Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT / Cold Laser Literature watch for Dec 2011

22 new papers for your review; an RCT on OA knee, a systematic review of treatment modalities for neurosensory deficit after lower third molar surgery found LLLT to provide significant improvement, a review of transcranial LLLT for neurodegenerative diseases,  laser biomodulation of normal and neoplastic cells (another comprehensive study by Farouk Al-Watban with very interesting results), a Laser vs LED study on skin flap viability, angiogenesis and mast cells (spoiler alert, LED wins), treatment of dermatitis in 10 koi carp with 980nm laser!, and yet another case of LLLT for burning mouth syndrome. As it happens, a customer wrote just a minute ago to say that his patient had rapid resolution of burning mouth that lasted 18 hours after the first LED treatment.

Efficacy of low level laser therapy associated with exercises in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind study.

Alfredo PP, Bjordal JM, Dreyer SH, Meneses SR, Zaguetti G, Ovanessian V, Fukuda TY, Junior WS, Martins RA, Casarotto RA, Marques AP

Department of Speech Therapy, Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, School of Medicine, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: To estimate the effects of low level laser therapy in combination with a programme of exercises on pain, functionality, range of motion, muscular strength and quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.Design: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with sequential allocation of patients to different treatment groups.Setting: Special Rehabilitation Services.Subjects: Forty participants with knee osteoarthritis, 2-4 osteoarthritis degree, aged between 50 and 75 years and both genders.Intervention: Participants were randomized into one of two groups: the laser group (low level laser therapy dose of 3 J and exercises) or placebo group (placebo laser and exercises).Main measures: Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), functionality using the Lequesne questionnaire, range of motion with a universal goniometer, muscular strength using a dynamometer, and activity using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) questionnaire at three time points: (T1) baseline, (T2) after the end of laser therapy (three weeks) and (T3) the end of the exercises (11 weeks).Results: When comparing groups, significant differences in the activity were also found (P = 0.03). No other significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in other variables. In intragroup analysis, participants in the laser group had significant improvement, relative to baseline, on pain (P = 0.001), range of motion (P = 0.01), functionality (P = 0.001) and activity (P < 0.001). No significant improvement was seen in the placebo group.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that low level laser therapy when associated with exercises is effective in yielding pain relief, function and activity on patients with osteoarthritis of the knees.

Clin Rehabil 2011 Dec 14

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22169831

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Treatment Modalities of Neurosensory Deficit After Lower Third Molar Surgery: A Systematic Review.

Leung YY, Fung PP, Cheung LK

Clinical Assistant Professor, Discipline of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review to answer the clinical question, “What are the available treatment modalities and their outcomes of neurosensory deficit after lower third molar surgery?” MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search, including a computer search of several databases with specific keywords, a reference search, and a manual search of 3 key maxillofacial journals were performed. Relevant articles were then evaluated and those that fulfilled the 6 predetermined criteria were chosen to enter the final review. The various treatment modalities and their outcomes of neurosensory deficit after lower third molar surgery, in the selected studies in the final review, were analyzed. RESULTS: Ten articles entered the final review. Six treatment modalities of lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve deficit after lower third molar surgery were identified. External neurolysis, direct suturing, autogenous vein graft, and a Gore-Tex tube as a conduit were the 4 surgical treatments. Significant improvement after surgical treatment ranged from 25% to 66.7%. Acupuncture and low-level laser therapy were 2 available nonsurgical treatment modalities that were found to have produced significant improvement in sensation after treatment in more than 50% of subjects. There was insufficient information to determine the best timing of treatment of nerve injury after third molar surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Four surgical treatments and 2 nonsurgical treatments were identified in the management of neurosensory disturbance after lower third molar surgery. Most treatments showed an improvement in sensation but the outcomes were variable. Complete recovery was uncommon in all kinds of available treatments.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2011 Dec 16

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22177820

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Transcranial near-infrared laser therapy applied to promote clinical recovery in acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

Lapchak PA

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Department of Neurology, 110 North George Burns Road, D-2091, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. paul.lapchak@cshs.org.

One of the most promising methods to treat neurodegeneration is noninvasive transcranial near-infrared laser therapy (NILT), which appears to promote acute neuroprotection by stimulating mitochondrial function, thereby increasing cellular energy production. NILT may also promote chronic neuronal function restoration via trophic factor-mediated plasticity changes or possibly neurogenesis. Clearly, NILT is a treatment that confers neuroprotection or neurorestoration using pleiotropic mechanisms. The most advanced application of NILT is for acute ischemic stroke based upon extensive preclinical and clinical studies. In laboratory settings, NILT is also being developed to treat traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. There is some intriguing data in the literature that suggests that NILT may be a method to promote clinical improvement in neurodegenerative diseases where there is a common mechanistic component, mitochondrial dysfunction and energy impairment. This article will analyze and review data supporting the continued development of NILT to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

Expert Rev Med Devices 2012 Jan 9(1) 71-83

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22145842

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Laser biomodulation of normal and neoplastic cells.

Al-Watban FA, Andres BL

World Academy for Laser Applications (WALA), PO Box 59803, Riyadh, 11535, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, watban@hotmail.com.

This study was designed to determine the laser dose for the stimulation, zero-bioactivation, and inhibition of normal and neoplastic cells in vitro. The medical use of laser biomodulation has been occurring for decades in the area of tissue healing and inflammatory conditions. The potential to modulate the regeneration and differentiation of early cellular precursors by laser photons is a valuable endeavor searching for novel and efficient methods. A 35-mW HeNe (632.8-nm) laser and power density of 1.25 mW/cm(2) was used to irradiate tissue culture dishes seeded with 400 cells/dish of normal cells (CHO, CCL-226, 3 T3, and HSF) and neoplastic cells (EMT-6 and RIF-1). All cell lines were cultured using DMEM supplemented with 10% and 5% FBS, 2 mM glutamine and 100 U pen-strep antibiotic. Irradiation times of 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 144, and 160 s for three consecutive days to deliver cumulative doses of 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, 480, 540, and 600 mJ/cm(2) were done, respectively. Cell cultures were stained and colony-forming efficiency was determined. Data analysis was done using Student’s t test, alpha = 0.05. A trend of stimulation, zero-bioactivation, and inhibition in all cell lines was observed except for CCL-226 which gave a pattern of inhibition, zero-bioactivation, and inhibition. The optimum biostimulatory dose was at 180 mJ/cm(2) and bioinhibitory doses were from 420-600 mJ/cm(2) cumulative doses. This study established the dose-dependency of cell growth to laser treatments, that the extent of cellular proliferation is influenced by the type of cells involved, and the risk when laser irradiation is performed on patients with undiagnosed neoplasms and during pregnancy. On the other hand, the ability of laser irradiation to regulate embryonic fibroblasts and human skin fibroblast in vitro suggests possible laser biomodulatory effects on embryonic and adult stem cells directed for tissue regeneration. Studies on the effects of light treatments exploring different laser parameters for the clonal expansion and differentiation of stem cells are recommended.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Dec 29

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22205470

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Effect of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome: a case series.

Santos Lde F, Carvalho Ade A, Leao JC, Cruz Perez DE, Castro JF

1 Department of Clinical and Preventive Dentistry, Oral Medicine Unit, Federal University of Pernambuco , Recife/PE, Brazil .

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients. Background data: BMS is a clinical condition characterized by a burning sensation in a morphologically normal oral mucosa, without association with systemic disorders. Methods: Ten patients with oral burning sensation were included in the study. After careful evaluation of medical history and oral examination, the diagnosis of BMS was established. All patients were submitted to one weekly session of LLLT for 10 weeks. A continuous wavelength of 660 nm, power 40 mW, 20 J/cm(2), 0.8 J/point, with each point irradiated for 10 sec. In all sessions the burning intensity was evaluated with a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS), with 0 indicating no symptoms and 10 indicating the worst burning possible. The burning intensity evaluation by VAS was performed immediately before (VAS baseline) and immediately after each LLLT session. The nonparametric Wilcoxon test was used for statistical analysis, considering significance of 5%. Results: All patients reported improvement in all sessions, with reduction in VAS scores by up to 58% in the tenth session. When only the VAS baseline of the first session was compared with the other sessions, there was a statistically significant reduction in VAS scores in the fourth (p=0.03), fifth (p=0.03), sixth (p=0.009), seventh (p=0.003), eighth, ninth, and tenth (all p=0.002) sessions. Conclusions: LLLT may be an alternative treatment for the relief of oral burning in patients with BMS.

Photomed Laser Surg 2011 Dec 29(12) 793-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22150094

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LED (660 nm) and laser (670 nm) use on skin flap viability: angiogenesis and mast cells on transition line.

Nishioka MA, Pinfildi CE, Sheliga TR, Arias VE, Gomes HC, Ferreira LM

Post Graduation Plastic Surgery, Federal University of Sao Paulo, R. Napoleao de Barros, 715, 4 masculine andar, CEP 04024-900, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Skin flap procedures are commonly used in plastic surgery. Failures can follow, leading to the necrosis of the flap. Therefore, many studies use LLLT to improve flap viability. Currently, the LED has been introduced as an alternative to LLLT. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of LLLT and LED on the viability of random skin flaps in rats. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups, and a random skin flap (10 x 4 cm) was performed in all animals. Group 1 was the sham group; group 2 was submitted to LLLT 660 nm, 0.14 J; group 3 with LED 630 nm, 2.49 J, and group 4 with LLLT 660 nm, with 2.49 J. Irradiation was applied after surgery and repeated on the four subsequent days. On the 7th postoperative day, the percentage of flap necrosis was calculated and skin samples were collected from the viable area and from the transition line of the flap to evaluate blood vessels and mast cells. The percentage of necrosis was significantly lower in groups 3 and 4 compared to groups 1 and 2. Concerning blood vessels and mast cell numbers, only the animals in group 3 showed significant increase compared to group 1 in the skin sample of the transition line. LED and LLLT with the same total energies were effective in increasing viability of random skin flaps. LED was more effective in increasing the number of mast cells and blood vessels in the transition line of random skin flaps.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22207449

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[Pilot study on the use of diode laser therapy for treatment of dermatitis in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio)].

Pees M, Schmidt V, Pees K

PD Dr. Michael Pees, Klinik fur Vogel und Reptilien der Universitat Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 17, 04103 Leipzig, E-Mail: pees@vogelklinik.uni-leipzig.de.

Objective: Therapy of dermatitis in koi using a diode laser technique. Material and methods: A diode laser with a wavelength of 980nm and an energy density of 9J/cm2 was used to treat defined skin alterations in ten koi carp. The clinical situation after repeated laser application was recorded. In addition, the diode laser was used for surgical removal of proliferative skin alterations caused by Dermocystidium sp. in two koi ponds. Results: An improvement of the clinical situation following laser therapy was seen in nine of the ten koi carp. Complete healing of the wound area occurred in four carp. A pronounced healing process was observed in four patients and a low healing tendency in one fish. Healing of the skin lesions following removal of the alterations caused by Dermocystidium sp. was unproblematic in one pond, whereas in the other collection a repeated treatment was necessary due to relapse of the alterations. Conclusions and clinical relevance: Diode laser therapy for treatment of dermatitis in koi is a promising technique. An expedited wound healing process was seen in wound areas that were present for long periods and resistant to previous therapy attempts, including antibiotics. Wound healing was undisturbed following surgical use of the laser technique for the removal of skin proliferations. Therefore, the diode laser technique can be recommended for the treatment of dermatitis in koi, especially in cases of unsuccessful treatment using anti-infective drugs, and for the treatment of Dermocystidium infections.

Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2011 39(2) 89-96

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22143586

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Therapeutic effect of near infrared (NIR) light on Parkinson’s disease models.

Quirk BJ, Desmet KD, Henry M, Buchmann E, Wong-Riley M, Eells JT, Whelan HT

Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 W. Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA.

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects large numbers of people, particularly those of a more advanced age. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in PD, especially in the electron transport chain. This mitochondrial role allows the use of inhibitors of complex I and IV in PD models, and enhancers of complex IV activity, such as NIR light, to be used as possible therapy. PD models fall into two main categories; cell cultures and animal models. In cell cultures, primary neurons, mutant neuroblastoma cells, and cell cybrids have been studied in conjunction with NIR light. Primary neurons show protection or recovery of function and morphology by NIR light after toxic insult. Neuroblastoma cells, with a gene for mutant alpha-synuclein, show similar results. Cell cybrids, containing mtDNA from PD patients, show restoration of mitochondrial transport and complex I and IV assembly. Animal models include toxin-insulted mice, and alpha-synuclein transgenic mice. Functional recovery of the animals, chemical and histological evidence, and delayed disease progression show the potential of NIR light in treating Parkinson’s disease.

Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 2012 4 818-23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22201916

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[Combined treatment of the patients presenting with bacterial vesiculitis].

Karpukhin IV, Kiiatkin VA, Bobkov AD, Kazantsev SN

Ultrasound treatment in combination with laser irradiation of the blood and antibacterial therapy is known to exert strong anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and analgesic effects, stimulate metabolism of sex hormones, and improve spermatogenesis in the patients presenting with chronic bacterial vesiculitis (CBV). This treatment is indicated to the patients with CBV at the stage of latent inflammation, to those recovering after acute vesiculities, and to the patients with chronic prostatovesiculitis at the stage of latent inflammation. This therapeutic modality is contraindicated in the cases of acute vesiculitis, acute prostatitis, acute bleeding hemorrhoids, rectal fissures and tumours, and general contraindications for physiotherapy. The above treatment resulted in the substantial or moderate improvement of clinical condition in 42 (82.4%) of the patients in group 1 and in 5 (50.0%) ones in group 2. During the 6 month follow-up period, remission of CBV was documented in 10 (83.3%) of the patients in group 1 and in 1 (33.3%) patient in group 2.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2011 Sep-Oct (5) 36-8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22165145

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[The development of method of intravenous laser irradiation of blood with green laser in patients with hyperlipidemia].

The impact of intravenous laser irradiation of blood with green laser in patients with hyperlipidemia was investigated. The blood of patients was chosen as sample for analysis. The patients were divided in two groups: patients with atherosclerosis of various localization and patients with atherosclerosis associated with diabetes mellitus. The effectiveness of laser impact was evaluated according the blood biochemical indicators. The levels of crude cholesterol, triglycerides, low and very low density lipoproteins, apoproteins A and B, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, atherogenity indicator, glucose content, uric acid content were determined befor and after 1, 3 and 6 months after impact. The study results indicate the occurrence of hypolipedemic and hypoglycemic effects.

Klin Lab Diagn 2011 Aug (8) 15-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22164411

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Spectroscopic and histological evaluation of wound healing progression following Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT).

Prabhu V, Rao SB, Chandra S, Kumar P, Rao L, Guddattu V, Satyamoorthy K, Mahato KK

Biophysics Unit, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India.

The present study focuses on the evaluation of the effect of He-Ne laser on tissue regeneration by monitoring collagen synthesis in wound granulation tissues in Swiss albino mice using analysis of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and light microscopy techniques. The spectral analyses of the wound granulation tissues have indicated a dose dependent increase in collagen levels during the post-wounding days. The histological examinations on the other hand have also shown a significant increase in collagen deposition along with the reduced edema, leukocytes, increased granulation tissue, and fibroblast number in the optimal laser dose treated group compared to the non-illuminated controls. ((c) 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

J Biophotonics 2011 Dec 15

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22174176

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GaAs 904-nm laser irradiation improves myofiber mass recovery during regeneration of skeletal muscle previously damaged by crotoxin.

Silva LH, Silva MT, Gutierrez RM, Conte TC, Toledo CA, Aoki MS, Liebano RE, Miyabara EH

Department of Anatomy, Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Lineu Prestes Av., 2415, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

This work investigated the effect of gallium arsenide (GaAs) irradiation (power: 5 mW; intensity: 77.14 mW/cm(2), spot: 0.07 cm(2)) on regenerating skeletal muscles damaged by crotoxin (CTX). Male C57Bl6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 5 each): control, treated only with laser at doses of 1.5 J or 3 J, CTX-injured and, CTX-injured and treated with laser at doses of 1.5 J or 3 J. The injured groups received a CTX injection into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. After 3 days, TA muscles were submitted to GaAs irradiation at doses of 1.5 or 3 J (once a day, during 5 days) and were killed on the eighth day. Muscle histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) in order to determine the myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), the previously injured muscle area (PIMA) and the area density of connective tissue. The gene expression of MyoD and myogenin was detected by real-time PCR. GaAs laser at a dose of 3 J, but not 1.5 J, significantly increased the CSA of regenerating myofibers and reduced the PIMA and the area density of intramuscular connective tissue of CTX-injured muscles. MyoD gene expression increased in the injured group treated with GaAs laser at a dose of 1.5 J. The CTX-injured, 3-J GaAs laser-treated, and the CTX-injured and treated with 3-J laser groups showed an increase in myogenin gene expression when compared to the control group. Our results suggest that GaAs laser treatment at a dose of 3 J improves skeletal muscle regeneration by accelerating the recovery of myofiber mass.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Dec 6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22143119

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on cochlear hair cell recovery after gentamicin-induced ototoxicity.

Rhee CK, He P, Jung JY, Ahn JC, Chung PS, Suh MW

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Korea.

Cochlear hair cells are the sensory receptors of the auditory system. It is well established that antibiotic drugs such as gentamicin can damage hair cells and cause hearing loss. Rescuing hair cells after ototoxic injury is an important issue in hearing recovery. Although many studies have indicated a positive effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on neural cell survival, there has been no study on the effects of LLLT on cochlear hair cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of LLLT on hair cell survival following gentamicin exposure in organotypic cultures of the cochlea of rats. The cochlea cultures were then divided into a control group (n = 8), a laser-only group (n = 8), a gentamicin-only group (n = 8) and a gentamicin plus laser group (n = 7). The control cultures were allowed to grow continuously for 11 days. The laser-only cultures were irradiated with a laser with a wavelength of 810 nm at 8 mW/cm(2) for 60 min per day (0.48 J/cm(2)) for 6 days. The gentamicin groups were exposed to 1 mM gentamicin for 48 h and allowed to recover (gentamicin-only group) or allowed to recover with daily irradiation (gentamicin plus laser group). The hair cells in all groups were stained with FM1-43 and counted every 3 days. The number of hair cells was significantly larger in the gentamicin plus laser group than in the gentamicin-only group. The number of hair cells was larger in the laser-only group than in the control group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that LLLT may promote hair cell survival following gentamicin damage in the cochlea. This is the first study in the literature that has demonstrated the beneficial effect of LLLT on the recovery of cochlear hair cells.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Dec 4

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22138884

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In Vitro effect of low-level laser therapy on typical oral microbial biofilms.

Basso FG, Oliveira CF, Fontana A, Kurachi C, Bagnato VS, Spolidorio DM, Hebling J, Costa CA

Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of specific parameters of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on biofilms formed by Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans or an association of both species. Single and dual-species biofilms – SSB and DSB – were exposed to laser doses of 5, 10 or 20 J/cm2 from a near infrared InGaAsP diode laser prototype (LASERTable; 780 +/- 3 nm, 0.04 W). After irradiation, the analysis of biobilm viability (MTT assay), biofilm growth (cfu/mL) and cell morphology (SEM) showed that LLLT reduced cell viability as well as the growth of biofilms. The response of S. mutans (SSB) to irradiation was similar for all laser doses and the biofilm growth was dose dependent. However, when associated with C. albicans (DSB), S. mutans was resistant to LLLT. For C. albicans, the association with S. mutans (DSB) caused a significant decrease in biofilm growth in a dose-dependent fashion. The morphology of the microorganisms in the SSB was not altered by LLLT, while the association of microbial species (DSB) promoted a reduction in the formation of C. albicans hyphae. LLLT had an inhibitory effect on the microorganisms, and this capacity can be altered according to the interactions between different microbial species.

Braz Dent J 2011 22(6) 502-10

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22189647

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Laser irradiation effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms isolated from venous leg ulcer.

Baffoni M, Bessa LJ, Grande R, Di Giulio M, Mongelli M, Ciarelli A, Cellini L

M Baffoni, BS, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University ‘G. d’Annunzio’, Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy LJ Bessa, BS, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University ‘G. d’Annunzio’, Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy R Grande, PhD, Department of Drug Sciences, University ‘G. d’Annunzio’, Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy M Di Giulio, PhD, Department of Drug Sciences, University ‘G. d’Annunzio’, Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy L Cellini, PhD, Department of Drug Sciences, University ‘G. d’Annunzio’, Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy M Mongelli, MD, Division of Vascular Surgery, “Santo Spirito” Hospital of Pescara, Italy A Ciarelli, MD, Division of Vascular Surgery, “Santo Spirito” Hospital of Pescara, Italy.

Chronic wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers, represent a significant cause of morbidity in developed countries, predominantly in older patients. The aetiology of these wounds is probably multifactorial, but the role of bacteria in their pathogenesis is still unclear. Moreover, the presence of bacterial biofilms has been considered an important factor responsible for wounds chronicity. We aimed to investigate the laser action as a possible biofilm eradicating strategy, in order to attempt an additional treatment to antibiotic therapy to improve wound healing. In this work, the effect of near-infrared (NIR) laser was evaluated on mono and polymicrobial biofilms produced by two pathogenic bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus PECHA10 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PECHA9, both isolated from a chronic venous leg ulcer. Laser effect was assessed by biomass measurement, colony forming unit count and cell viability assay. It was shown that the laser treatment has not affected the biofilms biomass neither the cell viability, although a small disruptive action was observed in the structure of all biofilms tested. A reduction on cell growth was observed in S. aureus and in polymicrobial biofilms. This work represents an initial in vitro approach to study the influence of NIR laser treatment on bacterial biofilms in order to explain its potentially advantageous effects in the healing process of chronic infected wounds.

Int Wound J 2011 Dec 19

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22182280

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Does LED phototherapy influence the repair of bone defects grafted with MTA, bone morphogenetic proteins, and guided bone regeneration? A description of the repair process on rodents.

Pinheiro AL, Soares LG, Barbosa AF, Ramalho LM, Dos Santos JN

Center of Biophotonics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Av. Araujo Pinho, 62, Canela, Salvador, BA, CEP 40110-150, Brazil, albp@ufba.br.

This work carried out a histological analysis on bone defects grafted (MTA) treated or not with LED, BMPs, and membrane (GBR). Benefits of their isolated or combined usage on bone repair were reported, but not their association. Ninety rats were divided into ten groups and each subdivided into three. Defects on G II and I were filled with the blood clot. G II was further LED irradiated. G III and IV were filled with MTA; G IV was further LED irradiated. In G V and VI, the defects were filled with MTA and covered with a membrane (GBR). G VI was further LED irradiated. In G VII and VIII, BMPs were added to the MTA and group VIII was further LED irradiated. In G IX and X, the MTA + BMP graft was covered with a membrane (GBR). G X was further LED irradiated. LED was applied over the defect at 48-h intervals and repeated for 15 days. Specimens were processed, cut, and stained with H&E and Sirius red and underwent histological analysis. The use of LED light alone dramatically reduced inflammation. However, its use on MTA associated with BMP and/or GBR increased the severity of the inflammatory reaction. Regarding bone reabsorption, the poorest result was seen when the LED light was associated with the MTA + BMP graft. In the groups Clot and MTA + GBR, no bone reabsorption was detectable. Increased collagen deposition was observed when the LED light was associated with the use of the MTA associated with BMP and/or GBR. Increased new bone formation was observed when the LED light was used alone or associated with the use of MTA + GBR, MTA + BMP, on association of MTA + BMP + GBR and when BMP was added to the MTA. Our results indicate that the use of LED light alone or in association with MTA, MTA + BMP, MTA + GBR, and MTA + BMP + GBR caused less inflammation, and an increase of both collagen deposition and bone deposition as seen on both histological and morphometric analysis.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Dec 15

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22170161

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Low level laser therapy (830nm) improves bone repair in osteoporotic rats: Similar outcomes at two different dosages.

Bossini PS, Renno AC, Ribeiro DA, Fangel R, Ribeiro AC, Lahoz MD, Parizotto NA

Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Rodovia Washington Luis (SP-310), Km 235, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in osteoporotic rats by means of subjective histopathological analysis, deposition of collagen at the site of fracture, biomechanical properties and immunohistochemistry for COX-2, Cbfa-1 and VEGF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 30 female Wistar rats (12weeks-old, +/-250g) were submitted to ovariectomy (OVX). Eight weeks after the OVX, a tibial bone defect was created in all animals and they were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10): control bone defect group (CG): bone defects without any treatment; laser 60J/cm(2) group (L60): animals irradiated with LLLT, at 60J/cm(2) and laser 120J/cm(2) group (L120): animals irradiated with LLLT, at 120J/cm(2). RESULTS: In the laser treated groups, at both fluences, a higher amount of newly formed bone was evidenced as well as granulation tissue compared to control. Picrosirius analysis demonstrated that irradiated animals presented a higher deposition of collagen fibers and a better organization of these fibers when compared to other groups, mainly at 120J/cm(2). COX-2, Cbfa-1 or VEGF immunoreactivity was detected in a similar manner either 60J/cm(2) or 120J/cm(2) fluences. However, no differences were shown in the biomechanical analysis. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results support the notion that LLLT improves bone repair in the tibia of osteoporotic rats as a result of stimulation of the newly formed bone, fibrovascularization and angiogenesis.

Exp Gerontol 2011 Nov 21

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22138375

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Using Affordable LED Arrays for Photo-Stimulation of Neurons.

Valley M, Wagner S, Gallarda BW, Lledo PM

Laboratory for Perception and Memory, Institut Pasteur and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS).

Standard slice electrophysiology has allowed researchers to probe individual components of neural circuitry by recording electrical responses of single cells in response to electrical or pharmacological manipulations(1,2). With the invention of methods to optically control genetically targeted neurons (optogenetics), researchers now have an unprecedented level of control over specific groups of neurons in the standard slice preparation. In particular, photosensitive channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) allows researchers to activate neurons with light(3,4). By combining careful calibration of LED-based photostimulation of ChR2 with standard slice electrophysiology, we are able to probe with greater detail the role of adult-born interneurons in the olfactory bulb, the first central relay of the olfactory system. Using viral expression of ChR2-YFP specifically in adult-born neurons, we can selectively control young adult-born neurons in a milieu of older and mature neurons. Our optical control uses a simple and inexpensive LED system, and we show how this system can be calibrated to understand how much light is needed to evoke spiking activity in single neurons. Hence, brief flashes of blue light can remotely control the firing pattern of ChR2-transduced newborn cells.

J Vis Exp 2011 (57)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22127025

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion of steroid-treated osteoblasts.

Nogueira GT, Mesquita-Ferrari RA, Souza NH, Artilheiro PP, Albertini R, Bussadori SK, Fernandes KP

Master’s student, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

There has recently been constant effort to evaluate therapies that may have a positive effect on bone regeneration. However, there are few studies in the literature on the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) involving tissues treated with anabolic steroids. The present study evaluated the effects of LLLT (AsGaAl 780 nm, 3 J/cm(2), 10 mW, beam spot of 0.04 cm(2), total energy 0.12 J) on the proliferation, adhesion, and differentiation of osteoblasts cultured in the presence of nandrolone decanoate (ND). The MTT method was employed to evaluate cell proliferation and adhesion. Cell differentiation was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity. There was a significant decrease in cell proliferation in the irradiated group treated with 50 muM ND when compared to the control group, after 48 h. After 72 h, cell proliferation was significantly greater in the control group than in the irradiated groups treated with the steroid at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 muM. With regard to cell differentiation, alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in the irradiated group treated with 50 muM ND than in the control group, irradiated non-treated group, and irradiated group treated with 25 muM ND. After 60 min of plating, the irradiated non-treated group and irradiated groups treated with the steroid at concentrations of 5, 10, and 25 muM exhibited a significant increase in cell adhesion compared to the control group. LLLT in combination with a high concentration of steroid inhibited cell proliferation, possibly by inducing cell differentiation, while irradiation combined with lower concentrations of the steroid induced an increase in cell adhesion.

Lasers Med Sci 2011 Dec 22

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22190155

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Effects of low level laser therapy on proliferation and neurotrophic factor gene expression of human schwann cells in vitro.

Yazdani SO, Golestaneh AF, Shafiee A, Hafizi M, Omrani HA, Soleimani M

Neuroscience Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Stem Cell Biology Department, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran, Iran; Functional Neurosurgery Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Shohada Tajrish Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Previous studies have been proposed that proliferation and release of certain growth factors by different types of cells can be modulated by low level laser therapy. We aimed to demonstrate the effect of laser irradiation on human schwann cell proliferation and neurotrophic factor gene expression in vitro. Human schwann cells (SCs) were harvested from sural nerve that was obtained from organ donor followed by treatment with an 810nm, 50mW diode laser (two different energies: 1J/cm(2) and 4J/cm(2)) in three consecutive days. SC proliferation was measured, after first irradiation on days 1, 4 and 7 by the MTT assay. Real time PCR analysis was utilized on days 5 and 20 to evaluate the expression of key genes involved in nerve regeneration consist of NGF, BDNF and GDNF. Evaluation of cellular proliferation following one day after laser treatment revealed significant decrease in cell proliferation compared to control group. However on day 7, significant increase in proliferation was found in both the irradiated groups in comparison with the control group. No significant difference was found between the laser treated groups. Treatment of SCs with laser resulted in significant increase in NGF gene expression on day 20. Difference between two treated groups and control group was not significant for BDNF and GDNF gene expression. Our results demonstrate that low level laser therapy stimulate human schwann cell proliferation and NGF gene expression in vitro.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2011 Nov 23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22178388

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Knowledge of the physical properties and interaction of laser with biological tissue in dentistry.

Cavalcanti TM, Almeida-Barros RQ, Catao MH, Feitosa AP, Lins RD

Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Campina Grande, PB, Brasil.

The trend in dentistry is to incorporate less invasive methods to minimize pain and discomfort during and after dental intervention. Therefore, it is believed that laser therapy is an excellent treatment option, since it has beneficial effects for the irradiated tissues, such as activation of microcirculation, production of new capillaries, inflammatory and analgesic effects, in addition to stimulation of growth and cell regeneration. The comprehension of the interaction between lasers and tissue is based mainly on understanding the reactions that can be induced in those tissues by laser. This work intends to show how important it is to know the physical properties of laser as well as its interactions with biological tissues, since its effects and mechanisms of action are complex and are the object of various studies to better understand its forms of application and indications.

An Bras Dermatol 2011 Oct 86(5) 955-960

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22147036

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Effect of low-level laser therapy on the initial stages of tissue repair: basic principles.

Piva JA, Abreu EM, Silva VD, Nicolau RA

Universidade Paulista, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brasil.

O objetivo do estudo foi realizar uma revisao de literatura a respeito da terapia com laser de baixa potencia e sua relacao com as fases iniciais de reparo. Foram analisados 22 artigos, observou-se a utilizacao de diferentes doses e comprimentos de ondas (632,8 a 904 nm). Nos estudos in vitro foram utilizadas doses entre 2,2 e 16 J/cm(2). A dose de 5 J/cm(2) tem sido apontada como responsavel por mudancas significativas in vitro, porem a dose de 16 J/cm(2) promove efeito inibitorio sobre o crescimento celular em culturas. Em estudos in vivo, envolvendo animais foram utilizadas doses entre 0,04 a 21 J/cm(2). Para estudos em humanos foram utilizadas doses entre 1,8 a 16 J/cm(2). Conclui-se que a terapia com laser de baixa potencia exerce efeitos antiinflamatorios importantes nos processos iniciais da cicatrizacao: reducao de mediadores quimicos, de citocinas, do edema, diminuicao da migracao de celulas inflamatorias e incremento de fatores de crescimento contribuindo diretamente para o processo de reabilitacao tecidual. Porem, a falta de padronizacao dificulta a escolha de parametros ideais.

An Bras Dermatol 2011 Oct 86(5) 947-954

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=22147035

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About James Carroll

Founder and CEO at THOR Photomedicine Ltd. View biography (PDF)
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