupuncture, acupressure and laser stimulation is justified since these are popular interventions and safe when correctly applied, though these interventions alone are likely to be less effective than evidence-based interventions.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011 1 CD000009

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21249644

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on the healing process after tooth replantation: a histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis.

Saito CT, Gulinelli JL, Panzarini SR, Garcia VG, Okamoto R, Okamoto T, Sonoda CK, Poi WR

Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinics, School of Dentistry of Aracatuba, UNESP – Sao Paulo State University, Aracatuba, SP, Brazil.

Abstract – Success of tooth replantation is limited because part of the replanted tooth is lost because of progressive root resorption. This study used histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing process of rat teeth replanted after different extra-oral periods, simulating immediate and delayed replantation. Sixty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) had their maxillary right incisors extracted and randomly assigned to six groups (n = 10): C4, C30 and C45, in which the teeth were replanted 4 min (immediate), 30 min (delayed) and 45 min (delayed) after extraction, respectively, and L4, L30 and L45, in which the teeth were replanted after the same extra-alveolar times, but the root surfaces and the alveolar wounds were irradiated with a gallium-aluminum-arsenate (GaAlAs) diode laser before replantation. The animals were sacrificed after 60 days. The anatomic pieces containing the replanted teeth were obtained and processed for either histomorphometrical analysis under optical microscopy or immunohistochemical expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor Kappa-B (RANK), and its ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) proteins. Areas of external replacement and inflammatory root resorption were observed in all groups, without statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). Ankylosis was more frequent in L30 than in C30 (P < 0.05). RANKL immunostaining predominated over RANK and OPG immunostaining in both groups with immediate tooth replantation (P < 0.05). For the 45-min extra-alveolar time, however, there was greater evidence of RANK immunostaining compared to RANKL for both control and laser-treated groups (P < 0.05). Positive TRAP immunostaining predominated in L4 and L30 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, under the tested conditions, the treatment of the root surface and the alveolar wound with LLLT did not improve the healing process after immediate and delayed tooth replantation in rats.

Dent Traumatol 2011 Feb 27(1) 30-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21244626

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Low-level laser therapy: a useful technique for enhancing the proliferation of various cultured cells.

Alghamdi KM, Kumar A, Moussa NA

Department of Dermatology, Vitiligo Research Chair, College of Medicine, King Saud University, PO Box 240997, Riyadh, 11322, Saudi Arabia, kmgderm@yahoo.com.

The aim of this work is to review the available literature on the details of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) use for the enhancement of the proliferation of various cultured cell lines including stem cells. A cell culture is one of the most useful techniques in science, particularly in the production of viral vaccines and hybrid cell lines. However, the growth rate of some of the much-needed mammalian cells is slow. LLLT can enhance the proliferation rate of various cell lines. Literature review from 1923 to 2010. By investigating the outcome of LLLT on cell cultures, many articles report that it produces higher rates of ATP, RNA, and DNA synthesis in stem cells and other cell lines. Thus, LLLT improves the proliferation of the cells without causing any cytotoxic effects. Mainly, helium neon and gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) lasers are used for LLLT on cultured cells. The results of LLLT also vary according to the applied energy density and wavelengths to which the target cells are subjected. This review suggests that an energy density value of 0.5 to 4.0 J/cm(2) and a visible spectrum ranging from 600 to 700 nm of LLLT are very helpful in enhancing the proliferation rate of various cell lines. With the appropriate use of LLLT, the proliferation rate of cultured cells, including stem cells, can be increased, which would be very useful in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Jan 28

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=21274733

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About James Carroll

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2 Responses to Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) Literature Watch January 2011

  1. Hosein Esshghifard says:

    please send me the new clinical trials of lllt .

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