LLLT Literature Watch for March 2010

It is nice to see a controlled clinical trial on bone regeneration this month (I don’t recall ever seeing one before), there is a lab study on epiphyseal cartilage in rats which should help us when considering LLLT treatments on children,  as well as another RCT on pain post third molar extraction.  

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Use of therapeutic laser after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars.

Amarillas-Escobar ED, Toranzo-Fernandez JM, Martinez-Rider R, Noyola-Frias MA, Hidalgo-Hurtado JA, Serna VM, Gordillo-Moscoso A, Pozos-Guillen AJ

Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital Central, Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a therapeutic laser in the control of postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus associated with the surgical removal of impacted third molars. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2 groups of 15 patients each undergoing surgical removal of impacted lower third molars under local anesthesia. The experimental group received 4 J/cm(2) of energy density intraorally and extraorally, with a laser with a diode wavelength of 810 nm and output power of 100 mW in a continuous wave. The control group received only standard management. The degree of postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus was registered for both groups. RESULTS: The experimental group exhibited a lower intensity of postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus than the control group, without significant statistical differences. Patients of both groups required rescue medication; however, the time lapse between the end of the surgery and the administration of the medication was shorter for the control group. CONCLUSION: The use of therapeutic laser in the postoperative management of patients having surgical removal of impacted third molars, using the protocol of this study, decreases postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus, without statistically significant differences.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010 Feb 68(2) 319-24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20116702

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Effect of low-level laser therapy (GaAlAs) on bone regeneration in midpalatal anterior suture after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.

Angeletti P, Pereira MD, Gomes HC, Hino CT, Ferreira LM

Postgraduate Student of the Postgraduation Program in Plastic Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of laser therapy on bone regeneration in the midpalatal anterior suture (MPAS) after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME). METHODS: Thirteen patients aged between 18 and 33 years old with maxillary transverse deficiency (>/=7.0 mm) were evaluated. All patients underwent subtotal Le Fort I osteotomy with separation of the pterygomaxillary suture with the use of Hyrax expander, and were divided into 2 groups: control group (n = 6) and laser group (n = 7). A GaAlAs laser (P = 100 mW, lambda = 830 nm, O = 0.06 cm(2)) was used. The laser was applied in 8 treatment sessions with intervals of 48 hours. Each treatment session consisted of laser applications, per point (E = 8.4J, ED = 140J/cm(2)), at 3 points on the MPAS, and total dose of E = 25.2 J, ED = 420 J/cm(2). Digital radiographs were taken before the surgical procedure and at 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 7-month follow-up visits. Optical density analysis of the regenerated bone was performed using Adobe Photoshop 8.0 software. RESULTS: Bone regeneration associated with the use of laser after SARME showed a statistically significant difference. A higher mineralization rate was found in the laser group (26.3%, P < .001) than the control group. CONCLUSION: Low-level laser irradiation (GaAlAs) accelerates bone regeneration in MPAS after SARME. However, the optical density measurements after 7 months of follow-up were lower in comparison with the preoperative measurements.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010 Mar 109(3) e38-e46

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20219584

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Effect of GaAlAs Laser Irradiation on the Epiphyseal Cartilage of Rats.

Cressoni MD, Giusti HH, Piao AC, de Paiva Carvalho RL, Anaruma CA, Casarotto RA

1 Department of Physiotherapy, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract Objective: To study the effect of an 830-nm gallium-aluminum-arsenic (GaAlAs) diode laser at two different energy densities (5 and 15 J/cm(2)) on the epiphyseal cartilage of rats by evaluating bone length and the number of chondrocytes and thickness of each zone of the epiphyseal cartilage. Background Data: Few studies have been conducted on the effects of low-level laser therapy on the epiphyseal cartilage at different irradiation doses. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 male Wistar rats with 23 days of age and weighing 90 g on average were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (CG, no stimulation), G5 group (energy density, 5 J/cm(2)), and G15 group (energy density, 15 J/cm(2)). Laser treatment sessions were administered every other day for a total of 10 sessions. The animals were killed 24 h after the last treatment session. Histological slides of the epiphyseal cartilage were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), photographed with a Zeiss photomicroscope, and subjected to histometric and histological analyses. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. All statistical tests were performed at a significance level of 0.05. Results: Histological analysis and x-ray radiographs revealed an increase in thickness of the epiphyseal cartilage and in the number of chondrocytes in the G5 and G15 groups. Conclusion: The 830-nm GaAlAs diode laser, within the parameters used in this study, induced changes in the thickness of the epiphyseal cartilage and increased the number of chondrocytes, but this was not sufficient to induce changes in bone length.

Photomed Laser Surg 2010 Mar 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20201664

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Laser 904 nm action on bone repair in rats with osteoporosis.

Pires-Oliveira DA, Oliveira RF, Amadei SU, Pacheco-Soares C, Rocha RF

Programa de Pos Graduacao-Unicastelo, Departamento Curso de Odontologia, Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco-Unicastelo Sao Paulo, Rua Carolina Fonseca 584, Itaquera, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP-08.230-030, Brazil, deisepyres@yahoo.com.br.

The aim of the present study was to determine the action of AsGA laser irradiation on bone repair in the tibia of osteopenic rats. The animals were randomly divided into eight experimental groups according to the presence of ovarian hormone (sham group) or the absence of the hormone (OVX group), as well as being irradiated or non-irradiated. Low-level 904-nm laser (50 mJ/cm(2)) accelerated the repair process of osteopenic fractures, especially in the initial phase of bone regeneration. INTRODUCTION: The development of new techniques to speed the process of bone repair has provided significant advances in the treatment of fractures. Some attention recently focused on the effects of biostimulation on bone. METHODS: Forty-eight adult rats were randomly divided into eight experimental groups (six animals in each group) according to the presence of ovarian hormone (sham group) or absence of the hormone (ovariectomized (OVX) group) as well as being irradiated or non-irradiated. For the application of low-level laser therapy, the animals were anesthetized with one third of the dose sufficient to immobilize the animal and irradiated with AsGa laser (904 nm, 50 mJ/cm(2) for 2 s, point form and in contact). The control animals received the same type of manipulation as the irradiated animals, but with the laser turned off. Half of the animals were killed 7 days following the confection of the bone defect, and the other half were killed 21 days after the surgery. After complete demineralization, the tibias were cut cross-sectionally in the central region of the bone defect and embedded in paraffin blocks. The blocks were then cut in semi-seriated slices and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. RESULTS: There was new bone formation in the animals in the OVX group with laser treatment killed after 7 days (p < 0.001). The lowest percentage of bone formation was observed in the OVX without laser killed after 7 days (p > 0.05). All animals killed after 21 days exhibited linear closure of the lesion. CONCLUSION: Low-level 904-nm laser (50 mJ/cm(2)) accelerated the repair process of osteopenic fractures, especially in the initial phase of bone regeneration.

Osteoporos Int 2010 Mar 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20204601

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The role of laser biostimulation in early post-surgery rehabilitation and its effect on wound healing.

Krynicka I, Rutowski R, Staniszewska-Kus J, Fugiel J, Zaleski A

SZPL ,,PROVITA” we Wroclawiu.

Background. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether laser biostimulation starting on the first day after surgery of the brachial plexus or peripheral nerves has a positive therapeutic effect on wound healing. Material and methods. Surgical procedures were carried out on 44 male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into a control group (Group 1), where the surgical wounds were allowed to heal spontaneously, and an experimental Group 2, where the wounds were exposed to laser irradiation with the following parameters: wavelength 810nm, power 100mW, energy 15J, laser exposure surface 3cm2, single application time 2 min. 30 sec., continuous mode. The results were assessed with pathomorphological tests (gross appearance of the wound, light and electron microscopy studies) and breaking strength examination. Statistical analysis used arithmetic means, standard deviations and Student’s t test for independent samples. Results. Low energy infrared laser radiation had a beneficial effect on the covering of the scar with stratified squamous cornifying epithelium and intensified wound healing. Conclusions. The gross and microscopic findings indicated a beneficial effect of laser stimulation on wound healing. These results underscore the utility of biostimulation lasers in the early post-operative period. Physicomechanical investigations did not reveal an effect of infrared laser biostimulation on the breaking strength of the cutaneous scar.

Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2010 Jan-Feb 12(1) 67-79

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20203347

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Assessment of the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy on the hands of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized double-blind controlled trial.

Meireles SM, Jones A, Jennings F, Suda AL, Parizotto NA, Natour J

Rheumatology Rehabilitation Section, Rheumatology Division, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Rua Botucatu, 740, 04023-900, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Assess the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy on pain reduction and improvement in function in the hands of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized double-blind controlled trial was carried out on 82 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The experimental group was submitted to the application of laser therapy, whereas the control group received a placebo laser. Aluminum gallium arsenide laser was used, at a wavelength of 785 nm, dose of 3 J/cm(2) and mean power of 70 mW. The groups were homogenous at the beginning of the study with regard to the main variables (p > 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in most of the measurements taken at the end of the intervention including the primary variables; the following variables were the exceptions: favoring the experimental group-inflammation of the interphalangeal joint of the right thumb (p = 0.012) and perimetry of the interphalangeal joint of the left thumb (p = 0.013); and favoring the control group-flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the right fifth finger (p = 0.021), perimetry of the third proximal interphalangeal joint of the right hand (p = 0.044), grip strength in the left hand (p = 0.010), and the work domain of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire (p = 0.010). We conclude that low-level aluminum gallium arsenide laser therapy is not effective at the wavelength, dosage, and power studied for the treatment of hands among patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Clin Rheumatol 2010 Jan 16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20082104

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Argon laser phototherapy could eliminate the damage effects induced by the ionizing radiation “gamma radiation” in irradiated rabbits.

Abdul-Aziz KK, Tuorkey MJ

Physiology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science ”Damanhour Branch”, Alexandria University, Damanhour, Al-Bheira, Egypt.

The ionizing radiations could be taken in considerate as an integral part in our life, since, living organisms are actually exposed to a constant shower of ionizing radiations whether from the natural or artificial resources. The radio-protective efficiency of several chemicals has been confirmed in animal trails, whereas, due to their accumulative toxicity, their clinical utility is limited. Therefore, we aimed in the present work to investigate the possibility of using argon laser to recuperate the damaged tissues due to exposing to the ionizing radiation. The rabbits were used in this study, and they were designed as control, gamma irradiated, laser, and gamma plus laser groups. Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) in blood and liver were evaluated. As well as, the level of protein thiol was evaluated in the plasma among each group. Results of this study revealed the potential therapeutic performance of the treatment by laser argon to decline the damaging effect of the ionized radiation whether at systematic or local levels. In conclusion, argon laser therapy appears propitious protective effect against the hazard effects of gamma radiation.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2010 Feb 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20202857

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[Assess of patients’ functional condition with rheumatoid arthritis before and after physical therapy treatment]

Krawczyk-Wasielewska A, Kuncewicz E, Sobieska M, Samborski W

Katedra i Klinika Fizjoterapii, Rehabilitacji i Reumatologii, Uniwersytet Medyczny im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu. krawczyk.agnieszka@wp.pl

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of duration of disease and age on the functional condition of patients and also healing effectiveness in different duration of disease and age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 31 patients with rheumatoid arthritis aged 40-70 years, with duration of disease 5-20 years. In this group was used following physical therapy technique: cryotherapy, ultrasound therapy, laser therapy, electrical stimulation TENS, iontophoresis, diadynamic and magnetic therapy. Before and after the treatment motor capacity was estimated using Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). RESULTS: The presented results indicate improvement of measured parameters and increasement of patients independence after therapy, especially with duration of disease 5-10 years aged 60-70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility of anti pain treatment using physical therapy increase with increasing duration of disease. Therapy influence on functional condition of patient decreasing with duration of disease.

Chir Narzadow Ruchu Ortop Pol 2009 Nov-Dec 74(6) 361-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20201335

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Online consumer search strategies for smoking-cessation information.

Cobb NK

Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies, American Legacy Foundation, Washington DC 20036, USA. ncobb@americanlegacy.org

BACKGROUND: For many Americans, the Internet has become a primary mechanism for locating information on healthcare and treatment options, including tobacco addiction. Detailed information on this behavior could inform design decisions for next-generation cessation interventions, but very little is known about how consumers search or what resources they locate. METHODS: A subset of a publicly available, anonymized record of the search behavior of 650,000 individuals over 3 months in 2006 was analyzed. Smoking cessation-related queries were extracted and coded via manual identification of terms and by back-identifying terms by matching them to the websites ultimately visited. Destination sites were coded as to whether or not they originated from a professional source based on the literature and known healthcare organizations. RESULTS: A total of 628 individuals (0.10%) made 1106 cessation-related searches during the observation period. Of these, 76% resulted in the individual reaching a website; professional sites were reached by only 34% of searchers. Complementary or alternative therapies were popular, with 10% of individuals searching for “laser” therapy. CONCLUSIONS: A concerning disconnect exists between consumer demand (as demonstrated by search behavior) and the sites produced by researchers and health professionals. This “demand gap” may contribute to low overall participation rates and hamper the potential impact of such systems. Further research is needed to link online consumer preferences to intervention design decisions.

Am J Prev Med 2010 Mar 38(3 Suppl) S429-32

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20176318

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Optical Control of Neuronal Activity.

Szobota S, Isacoff EY

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.

Advances in optics, genetics, and chemistry have enabled the investigation of brain function at all levels, from intracellular signals to single synapses, whole cells, circuits, and behavior. Until recent years, these research tools have been utilized in an observational capacity: imaging neural activity with fluorescent reporters, for example, or correlating aberrant neural activity with loss-of-function and gain-of-function pharmacological or genetic manipulations. However, optics, genetics, and chemistry have now combined to yield a new strategy: using light to drive and halt neuronal activity with molecular specificity and millisecond precision. Photostimulation of neurons is noninvasive, has unmatched spatial and temporal resolution, and can be targeted to specific classes of neurons. The optical methods developed to date encompass a broad array of strategies, including photorelease of caged neurotransmitters, engineered light-gated receptors and channels, and naturally light-sensitive ion channels and pumps. In this review, we describe photostimulation methods, their applications, and opportunities for further advancement. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biophysics Volume 39 is May 05, 2010. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.

Annu Rev Biophys 2010 Feb 10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20192766

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Chondrogenic mRNA expression in prechondrogenic cells after blue laser irradiation.

Kushibiki T, Tajiri T, Ninomiya Y, Awazu K

Frontier Research Center, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used as a method for biostimulation. Cartilage develops through the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into chondrocytes, and differentiated chondrocytes in articular cartilage maintain cartilage homeostasis by synthesizing cartilage-specific extracellular matrix. The aim of this study is to evaluate the enhancement of chondrocyte differentiation and the expression levels of chondrogenic mRNA in prechondrogenic ATDC5 cells after laser irradiation. For chondrogenic induction, ATDC5 cells were irradiated with a blue laser (405nm, continuous wave) at 100mW/cm(2) for 180s following incubation in chondrogenic differentiation medium. Differentiation after laser irradiation was quantitatively evaluated by the measurement of total collagen contents and chondrogenesis-related mRNAs. The total amount of collagen and mRNA levels of aggrecan, collagen type II, SOX-9, and DEC-1 were increased relative to those of a non-laser irradiated group after 14days of laser irradiation. On the other hand, Ap-2alpha mRNA, a negative transcription factor of chondrogenesis, was dramatically decreased after laser irradiation. In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated after laser irradiation. These results, for the first time, provide functional evidence that mRNA expression relating to chondrogenesis is increased, and Ap-2alpha is decreased immediately after laser irradiation. As this technique could readily be applied in situ to control the differentiation of cells at an implanted site within the body, this approach may have therapeutic potential for the restoration of damaged or diseased tissue.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2010 Mar 8 98(3) 211-215

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20163967

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In vitro analysis of human tooth pulp chamber temperature after low-intensity laser therapy at different power outputs.

de Alencar Mollo M, Frigo L, Favero GM, Lopes-Martins RA, Junior AB

Research & Development Institute, Vale do Paraiba University, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, SP, Brazil.

In vitro studies have provided conflicting evidence of temperature changes in the tooth pulp chamber after low-level laser irradiation of the tooth surface. The present study was an in vitro evaluation of temperature increases in the human tooth pulp chamber after diode laser irradiation (GaAlAs, lambda = 808 nm) using different power densities. Twelve human teeth (three incisors, three canines, three premolars and three molars) were sectioned in the cervical third of the root and enlarged for the introduction of a thermocouple into the pulp chamber. The teeth were irradiated with 417 mW, 207 mW and 78 mW power outputs for 30 s on the vestibular surface approximately 2 mm from the cervical line of the crown. The highest average increase in temperature (5.6 degrees C) was observed in incisors irradiated with 417 mW. None of the teeth (incisors, canines, premolars or molars) irradiated with 207 mW showed temperature increases higher than 5.5 degrees C that could potentially be harmful to pulp tissue. Teeth irradiated with 78 mW showed lower temperature increases. The study showed that diode laser irradiation with a wavelength of 808 nm at 417 mW power output increased the pulp chamber temperature of certain groups of teeth, especially incisors and premolars, to critical threshold values for the dental pulp (5.5 degrees C). Thus, this study serves as a warning to clinicians that “more” is not necessarily “better”.

Lasers Med Sci 2010 Feb 11

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20148278

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Comparative effects of wavelengths of low-power laser in regeneration of sciatic nerve in rats following crushing lesion.

Barbosa RI, Marcolino AM, de Jesus Guirro RR, Mazzer N, Barbieri CH, de Cassia Registro Fonseca M

Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, Medical School of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirao Preto, 14049-900, SP, Brazil, ribarbosa@hcrp.fmrp.usp.br.

Peripheral nerves are structures that, when damaged, can result in significant motor and sensory disabilities. Several studies have used therapeutic resources with the aim of promoting early nerve regeneration, such as the use of low-power laser. However, this laser therapy does not represent a consensus regarding the methodology, thus yielding controversial conclusions. The objective of our study was to investigate, by functional evaluation, the comparative effects of low-power laser (660 nm and 830 nm) on sciatic nerve regeneration following crushing injuries. Twenty-seven Wistar rats subjected to sciatic nerve injury were divided into three groups: group sham, consisting of rats undergoing simulated irradiation; a group consisting of rats subjected to gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser at 660 nm (10 J/cm(2), 30 mW and 0.06 cm(2) beam), and another one consisting of rats subjected to GaAlAs laser at 830 nm (10 J/cm(2), 30 mW and 0.116 cm(2)). Laser was applied to the lesion for 21 days. A sciatic functional index (SFI) was used for functional evaluation prior to surgery and on days 7, 14, and 21 after surgery. Differences in SFI were found between group 660 nm and the other ones at the 14th day. One can observe that laser application at 660 nm with the parameters and methods utilised was effective in promoting early functional recovery, as indicated by the SFI, over the period evaluated.

Lasers Med Sci 2010 May 25(3) 423-30

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20135336

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Influence of ingaalp laser (660nm) on the healing of skin wounds in diabetic rats.

de Carvalho Pde T, da Silva IS, dos Reis FA, Perreira DM, Aydos RD

Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, SE, Brazil. pauloufs@terra.com.br

PURPOSE: To determine the influence of low-power laser (660 nm) on the collagen percentage and macrophages in skin wounds in diabetic rats. METHODS: 30 male Wistar rats were used, distributed in two groups: laser treated diabetic (n= 15); untreated diabetic (n = 15). The diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of alloxan into the dorsal vein of the penis, at a rate of 0.1 ml of solution per 100 g of body weight. A wound was made on the back of all the animals. Groups 2 were treated with Aluminium Gallium Indium Phosphide – InGaAlP type diode laser (Photon Laser III DMC) with a continuous output power of 100 mW and wavelength (lambda) of 660 nm (4 J/cm(2)) for 24 s. five animal from each group was sacrificed on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days after wounding. Samples were taken, embedded in paraffin, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Masson’s trichrome, and immunohistochemical macrophage. morphometrically analyzed using the Image Pro Plus 4.5 software. The percentages of collagen fibers and macrophages were determined from the samples from the euthanasia animals. RESULTS: The data were treated statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Post-hocTukey test. The significance level was set at 0.05 or 5%. CONCLUSION: The low-power laser (660 nm) was shown to be capable of influencing the collagen percentage in skin wounds by increasing the mean quantity of collagen fibers and macrophages.

Acta Cir Bras 2010 Feb 25(1) 71-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20126892

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Influence of 670nm low-level laser therapy on mast cells and vascular response of cutaneous injuries.

Pereira MC, Pinho CB, Medrado AR, Andrade ZD, Reis SR

Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica – Dentistry Course, Avenida Silveira Martins, n degrees . 3386, Cabula, CEP 41150-100, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Laser biomodulation has been getting considerable attention when it comes to its effects on the inflammatory process. Its action upon mast cells have been already studied, but none of the previous papers related the resulting effect to the inflammatory and vascular status of the wounds. Therefore, the acute inflammatory process as well as the mast cells behavior and the vascular response were analyzed under the influence of laser treatment on cutaneous wounds. Surgical procedures were performed on 60 rats divided into sham and laser groups. Low-level laser therapy was performed following surgical procedures (670nm, 9mW, 4J/cm(2), 124s). Histological specimens were analyzed for cell morphology and immunohistochemistry using anti-von Willebrand Factor and anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor antibody. Laser treatment resulted in an increased acute inflammatory response in irradiated tissues; surgical wounds treated with laser therapy had increased polymorphonuclear cells, mast cells and vasodilation and lower numbers of vessels than those in control rats. Laser treatment resulted in higher expression of VEGF in irradiated tissues 6-24h post-treatment (p=0.002). It is possible to observe an amplification of acute inflammatory process during the first hours after surgical procedure in rats submitted to laser therapy.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2010 Mar 8 98(3) 188-192

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20117017

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Lasers and the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

Cobb CM, Low SB, Coluzzi DJ

Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 424 West 67th Terrace, Kansas City, MO 64113, USA. cobbc@umkc.edu

For many intraoral soft-tissue surgical procedures the laser has become a desirable and dependable alternative to traditional scalpel surgery. However, the use of dental lasers in periodontal therapy is controversial. This article presents the current peer-reviewed evidence on the use of dental lasers for the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

Dent Clin North Am 2010 Jan 54(1) 35-53

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20103471

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Photo-stimulatory effect of low energy helium-neon laser irradiation on excisional diabetic wound healing dynamics in wistar rats.

Maiya AG, Kumar P, Nayak S

Department of Physiotherapy, Manipal Medical College, Manipal, India.

BACKGROUND: Generally, the significances of laser photo stimulation are now accepted, but the laser light facilitates wound healing and tissue repair remains poorly understood. AIMS: We have examined the hypothesis that the laser photo stimulation can enhance the collagen production in diabetic wounds using the excision wound model in the Wistar rat model. METHODS: The circular wounds were created on the dorsum of the back of the animals. The animals were divided into two groups. The study group (N = 24) wound was treated with 632.8 nm He-Ne laser at a dose of 3-9 J/cm(2) for 5 days a week until the wounds healed completely. The control group was sham irradiated. RESULT: A significant increase in the hydroxyproline content and reduction in the wound size were observed in the study group. The pro-healing actions seem to be due to increased collagen deposition as well as better alignment and maturation. CONCLUSION: The biochemical analysis and clinical observation suggested that 3-6 J/cm(2) laser photo stimulation facilitates the tissue repair process by accelerating collagen production in diabetic wound healing.

Indian J Dermatol 2009 54(4) 323-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20101331

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[A prospective, randomized, open and comparative study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of blue light treatment versus a topical benzoyl peroxide 5% formulation in patients with acne grade II and III]

de Arruda LH, Kodani V, Bastos Filho A, Mazzaro CB

Servico de Dermatologia, Hospital Escola Celso Pierro, Faculdade de Medicina, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil. dermato@hmcp.puc-campinas.edu.br

BACKGROUND: Many acne patients improve after exposure to sunlight and there are many reports about the efficacy of blue light phototherapy on acne lesions. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of blue light treatment versus topical benzoyl peroxide 5% formulation in patients with acne grades II and III. METHODS: Sixty volunteers with facial acne were included and evaluated in 5 visits: the first one for screening, another 3 held on days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment, and the last one after 14 days of the end of treatment. Thirty of them were irradiated with Blue Light (8 times, twice a week) and the other thirty were treated with topical Benzoyl Peroxide 5% formulation, auto-applied twice a day, every day. We assessed the severity of acne by counting the lesions and analyzing the photographs. RESULTS: The improvement achieved by the blue light was the same as the one with benzoyl peroxide, regardless of the type of lesion (p 0.05). Otherwise, the side effects were less frequent in the group treated with blue light. CONCLUSIONS: Blue light irradiation was as effective as benzoyl peroxide in acne treatment grades II and III but there were fewer side effects.

An Bras Dermatol 2009 Oct 84(5) 463-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20098847

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Interventions for treating plantar heel pain.

Crawford F, Thomson CE

Division of Community Health Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, 20 West Richmond Street, Edinburgh, UK, EH8 9DX.

BACKGROUND: Ten percent of people may experience pain under the heel (plantar heel pain) at some time. Injections, insoles, heel pads, strapping and surgery have been common forms of treatment offered. The absolute and relative effectiveness of these interventions are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to identify and evaluate the evidence for effectiveness of treatments for plantar heel pain. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group specialised register (September 2002), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library issue 3, 2002), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2002), EMBASE (1988 to September 2002) and reference lists of articles and dissertations. Four podiatry journals were handsearched to 1998. We contacted all UK schools of podiatry to identify dissertations on the management of heel pain, and investigators in the field to identify unpublished data or research in progress. No language restrictions were applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of interventions for plantar heel pain in adults. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently evaluated randomised controlled trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. Additional information was obtained by direct contact with investigators. No poolable data were identified. Where measures of variance were available we have calculated the weighted mean differences based on visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. MAIN RESULTS: Nineteen randomised trials involving 1626 participants were included. Trial quality was generally poor, and pooling of data was not conducted. All trials measured heel pain as the primary outcome. Seven trials evaluated interventions against placebo/dummy or no treatment. There was limited evidence for the effectiveness of topical corticosteroid administered by iontophoresis, i.e. using an electric current, in reducing pain. There was some evidence for the effectiveness of injected corticosteroid providing temporary relief of pain. There was conflicting evidence for the effectiveness of low energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy in reducing night pain, resting pain and pressure pain in the short term (6 and 12 weeks) and therefore its effectiveness remains equivocal. In individuals with chronic pain (longer than six months), there was limited evidence for the effectiveness of dorsiflexion night splints in reducing pain. There was no evidence to support the effectiveness of therapeutic ultrasound, low-intensity laser therapy, exposure to an electron generating device or insoles with magnetic foil. No randomised trials evaluating surgery, or radiotherapy against a randomly allocated control population were identified. There was limited evidence for the superiority of corticosteroid injections over orthotic devices. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: Although there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of local corticosteroid therapy, the effectiveness of other frequently employed treatments in altering the clinical course of plantar heel pain has not been established in randomised controlled trials.At the moment there is limited evidence upon which to base clinical practice. Treatments that are used to reduce heel pain seem to bring only marginal gains over no treatment and control therapies such as stretching exercises. Steroid injections are a popular method of treating the condition but only seem to be useful in the short term and only to a small degree. Orthoses should be cautiously prescribed for those patients who stand for long periods; there is limited evidence that stretching exercises and heel pads are associated with better outcomes than custom made orthoses in people who stand for more than eight hours per day.Well designed and conducted randomised trials are required.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010 (1) CD000416

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20091508

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Biophotons as neural communication signals demonstrated by in situ biophoton autography.

Sun Y, Wang C, Dai J

Wuhan Institute for Neuroscience and Neuroengineering, South-Central University for Nationalities, Minyuan Road 708, Wuhan 430074, China. jdai@mail.scuec.edu.cn.

Cell to cell communication by biophotons has been demonstrated in plants, bacteria, animal neutrophil granulocytes and kidney cells. Whether such signal communication exists in neural cells is unclear. By developing a new biophoton detection method, called in situ biophoton autography (IBA), we have investigated biophotonic activities in rat spinal nerve roots in vitro. We found that different spectral light stimulation (infrared, red, yellow, blue, green and white) at one end of the spinal sensory or motor nerve roots resulted in a significant increase in the biophotonic activity at the other end. Such effects could be significantly inhibited by procaine (a regional anaesthetic for neural conduction block) or classic metabolic inhibitors, suggesting that light stimulation can generate biophotons that conduct along the neural fibers, probably as neural communication signals. The mechanism of biophotonic conduction along neural fibers may be mediated by protein-protein biophotonic interactions. This study may provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of neural communication, the functions of the nervous system, such as vision, learning and memory, as well as the mechanisms of human neurological diseases.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2010 Mar 9(3) 315-22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=20221457

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. About THOR
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